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The Habsburgs and the Ottomans
From the middle ages until the twentieth century, today's Austria and Turkey were the core regions within much larger empires. Austria was the seat of the House of Habsburg and Turkey was ruled by the House of Osman (also known as the Ottoman Dynasty). The Habsburg and Ottoman states were both large multi-ethnic conglomerations sustained by conquest. These rival empires waged frequent wars against each other over control of much Central Europe and the Balkans.
During its peak, the Ottoman Empire threatened to conquer the Austrian capital of Vienna twice: in 1529 and 1683. After the second Ottoman defeat at Vienna and the end of the Great Turkish War in 1699, however, the Habsburgs gained the upper hand, and captured Hungary and Croatia from the Ottomans. After these gains, Austria was no longer able to advance into the Balkans, because of the rival influence of Russia, in a stalemate and dispute known as the Eastern Question. While Ottoman control in the Balkans declined, the Austrians were not able to annex any new territory until Bosnia in 1908, and even that caused a diplomatic crisis (the Bosnian crisis). In the interim, Russia had helped several Christian peoples in the Balkans to rebel against the Ottomans and create separate nation-states in the Balkans. After the culmination of all the changes from the Greek War of Independence (1821–1829) to the Balkan Wars (1912–1913) the Austrian and Ottoman empires no longer bordered each other. This allowed both to join the Central Powers as allies during the First World War. The defeat of the Central Powers lead to the overthrow of both monarchies.
Austrian and Turkish republics
Austria currently has normal relations with Turkey. However, there are some minor complications. Austria, which has approximately 250,000 Turks living there (about 3% of Austria's population), has been at the forefront of blocking Turkey's accession to the European Union.
On 10 November 2010 relations between the two countries were excessively tensioned after Turkish ambassador in Austria accused public and political elite of xenophobia in Austria and called international organisations which locate their buildings in Vienna to relocate in another country .The Freedom Party called for suspending diplomatic relations and for stopping EU accession talks with Ankara. The extreme right called for Austria's diplomatic relations with Turkey to be severed.
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