List of dates predicted for apocalyptic events
This is a list of predicted dates for events that would result in a massive or total collapse of humanity, civilization, the planet, or the entire universe made by diverse individuals or groups thereof.
In Abrahamic religions, there have been numerous predictions standing for or similar to the eschatological events described on their sacred scriptures. Christian predictions typically refer to events like Armageddon, the Apocalypse, the Rapture, Last Judgment, or the Second Coming of Christ.
|66–70||Simon bar Giora, Jewish Essenes||The Essene sect of Jewish ascetics saw the Jewish revolt against the Romans in 66–70 in Judea as the final end-time battle before the arrival of the Messiah. By the authority of Simon, coins were minted declaring the redemption of Israel.|||
|365||Hilary of Poitiers||The French bishop announced the end of the world would happen during this year.||:30|
|375–400||Martin of Tours||The French bishop stated that the world would end before 400 AD, writing, "There is no doubt that the Antichrist has already been born. Firmly established already in his early years, he will, after reaching maturity, achieve supreme power."||:119|
|500||Hippolytus of Rome, Sextus Julius Africanus, Irenaeus||All three predicted Jesus would return in this year. One of the predictions was based on the dimensions of Noah's ark.||:31:35|
|793 Apr 6||Beatus of Liébana||The Spanish monk prophesied the second coming of Christ and the end of the world on that day to a crowd of people.||:31|
|800||Sextus Julius Africanus||Sextus Julius Africanus revised the date of Doomsday to the year 800.||:37|
|799–806||Gregory of Tours||Calculated the End would occur between 799 and 806.||:48|
|848||Thiota||Declared that the world would end during this year.||:337|
|992–995||Various Christians||Good Friday coincided with the Feast of the Annunciation; this had long been believed to be the event that would bring forth the Antichrist, and thus the end-times, within 3 years.||:236|
|1000 Jan 1||Pope Sylvester II||The Millennium Apocalypse at the end of the Christian Millennium. Various Christian clerics predicted the end of the world on this date, including Pope Sylvester II. Riots occurred in Europe and pilgrims headed east to Jerusalem.||:32:35–36|
|1033||Various Christians||Following the failure of the January 1, 1000 prediction, some theorists proposed that the end would occur 1000 years after Jesus' death, instead of his birth.||:31:36|
|late 1000s||Various Christians||Leading up to the Crusades, many people made pilgrimage to Jerusalem in hope of being saved, for the "dread day of wrath was upon them: men no longer tilled the earth, fearing the end of all things".|||
|1260||Joachim of Fiore||The Italian mystic determined that the Millennium would begin between 1200 and 1260.||:48|
|1284||Pope Innocent III||Pope Innocent III (d. 1216) predicted that the world would end 666 years after the rise of Islam.|||
|Joachimites||The followers of Joachim of Fiore rescheduled the End to 1290 and then 1335 when his 1260 prophecy failed.||:58|
|1346–1351||Various Europeans||The black plague spreading across Europe was interpreted by many as the sign of the end of times.||:33|
|1370||Jean de Roquetaillade||The Antichrist was to come in 1366 and the Millennium would begin either in 1368 or 1370.||:55|
|1378||Arnaldus de Villa Nova||This Joachite wrote that the Antichrist was to come during this year.||:62|
|1504||Sandro Botticelli||Believed he was living during the Tribulation, and that the Millennium would begin in three and a half years from 1500. Wrote into his The Mystical Nativity that the Devil was loose and would soon be chained.||:60|
|1524 Feb 1||London astrologers||A group of astrologers in London predicted the world would end by a flood starting in London, based on calculations made the previous June. 20,000 Londoners left their homes and headed for higher ground in anticipation.||:236–237|
|1524 Feb 20||Johannes Stöffler||A planetary alignment in Pisces was seen by this astrologer as a sign of the Millennium.||:236–237|
|1524–1526||Thomas Müntzer||1525 would mark the beginning of the Millennium, according to this Anabaptist. His followers were killed by cannon fire in an uneven battle with government troops. He died under torture and was beheaded.||:36:48|
|1528 May 27||Hans Hut||Predicted the end would occur on this day.||:67|
|1528||Johannes Stöffler||Revised date from Stöffler after his 1524 prediction failed to come true.||:238|
|1533 Oct 19||Michael Stifel||This mathematician calculated that Judgement Day would begin at 8:00am on this day.||:88|
|1533||Melchior Hoffman||This Anabaptist prophet predicted Christ's Second Coming to take place this year in Strasbourg. He claimed that 144,000 people would be saved, while the rest of the world would be consumed by fire.||:59|
|1534 Apr 5||Jan Matthys||Predicted that the Apocalypse would take place on this day and only the city of Münster would be spared.||:338|
|1555||Pierre d'Ailly||Around the year 1400, this French theologian wrote that 6845 years of human history had already passed, and the end of the world would be in the 7000th year.||:72|
|1585||Michael Servetus||In his book The Restoration of Christianity, the Spanish born reformer claimed that the Devil's reign in this world had started in 325 AD, at the Council of Nicea, and would last for 1260 years, thus ending in 1585.|||
|1588||Regiomontanus||Predicted the end of the world during this year.||:239|
|1600||Martin Luther||Predicted the end of the world would occur no later than 1600.||:66|
|1624 Feb 1||London astrologers||The same astrologers who predicted the deluge of February 1, 1524 recalculated the date to February 1, 1624 after their first prophecy failed.||:236–237|
|1648||Sabbatai Zevi||Using the kabbalah, this rabbi from Smyrna, Turkey, proclaimed that the Messiah would come during that year.||:239|
|1651||unknown author from Lübeck, Germany||The apocalypse maps tell of an Antichrist, the rise of Islam and other events following Judgement Day that was predicted to occur in 1651.|||
|1654||Helisaeus Roeslin||This physician made a prediction that the world would end this year based on a nova that occurred in 1572.||:240|
|1656||Christopher Columbus||In his Book of Prophecies (1501), Columbus predicted that the world would end during 1656.|||
|1657||Fifth Monarchists||This group of radical Christians predicted that the final apocalyptic battle and the destruction of the Antichrist were to take place between 1655 and 1657.||:67|
|1658||Christopher Columbus||Columbus claimed that the world was created in 5343 BC, and would last 7000 years. Assuming no year zero, that means the end would come in 1658.||:77|
|1660||Joseph Mede||Mede claimed that the Antichrist had appeared in 456, and the end would come in 1660.||:147|
|1666||Sabbatai Zevi||Following his failed prediction of 1648, Zevi recalculated the end of the Earth for this year.||:239|
|Fifth Monarchists||The presence of 666 in the date, the death of 100,000 Londoners to bubonic plague, and the Great Fire of London led to superstitious fears of the end of the world from some Christians.||:36–37:87|
|1673||William Aspinwall||This Fifth Monarchist claimed the Millennium would begin by this year.||:209|
|1688||John Napier||This mathematician calculated the end of the world would be this year based on calculations from the Book of Revelation.||:92|
|1689||Pierre Jurieu||This prophet predicted that Judgement Day would occur this year.||:70|
|1694||John Mason||This Anglican priest predicted the Millennium would begin by this year.||:72|
|Johann Heinrich Alsted||Predicted the Millennium would begin by this year.||:66|
|Johann Jacob Zimmermann||Believed that Jesus would return and the world would end this year.||:19–20|
|1697||Cotton Mather||This Puritan minister predicted the world would end this year. After the prediction failed, he revised the date of the End two more times.||:338|
|1700||John Napier||After his 1688 prediction failed to come true, Napier revised his end of the world prediction to this year.||:92|
|Henry Archer||In his 1642 work, The Personall Reigne of Christ Upon Earth, Archer predicted the second coming of Jesus would occur in approximately this year.|||
|Camisards||Camisard prophets predicted the end of the world would occur in either 1705, 1706 or 1708.||:70|
|1716||Cotton Mather||Revised prediction from Mather after his 1697 prediction failed to come true.||:338|
|1719 Apr 5||Jacob Bernoulli||This mathematician predicted a comet would destroy the Earth on this day.||:240|
|1700–1734||Nicholas of Cusa||This Cardinal predicted the end would occur between 1700 and 1734.||:73|
|1736 Oct 16||William Whiston||Whiston predicted a comet colliding with the Earth this year.|||
|1736||Cotton Mather||Mather's third and final prediction for the end of the world.||:338|
|1757||Emanuel Swedenborg||Swedenborg claimed that the Last Judgement occurred in the spiritual world this year.|||
|1780 May 19||Connecticut General Assembly members, New Englanders||The sky turning dark during the day was interpreted as a sign of the end times. The primary cause of the event is believed to have been a combination of smoke from forest fires, a thick fog, and cloud cover.|||
|1789||Pierre d'Ailly||The year 1789 would bring the coming of the Antichrist, according to this 14th-century Cardinal.||:59|
|Shakers||Predicted the world would end in both the years 1792 and 1794.||:338|
|1795 Nov 19||Nathaniel Brassey Halhed||While campaigning for Richard Brothers' release, Halhead proclaimed that the world would end on this day.||:310|
|1793–1795||Richard Brothers||This retired sailor stated the Millennium would begin between the years 1793 and 1795. He was eventually committed to an insane asylum.||:73|
|1805||Christopher Love||This Presbyterian minister predicted the destruction of the world by earthquake in 1805, followed by an age of everlasting peace when God would be known by all.||:101|
|1806||Mary Bateman||In Leeds, England in 1806 a hen began laying eggs on which the phrase "Christ is coming" was written. Eventually it was discovered to be a hoax. The owner, Mary Bateman, had written on the eggs in a corrosive ink so as to etch the eggs, and reinserted the eggs back into the hen's oviduct.||:37|
|1814 Oct 19||Joanna Southcott||This 64-year-old self-described prophet claimed she was pregnant with the Christ child, and that he would be born on Oct 19, 1814. She died later that year having not delivered a child, and an autopsy proved she had not been pregnant.|||
|1836||Johann Albrecht Bengel||In the 1730s he proclaimed that, based on a careful study of the prophecies of the Bible, Judgment Day would come in 1836, with the Pope as the anti-Christ and the Freemasons representing the "false prophet" of Revelations.|||
|1836||John Wesley||Wesley, the founder of the Methodist Church, foresaw the Millennium beginning this year. He wrote that Revelation 12:14 referred to the years 1058–1836, "when Christ should come".||:37:269|
|1843 Apr 28
1843 Dec 31
|Millerites||Although it was not officially endorsed by their leadership, many Millerites expected the Second Coming to occur on April 28 or at the end of 1843.||:16|
|1843||Harriet Livermore||The first of two years this preacher predicted the world would end.||:699|
|1844 Mar 21||William Miller||Miller predicted Christ would return on this day.||:17|
|1844 Oct 22||Millerites||After Christ did not return on March 21, 1844, the Millerites then revised William Miller's prediction to October 22, 1844, claiming to have miscalculated Scripture. The realization that the predictions were incorrect resulted in the Great Disappointment.||:38:17|
|1847 Aug 7||George Rapp||Rapp, the founder of the Harmony Society, preached that Jesus would return in his lifetime, even as he lay dying on August 7, 1847.||:23|
|1847||Harriet Livermore||The second prediction of the end of the world from this preacher.||:699|
|1853–1856||Various||Many people[who?] thought the Crimean War was the Battle of Armageddon.||:437|
|1862||John Cumming||This Scottish clergyman stated it was 6000 years since Creation in 1862, and that the world would end.||:283|
|Joseph Morris||An English convert to Mormonism, Morris had revelations to gather his followers and wait for the Second Coming, through successive prophesied days.|||
|1863||John Wroe||The founder of the Christian Israelite Church calculated that the Millennium would begin this year.|||
|1873||Jonas Wendell||In 1870, Wendell published his views in the booklet entitled The Present Truth, or Meat in Due Season concluding that the Second Advent was sure to occur in 1873.|||
|1874||Charles Taze Russell||Predicted the return of Jesus to occur in 1874, and after this date reinterpreted the prediction to say that Jesus had indeed returned in invisible form.|||
|1875-1925||Wilford Woodruff||President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "[...] the Lord has not revealed to man the day or the hour, but he has revealed the generation [...] It is my faith that hundreds and thousands of the children that have been given to us will be alive in the flesh when Christ comes in the clouds of heaven in power and great glory." Historical life expectancy for Americans in 1875 was 50 years.|||
|1881||Mother Shipton (attrib.)||This 15th-century prophet was quoted as saying "The world to an end shall come, In eighteen hundred and eighty one" in a book published in 1862. In 1873 it was revealed to be a forgery; however, this did not stop some people from expecting the end.||:243|
|1890||Wovoka||The founder of the Ghost Dance movement predicted in 1889 that the Millennium would occur in 1890.||:69|
|1901||Catholic Apostolic Church||This church, founded in 1831, claimed that Jesus would return by the time the last of its 12 founding members died. The last member died in 1901.||:87|
|1910||Camille Flammarion||He predicted that the 1910 appearance of Halley's Comet "would impregnate that atmosphere and possibly snuff out all life on the planet", but not the planet itself. "Comet pills" were sold to protect against toxic gases. The comet indicated the Second Coming to many.||:38|
|1892–1911||Charles Piazzi Smyth||This pyramidologist concluded from his research on the dimensions of the Great Pyramid of Giza that the Second Coming would occur somewhere between the years 1892 and 1911.||:94|
|1914||Charles Taze Russell||"...the battle of the great day of God Almighty… The date of the close of that "battle" is definitely marked in Scripture as October 1914. It is already in progress, its beginning dating from October, 1874."|||
|1915||John Chilembwe||This Baptist educator and leader of a rebellion in the British protectorate of Nyasaland predicted the Millennium would begin this year.||:69|
|1918||International Bible Students Association||Christendom shall be cut off and glorification of the Little Flock (The Church) in the Spring of 1918 A. D.|||
|1920||International Bible Students Association||In 1918, Christendom would go down as a system to oblivion and be succeeded by revolutionary governments. God would "destroy the churches wholesale and the church members by the millions." Church members would "perish by the sword of war, revolution and anarchy." The dead would lie unburied. In 1920 all earthly governments would disappear, with worldwide anarchy prevailing.|||
|1925 Feb 13||Margaret Rowen||According to this Seventh-day Adventist the angel Gabriel appeared before her in a vision and told her that the world would end at midnight on this date.||:45|
|1926||Spencer Perceval (Junior)||Son of the former Prime Minister of Britain and one of the 12 Apostles of the Catholic Apostolic Church. He believed that the world was growing nearer and nearer to the Apocalypse due to what he viewed as the rampant immorality of the times in Europe.|||
|1935 Sep||Wilbur Glenn Voliva||This evangelist announced that "the world is going to go 'puff' and disappear" in September 1935.||:287|
|1936||Herbert W. Armstrong||The founder of the Worldwide Church of God told members of his church that the Rapture was to take place in 1936, and that only they would saved. After the prophecy failed, he changed the date three more times.||:99|
|1941||Jehovah's Witnesses||A prediction of the end from the Jehovah's Witnesses, a group which branched from the Bible Student movement.||:72|
|1943||Herbert W. Armstrong||The first of three revised dates from Armstrong after his 1936 prediction failed to come true.||:99|
|1947||John Ballou Newbrough||The author of Oahspe: A New Bible foresaw the destruction of all nations and the beginning of post-apocalyptic anarchy in this year.||:243|
|1954 Dec 21||Dorothy Martin||The world was to be destroyed by terrible flooding on this date, claimed this leader of a UFO cult called Brotherhood of the Seven Rays. The fallout of the group after the prediction failed was the basis for the 1956 book When Prophecy Fails.|||
|1959 Apr 22||Florence Houteff||The 2nd Prophet of the Branch Davidians predicted the apocalypse foretold in the Book of Revelation would proceed on this date. The failure of the prophecy led to the split of the sect into several subsects, the most prominent led by Benjamin and Lois Roden.|||
|1962 Feb 4||Jeane Dixon, various Indian astrologers||Dixon predicted a planetary alignment on this day was to bring destruction to the world. Mass prayer meetings were held in India.||:340|
|1967 Aug 20||George Van Tassel||This day would mark the beginning of the third woe of the Apocalypse, during which the southeastern US would be destroyed by a Soviet nuclear attack, according to this UFO prophet, who claimed to have channeled an alien named Ashtar.||:145|
|1967||Jim Jones||The founder of the Peoples Temple stated he had visions that a nuclear holocaust was to take place in 1967.||:214|
|1969 Aug 9||George Williams||The founder of the Church of the Firstborn predicted the Second Coming of Christ would occur on this day.||:77|
|1969||Charles Manson||Manson predicted that an apocalyptic race war would occur in 1969 and ordered the Tate-LaBianca murders in an attempt to bring it about. Manson based his prediction on his interpretation of The Beatles' self-titled album.|||
|1972||Herbert W. Armstrong||The second of three revised dates from Armstrong after his 1936 and 1943 predictions failed to come true.||:99|
|1974 Jan 11–21||David Berg||Berg, the leader of Children of God, predicted that there would be a colossal doomsday event heralded by Comet Kohoutek.|||
|1975||Herbert W. Armstrong||Armstrong's fourth and final prediction.||:99|
|Jehovah's Witnesses||From 1966 on, Jehovah's Witnesses published articles which stated that the fall of 1975 would be 6000 years since man's creation, and suggested that Armageddon could be finished by then. More details.|||
|1976||Lekhraj Kirpalani||Lekhraj Kirpalani's third prediction.|
|Brahma Kumaris||The Brahma Kumaris founder, Lekhraj Kirpalani, has made a number of predictions of a global Armageddon which the religion believes it will inspire, internally calling it "Destruction" but externally presenting it as "Transformation". During Destruction, Brahma Kumari leaders teach the world will be purified, all of the rest of humanity killed by nuclear or civil wars and natural disasters which will include the sinking of all other continents except India. All other religions will also be destroyed, so that they alone will inherit the Earth for 2,500 years. These predictions are generally hidden from outsiders and, as they have failed, have been removed from their literature.|||
|1977||John Wroe||The founder of the Christian Israelite Church predicted this year for Armageddon to occur.||:243|
|William M. Branham||This Christian minister predicted the Rapture would occur no later than the year 1977.|||
|1980||Leland Jensen||In 1978 Jensen predicted that there would be a nuclear disaster in 1980, followed by two decades of conflict, culminating in God's Kingdom being established on Earth.|||
|1981||Chuck Smith||The founder of Calvary Chapel predicted the generation of 1948 would be the last generation, and that the world would end by 1981. Smith identified that he "could be wrong" but continued to say in the same sentence that his prediction was "a deep conviction in my heart, and all my plans are predicated upon that belief."|||
|1982 Apr–Jun||Tara Centers||Full-page ads in many newspapers April 24–25, 1982, stated that "The Christ is Now Here!" and that he would make himself known "within the next two months".||:39|
|1982 Mar 10||John Gribbin, Stephen Plagemann||Predicted in their 1974 book The Jupiter Effect that combined gravitational forces of aligned planets would create a number of catastrophes, including a great earthquake on the San Andreas Fault.||:62|
|1982 Jun 21||Benjamin Creme||Creme took out an ad in the Los Angeles Times stating that the Second Coming would occur in June 1982 with the Maitreya announcing it on worldwide television.|||
|1982||Pat Robertson||In late 1976 Robertson predicted that the end of the world would come in 1982.|||
|1985||Lester Sumrall||This minister predicted the end in this year, even writing a book about it entitled I Predict 1985.||:99|
|1986 Apr 29||Leland Jensen||Jensen predicted that Halley's Comet would be pulled into Earth's orbit on April 29, 1986, causing widespread destruction.||:73, 76|
|1987 Aug 17||José Argüelles||Argüelles claimed that Armageddon would take place unless 144,000 people gathered in certain places in the world in order to "resonate in harmony" on this day.||:156|
|1988 Sep 13
1988 Oct 3
|Edgar C. Whisenant||Whisenant predicted in his book 88 Reasons Why the Rapture Could Be in 1988 that the Rapture of the Christian Church would occur between 11 and 13 September 1988. After his September predictions failed to come true, Whisenant revised his prediction date to October 3.||:93|
|1989 Sep 30||Edgar C. Whisenant||After all his 1988 predictions failed to come true, Whisenant revised his prediction date to this day.||:93|
|1990 Apr 23||Elizabeth Clare Prophet||Prophet predicted a nuclear war would start on this day, with the world ending 12 years later, leading her followers to stockpile a shelter with supplies and weapons. Later, after Prophet's prediction did not come to pass, she was diagnosed with epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease.||:61|
|1991 Sep 9||Menachem Mendel Schneerson||This Russian-born rabbi called for the Messiah to come by the start of the Jewish New Year.||:40|
|1991||Louis Farrakhan||The leader of the Nation of Islam declared that the Gulf War would be the "War of Armageddon which is the final war."||:307|
|1992 Sep 28||Rollen Stewart||This born-again Christian predicted the Rapture would take place on this day.|||
|1992 Oct 28||Lee Jang Rim
(이장림 or 李長林)
|Lee, the leader of the Dami Mission church, predicted the rapture would occur on this day.|
|1993||David Berg||Berg predicted the tribulation would start in 1989 and that the Second Coming would take place in 1993.||:145|
|1994 May 2||Neal Chase||This Bahá'í sect leader predicted that New York would be destroyed by a nuclear bomb on March 23, 1994, and the Battle of Armageddon would take place 40 days later.||:79|
|1994 Sep 6
1994 Sep 29
1994 Oct 2
|Harold Camping||Camping predicted the Rapture would occur on September 6, 1994. When it failed to occur he revised the date to September 29 and then to October 2.||:95|
|1995 Mar 31||Harold Camping||Camping's fourth predicted date for the end. This would be Camping's last prediction until 2011.||:95|
|1996 Dec 17||Sheldan Nidle||California psychic Sheldan Nidle predicted that the world would end on this date, with the arrival of 16 million space ships and a host of angels.|||
|1997 Mar 26||Marshall Applewhite||Applewhite, leader of the Heaven's Gate cult, claimed that a spacecraft was trailing the Comet Hale-Bopp and argued that suicide was "the only way to evacuate this Earth" so that the cult members' souls could board the supposed craft and be taken to another "level of existence above human". Applewhite and 38 of his followers committed mass suicide.|||
|1997 Oct 23||James Ussher||This 17th-century Irish Archbishop predicted this date to be 6000 years since Creation, and therefore the end of the world.||:68|
|1998 Mar 31||Chen Tao
|Hon-Ming Chen, leader of the Taiwanese cult God's Salvation Church, or Chen Tao – "The True Way" – claimed that God would come to Earth in a flying saucer at 10:00 am on this date. Moreover, God would have the same physical appearance as Chen himself. Chen chose to base his cult in Garland, Texas, because he thought it sounded like "God's Land." On March 25, God was to appear on Channel 18 on every TV set in the US.||:43|
|1999 Jul||Nostradamus||A prediction attributed to Nostradamus stating the "King of Terror" would come from the sky in "1999 and seven months" led to fears of the end.|||
|1999 Aug 18||The Amazing Criswell||The predicted date of the end of the world, according to this psychic well known for predictions.||:43|
|1999 Sep 11||Philip Berg||Berg, dean of the worldwide Kabbalah Centre, stated that on this date "a ball of fire will descend, destroying almost all of mankind, all vegetation, all forms of life."||:44|
|1999||Charles Berlitz||This linguist predicted the end would occur in this year. He did not predict how it would occur, stating that it might involve nuclear devastation, asteroid impact, pole shift or other Earth changes.||:194|
|Hon-Ming Chen's cult God's Salvation Church, now relocated to upstate New York, preached that a nuclear holocaust would destroy Europe and Asia sometime between October 1 and December 31, 1999.|
|James Gordon Lindsay||This preacher predicted the great tribulation would begin before the year 2000.||:280|
|Timothy Dwight IV||This President of Yale University foresaw Christ's Millennium starting by 2000.||:81|
|Nazim Al-Haqqani||Predicted that the Last Judgment would occur before the year 2000.|||
|2000 Jan 1||Various||During and before 1999 there was widespread predictions of a Y2K computer bug that would crash many computers on midnight of December 31, 1999 and cause malfunctions leading to major catastrophes worldwide, and that society would cease to function.||Year 2000 problem|
|Credonia Mwerinde, Joseph Kibweteere||An estimated 778 followers of this Ugandan religious movement perished in a devastating fire and a series of poisonings and killings that were either a group suicide or an orchestrated mass murder by group leaders after their predictions of the apocalypse failed to come about.||:21|
|Jerry Falwell||Falwell foresaw God pouring out his judgement on the world on this day.|||
|Tim LaHaye, Jerry B. Jenkins||These Christian authors stated that the Y2K bug would trigger global economic chaos, which the Antichrist would use to rise to power. As the date approached, however, they changed their minds.|||
|2000 Apr 6||James Harmston||The leader of the True and Living Church of Jesus Christ of Saints of the Last Days predicted the Second Coming of Christ would occur on this day.||:2496|
|2000 May 5||Nuwaubian Nation||This movement claimed that the planetary lineup would cause a "star holocaust," pulling the planets toward the sun on this day.||:121|
|Richard W. Noone||In his book 5/5/2000: Ice, The Ultimate Disaster, Noone predicted that a "planetary alignment" on this date would trigger a series of natural disasters, beginning with a disruption of Earth's polar ice caps.|||
|2000||Peter Olivi||This 13th-century theologian wrote that the Antichrist would come to power between the years 1300 and 1340, and the Last Judgement would take place around the year 2000.||:54|
|Isaac Newton||Newton predicted that Christ's Millennium would begin in the year 2000 in his book Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John.||:96|
|Ruth Montgomery||This self-described Christian psychic predicted the Earth's axis would shift and the Antichrist would reveal himself in this year.||:156, 195|
|Edgar Cayce||This psychic predicted the Second Coming would occur this year.|||
|Sun Myung Moon||The founder of the Unification Church predicted the Kingdom of Heaven would be established in this year.||:148|
|Ed Dobson||This pastor predicted the end would occur in his book The End: Why Jesus Could Return by A.D. 2000.|||
|Lester Sumrall||This minister predicted the end in his book I Predict 2000.||:99, 341|
|Jonathan Edwards||This 18th-century preacher predicted that Christ's thousand-year reign would begin in this year.||:171|
|2001||Tynnetta Muhammad||This columnist for the Nation of Islam predicted the end would occur in this year.||:213|
|2002||Various Yoruba||Yoruba priests predicted dramatic tragedy and crisis in 2002, including coups, war, disease, and flooding.|
|2003 May 27||Nancy Lieder||Lieder originally predicted the date for the Nibiru collision as May 2003. According to her website, aliens in the Zeta Reticuli star system told her through messages via a brain implant of a planet which would enter our solar system and cause a pole shift on Earth that would destroy most of humanity.|||
|2003 Nov 29||Aum Shinrikyo||This Japanese cult predicted the world would be destroyed by a nuclear war between October 30 and November 29, 2003.||:98|
|2006 Sep 12||House of Yahweh||Yisrayl Hawkins, Pastor and Overseer, The House of Yahweh, Abilene, Texas in their February 2006 newsletter predicted the start of a nuclear war on September 12, 2006.|||
|2007 Apr 29||Pat Robertson||In his 1990 book The New Millennium, Robertson suggests this date as the day of Earth's destruction.||:138|
|2010||Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn||This order predicted the world would end during this year.||:223|
|2011 May 21||Harold Camping||Camping predicted that the Rapture and devastating earthquakes would occur on May 21, 2011 with God taking approximately 3% of the world's population into Heaven, and that the end of the world would occur five months later on October 21.||2011 end times prediction|
|2011 Sep 29||Ronald Weinland||Ronald Weinland stated Jesus Christ would return on this day. He prophesied nuclear explosions in U.S. port cities by July 2008 as the blowing of the Second Trumpet of Revelation. After his prophecy failed to come true he changed the date for the return of Jesus Christ to May 27, 2012.|||
|2011 Oct 21||Harold Camping||When his original prediction failed to come about, Camping revised his prediction and said that on May 21, a "Spiritual Judgment" took place, and that both the physical Rapture and the end of the world would occur on October 21, 2011.||2011 end times prediction|
|2011 Aug–Oct||Various||There were fears amongst the public that Comet Elenin travelling almost directly between Earth and the Sun would cause disturbances to the Earth's crust, causing massive earthquakes and tidal waves. Others predicted that Elenin would collide with Earth on October 16. Scientists tried to calm fears by stating that none of these events were possible.|||
|2012 May 27||Ronald Weinland||Ronald Weinland stated that Jesus Christ would return and the world would end on this day.|||
|2012 Jun 30||José Luis de Jesús||José Luis de Jesús predicted that the world's governments and economies would fail on this day, and that he and his followers would undergo a transformation that would allow them to fly and walk through walls.|||
|2012 Dec 21||Various||The supposed Mayan apocalypse at the end of the 13th b'ak'tun. The Earth would be destroyed by an asteroid, Nibiru, or some other interplanetary object; an alien invasion; or a supernova. Mayanist scholars stated that no extant classic Maya accounts forecasted impending doom, and that the idea that the Long Count calendar ends in 2012 misrepresented Maya history and culture. Scientists from NASA, along with expert archeologists, stated that none of those events were possible.||2012 phenomenon|
|2013 Aug 23||Grigori Rasputin||Rasputin prophesied a storm would take place on this day where fire would destroy most life on land and Jesus Christ would come back to Earth to comfort those in distress.|||
|2014 Apr – 2015 Sep||John Hagee and Mark Biltz||The so-called Blood Moon Prophecy, first predicted by Mark Blitz in 2008 and then by John Hagee in 2014. These Christian ministers claim that the tetrad in 2014 and 2015 may allegedly represent prophecies given in the Bible relating to the second coming of Jesus Christ.|||
|2016 Jul 29||End Time Prophecies||A viral video from the YouTube channel "End Time Prophecies" claimed that the world would end on this day. They predicted that the Earth would undergo a "polar flip", which would apparently cause the Earth's atmosphere to be pulled to the ground as the surface reels like a vacuum, causing a "rolling cloud" to cover the planet. They also claimed that a worldwide "megaquake" would ensue.|||
|2020||Jeane Dixon||Jeane Dixon claimed that Armageddon would take place in 2020, and Jesus will return to defeat the unholy Trinity of the Antichrist, Satan, and the False prophet between 2020 and 2037. She had also previously predicted the world would end on February 4, 1962.|||
|2021||F. Kenton Beshore||F. Kenton Beshore bases his prediction on the prior suggestion that Jesus would return in 1988, i.e., within one Biblical generation (40 years) of the founding of Israel in 1948. Beshore argues that the prediction was correct, but that the definition of a Biblical generation was incorrect and was actually 70–80 years, placing the Second Coming of Jesus between 2018 and 2028 and the Rapture by 2021 at the latest.|||
|2026||Messiah Foundation International||Members predict that the world will end in 2026, when an asteroid would collide with Earth in accordance with Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi's predictions in The Religion of God. The chances are only 1 out of 300,000.|||
|2060||Isaac Newton||According to Isaac Newton's research of the Bible, Jesus will rapture his Church one jubilee from the time of Israel re-acquiring Jerusalem.|||
|2129||Said Nursî||According to abjad interpretation of a hadith, this Sunni Muslim theologian who wrote the Risale-i Nur Collection, which expects the end in 2129.|||
|2200||Various||Using a cricket analogy of the doomsday argument, the last humans will be born before the start of the year 2200.||Doomsday Argument By Cricket Analogy|
|2239||Talmud, Orthodox Judaism||According to an opinion on the Talmud in mainstream Orthodox Judaism, the Messiah will come within 6000 years from the creation of Adam, and the world could possibly be destroyed 1000 years later. This would put the beginning of the period of desolation in the year 2239 CE and the end of the period of desolation in the year 3239 CE||Year 6000|
|2280||Rashad Khalifa||According to Rashad Khalifa's research on the Quran Code, the world will end during that year.|||
|11120||John A. Leslie||According to Leslie's figures for the doomsday argument, the last humans will be born within the next 9120 years.||Doomsday Argument|
Various scientists and scientific groups have theorised estimated dates for possible natural events which would potentially danger life or existence on Earth.
(years from now)
|500,000||Nick Bostrom||Earth will have likely been hit by an asteroid of roughly 1 km in diameter during this period, assuming it cannot be averted. Bostrom writes "In order to cause the extinction of human life, the impacting body would probably have to be greater than 1 km in diameter (and probably 3 - 10 km)".|||
|1 million||The Geological Society||Earth will likely have undergone a supervolcanic eruption large enough to erupt 3,200 km3 of magma, an event comparable to the Toba supereruption 75,000 years ago.|||
|100 million||Stephen A. Nelson||Earth will have likely been hit by an asteroid about 10–15 km in diameter (comparable in size to the one that triggered the K–Pg extinction which killed dinosaurs 66 million years ago), assuming it cannot be averted.|||
|500 million||James Kasting||The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will drop dramatically, making the Earth uninhabitable.|||
|500–600 million||Anne Minard||Estimated time until a gamma ray burst, or massive, hyperenergetic supernova, occurs within 6,500 light-years of Earth; close enough for its rays to affect Earth's ozone layer and potentially trigger a mass extinction, assuming the hypothesis is correct that a previous such explosion triggered the Ordovician–Silurian extinction event. However, the supernova would have to be precisely oriented relative to Earth to have any negative effect.|||
|1–5 billion||Various||The estimated end of the Sun's current phase of development, after which it will swell into a red giant, either swallowing the Earth or at least completely scorching it, will occur around five billion years from now. However, as the Sun grows gradually hotter (over millions of years), the Earth may become too hot for life as early as one billion years from now.|||
|1.3 billion||S. Franck, C. Bounama, W. Von Bloh||Eukaryotic life will die out due to carbon dioxide starvation. Only prokaryotes remain.|||
|7.59 billion||David Powell||The Earth and Moon will be most likely destroyed by falling into the Sun, just before the Sun reaches the tip of its red giant phase and its maximum radius of 256 times the present day value. Before the final collision, the Moon possibly spirals below Earth's Roche limit, breaking into a ring of debris, most of which falls to the Earth's surface.|||
|22 billion||Various||The end of the Universe in the Big Rip scenario, assuming a model of dark energy with w = −1.5. Observations of galaxy cluster speeds by the Chandra X-ray Observatory suggest that the true value of w is ~-0.991, meaning the Big Rip will not occur.|||
|10 duotrigintillion||Various||The heat death of the universe is a scientific theory, in which the universe will diminish to a state of no thermodynamic free energy and therefore will no longer sustain motion or life.||Heat death of the universe|
- End time
- Global catastrophic risk
- List of predictions
- List of topics characterized as pseudoscience
- Predictions and claims for the Second Coming of Christ
- Second Coming
- Timeline of the far future
- Unfulfilled Christian religious predictions
- Kaminski, Joseph. "The Odyssey of The Apocalypse: 145 Major Predictions Concerning The End of Us [Part 1]".
- William Cran; Ben Loeterman (November 22, 1998). "Apocalypse". Frontline. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 2011-09-23.
- Evans, Craig A. (2006). "Messianic Hopes and Messianic Figures in Late Antiquity". Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and Judaism. 3: 9–40.
- Boyett, Jason (2005). Pocket Guide to the Apocalypse: The Official Field Manual for the End of the World. Relevant Media Group. ISBN 978-0-9760357-1-8. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
- Lazarus, William P; Sullivan, Mark (2008). Comparative Religion for Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-470-23065-7.
- Richard Abanes, End-Time Visions. Four Walls Eight Windows, New York, 1998.
- Strandberg, Todd; James, Terry (June 2003). Are You Rapture Ready. New York City: Dutton.
- Richard Kyle, The Last Days are Here Again. Baker Books, Grand Rapids MI, 1998.
- Weber, Eugen (1999). Apocalypses. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-7567-5314-7.
- Randi, James (1993). The Mask of Nostradamus. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-0879758301.
- Browne, Silvia (2008). End of Days: Predictions and Prophecies About the End of the World. Dutton Penguin. ISBN 0525950672. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
Many authorities who had loudly proclaimed that the world would definitely end in the year 1000 explained their obvious miscalculation by "realising" they should have added Jesus' life span to their prediction. As a result, the world would now reliably end in the year 1033
- Conder, C.R. (1897). The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099 to 1291 AD. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. p. 3.
- Tom McIver, The End of the World: An Annotated Bibliography. McFarlane & Co., Jefferson NC, 1999.
- Byrne, Joseph Patrick (2008). Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues, Volume 1. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 67. ISBN 9780313341014.
- Durant, Will (1953). The Renaissance. The Story of Civilization. 5. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 139.
This picture I, Alessandro, painted at the end of the year 1500, in the troubles of Italy...during the fulfillment of the Eleventh of St. John, in the second woe of the Apocalypse, in the loosing of the Devil for three years and a half. Later he shall be chained, according to the Twelfth of St. John, and we shall see him trodden down as in this picture.
- Ashe, Gregory (2001). Encyclopedia of Prophecy. ABC-CLIO. p. 79. ISBN 978-1576070796. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- Stephen Jay Gould, Questioning the Millennium. Harmony Books, New York, 1997.
- Servetus, Michael (1553). The Restoration of Christianity. Baltasar Arnoullet.
- Stacy Liberatore (13 May 2016). "The 15th century apocalypse 'map of hell' revealed". Daily Mail. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- Sean Martin (May 14, 2016). "Apocalyptic medieval map of Hell predicted Islam will conquer Europe". Express.co.uk. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- McGovern, James R. (1992). The World of Columbus. Mercer University Press. p. 17. ISBN 9780865544147.
- Stackhouse, Reginald (1997). The End of the World?: A New Look at an Old Belief. Paulist Press. p. 50. ISBN 9780809137275.
- Schwartz, Hillel (1995), Century's End: An orientation manual toward the Year 2000, New York: Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-47981-6
- Daniel Cohen, Prophets of Doom. The Millbrook Press, Inc., Brookfield CT, 1999.
- Brady, David (1983). The Contribution of British Writers Between 1560 and 1830 to the Interpretation of Revelation 13.16-18. Mohr Siebeck. pp. 182–183. ISBN 9783161444975.
- Modeen, Marvin. Marvin Modeen. pp. 71. ISBN 978-0-615-16500-4.
- Miller, Craig. "Did Emanuel Swedenborg Influence LDS Doctrine?".
- John F. Ross (Fall 2008), "Dark Day of 1780", American Heritage, 58 (5), retrieved 2012-09-01
- Philips, David E. "Legendary Connecticut". ISBN 1-880684-05-5.[dead link]
- "10 failed doomsday predictions". Retrieved 2009-11-12.
History has countless examples of people who have proclaimed that the return of Jesus Christ is imminent, but perhaps there has never been a stranger messenger than a hen in the English town of Leeds in 1806 ... a hen began laying eggs on which the phrase 'Christ is coming' was written.
- Charles Mackay (1841). Extraordinary popular delusions & the madness of crowds. Random House. ISBN 051788433X.
- Stephen Skinner, Millennium Prophecies. Longmeadow Press, Stamford CT, 1994. Page 109.
- Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why. San Francisco: HarperCollins. p. 110.
- Morris, A. M. The Prophecies Unveiled.
- Leon Festinger et al., When Prophecy Fails. University of Minnesota Press, 1956.
- Sears, Clara Endicott. Days of Delusion–A Strange Bit of History. Houghton Mifflin.
- Howard, G.M. "Men, Motives, and Misunderstandings: A New Look at the Morrisite War of 1862". Accessed 10 May 2007.
- Wendell, Jonas (1870). The Present Truth, or Meat in Due Season (PDF). Retrieved September 22, 2011.
- Neusner, Jacob (2009). World Religions in America: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox. p. 242.
- Stone, Jon R. (2000). Expecting Armageddon: Essential Reading in Failed Prophecy. Routledge. p. 56.
- Woodruff, Wilford (June 27, 1875). "June 27, 1875, Journal of Discourse, vol. 18". Little Children Are Innocent, and All Will Be Saved—God, a Personage of Tabernacle—The Life of the Savior, a Life of Suffering—Second Coming of Christ. p. 37. Retrieved Oct 16, 2016.
- Paul Boyer, When Time Shall Be No More. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA, 1992.
- "Ten Notable Apocalypses That (Obviously) Didn't Happen". Smithsonian. 2009-11-12. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
- "View from the Tower. Things to Come—and the Present European Situation." (Reprint). Zion's Watch Tower. Xiii (2): 23. January 15, 1892.
- Penton, James (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0802079732.
- The Finished Mystery, 1917, p. 398, 64
- The Finished Mystery, 1917, p. 485, 258, as cited by Raymond Franz, Crisis of Conscience, pages 206–211.
- Wilson, Ben (2007). Decency & Disorder: 1789-1837. London: Faber and Faber. p. 14. ISBN 9780571224692.
- Eva Shaw, Eve of Destruction. Lowell House, Los Angeles, 1995.
- Alex Heard, Apocalypse Pretty Soon. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1999. Pages 46–48.
- Waco: The Rules of Engagement, 1997 film.
- "Priests Leading Thousand in Prayer Meetings in India". Edmonton Journal. 3 February 1962. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
- "Masses Pray As India Sees "Augur of Doom" In Planets". Toledo Blade. 4 February 1962. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
Encyclopedia of Prophecy, p. 80, by Ashe, Geoffrey, 2001
- William M. Alnor, UFO Cults and the New Millennium. Baker Books, Grand Rapids MI, 1998.
- Thomas Robbins et al., Millennium, Messiahs and Mayhem. Routledge, New York, 1997.
- "The Closing Argument...". charlesmanson.com. Retrieved March 30, 2016.
- David, Moses (September 8, 1973). "THE CHRISTMAS MONSTER". Retrieved 2011-10-03. ML#269 – The Children of God
- ""40 DAYS!" – And Nineveh Shall Be Destroyed! (Jonah 3:4) – MO". November 12, 1973. Retrieved 2011-10-03. ML#280 – The Children of God
- "Life Everlasting in Freedom of the Sons of God" (PDF). Watch Tower Society. 1966: 29–35.
- The Watchtower March 15, 1980. Pages 17-18
- The Brahma Kumaris as a 'reflexive Tradition': Responding to Late Modernity by John Wallis
- Psychoanalysis and Theism: Critical Reflections on the Grünbaum Thesis by Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi
- Edward T. Babinski (1995). Leaving the Fold. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. p. 277.
- Stone, Jon R. (2000). Expecting Armageddon: Essential Reading in Failed Prophecy. Routledge. p. 269.
- Smith, Chuck (1980). End times: A report on future survival. The Word For Today. ISBN 978-0936728056.
- Arellano, Gustavo (May 7, 2011). "Remembering When Chuck Smith Predicted the End Times–And They Didn't Happen". OC Weekly. Retrieved March 18, 2012.
- Michael Grosso, Millennium Myth: Love and Death at the End of Time. Quest Books, Wheaton IL, 1995. Page 7.
- "Harold Camping, Ig Nobel Prize-winning mathematician, explains his mistake". improbable.com. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- Restall, Matthew; Solari, Amara (2011). 2012 and the End of the World: The Western Roots of the Maya Apocalypse. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 121. ISBN 978-1442206090. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- Pamela Starr Dewey. "Edgar Whisenant's 88 Reasons". isitso.org. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
- Snow, Robert L. (2003). Deadly Cults: The Crimes of True Believers. Praeger/Greenwood. pp. 70, 79, 108, 111. ISBN 0-275-98052-9.
- Cecil Adams, Triumph of the Straight Dope. Ballantine Books, NY, 1999. Pages 18–20.
- Watanabe, Teresa (1992-10-29). "No Doomsday Rapture for S. Korea Sect". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 20, 2011.
- Harold Camping, 1994?. Vantage Press, New York, 1992. Pages 526, 527, 531
- Jones, Ian. "Apocalypse ... Not Just Yet". MSN News. MSN UK News. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
- "Mass suicide involved sedatives, vodka and careful planning". CNN. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
- Lois H. Gresh, The Hunger Games Companion: The Unauthorized Guide to the Series, Macmillan, 2009. Page 207.
- The 100 Most Entertaining Predictions about the 21st Century By William Ray, Lynette Ray. 2000. Page 89
- Umar Ibrahim Vadillo, The Esoteric Deviation in Islam, pgs. 450-451. Madinah Press, 2011. ISBN 062030569X
- Fisher, Ian (Apr 3, 2000). "Uganda Survivor Tells of Questions When World Didn't End". The New York Times.
- Twesigye, Emmanuel K. (2010). Religion, Politics and Cults in East Africa: God's Warriors and Mary's Saints. Peter Lang Publishing, Inc. ISBN 1433111128. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
- Kellner, Mark A (January 11, 1999). "The Coming Secular Apocalypse". Christianity Today. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Rosin, Hanna (December 27, 1999). "The Apocalypse Is Still Coming—Later". The Washington Post. p. A01.
- Noone, Richard W. "5/5/2000: Ice, The Ultimate Disaster". 5/5/20000: Ice, The Ultimate Disaster. Three Rivers Press.
- Nick Hanna, The Millennium: A Rough Guide to the Year 2000. Rough Guides, London, 1998. Page 219.
- The End: Why Jesus Could Return by A.D. 2000. Ed Dobson. 1997. Zondervan.
- George Johnson (March 28, 1997). "Comets Breed Fear, Fascination and websites". The New York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
- Hawkins, Yisrayl. "The House of Yahweh Special Newsletter". pdf. House of Yaweh. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- Ronald Weinland. "Moving Forward Rapidly, February 7, 2008". Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2008.
- Ronald Weinland. "New Truth, June 18, 2008". Archived from the original on December 5, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2008.
- Ronald Weinland. "1260 Days, December 13, 2008". Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved Dec 17, 2008.
- Nancy Atkinson (July 20, 2011). "Worried About Comet Elenin? FAQs from Ian Musgrave". Universe Today. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
- Kissick, Peter (May 26, 2012). "Eurovision 2012: a sign of the apocalypse?". thephonograph.co.uk. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- Ligaya, Armina (May 1, 2012). "'The time is finished': Religious sect erects billboards in Toronto ahead of the 'transformation'". nationalpost.com.
- Cotroneo, Christian (May 2, 2012). "Jose Luis De Jesus Miranda: End Of The World Is Nigh (Again)". The Huffington Post. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- G. Jeffrey MacDonald (27 March 2007). "Does Maya calendar predict 2012 apocalypse?". USA Today. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
- David Stuart, The Order of Days: The Maya World and the Truth about 2012, Harmony Books, 2011
- David Webster (25 September 2007). "The Uses and Abuses of the Ancient Maya" (PDF). The Emergence of the Modern World Conference, Otzenhausen, Germany: Penn State University. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
- "Grigory Rasputin predicted end of the world on August 23, 2013". Pravda.ru. August 23, 2013. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
- Snyder, Christopher (October 16, 2013). "Is the cosmos telling us the end is near?". Fox News. Retrieved December 28, 2013.
- Molloy, Mark (July 29, 2016). "End of the world? Doomsday believers predict the apocalypse". The Telegraph. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
- Jeane Dixon, The Call to Glory. Bantam Books, New York, 1971. Pages 170, 172
- Anderson, Troy (December 6, 2012). "Bible Scholar Predicts New date of Christ's Second Coming". charismanews.com. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- Gohar Shahi, Riaz Ahmed (2012). The Religion of God. United States of America. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-45254-908-8.
- AlGohar, Younus, 2026, retrieved 30 Jan 2011
- "Sir Isaac Newton's Daniel and the Apocalypse (1733)". Retrieved 2015-07-16.
- Kastamonu Appendix, 21. Letter
- Khalifa, Rashad. "The End of the World".
- Oliver, Jonathan; Korb, Kevin (January 27, 1998). "A Bayesian Analysis of the Doomsday Argument". Clayton, Australia: Department of Computer Science, Monash University. CiteSeerX .
- Bostrom, Nick (March 2002). "Existential Risks: Analyzing Human Extinction Scenarios and Related Hazards". Journal of Evolution and Technology. 9 (1). Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- "Super-eruptions: Global effects and future threats". The Geological Society. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- Nelson, Stephen A. "Meteorites, Impacts, and Mass Extinction". Tulane University. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
- Carrington, D. (2000-02-21). "Date set for desert Earth". BBC News. Retrieved 2007-03-31.
- Minard, Anne (2009). "Gamma-Ray Burst Caused Mass Extinction?". National Geographic News. Retrieved 2012-08-27.
- Schröder, K.-P.; Smith, R.C. (2008). "Distant future of the Sun and Earth revisited". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 386 (1): 155. arXiv: . Bibcode:2008MNRAS.386..155S. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13022.x. See also Palmer, J. (2008). "Hope dims that Earth will survive Sun's death". New Scientist. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
- Franck, S.; Bounama, C.; Von Bloh, W. (November 2005). "Causes and timing of future biosphere extinction" (PDF). Biogeosciences Discussions. 2 (6): 1665–1679. Bibcode:2005BGD.....2.1665F. doi:10.5194/bgd-2-1665-2005. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- Powell, David (January 22, 2007), "Earth's Moon Destined to Disintegrate", Space.com, Tech Media Network, retrieved 2010-06-01.
- Vikhlinin, A.; Kravtsov, A.V.; Burenin, R.A.; et al. (2009). "Chandra Cluster Cosmology Project III: Cosmological Parameter Constraints". The Astrophysical Journal. Astrophysical Journal. 692 (2): 1060–1074. arXiv: . Bibcode:2009ApJ...692.1060V. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/692/2/1060.