Foreign relations of Turkey

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Foreign relations of the Republic of Turkey are the Turkish government's policies in its external relations with the international community.

History[edit]

Historically, the Foreign relations of the Ottoman Empire and later Turkey balanced regional and global powers off against one another, forming alliances that best protected the interests of the incumbent regime.[1] The Soviet Union played a major role in supplying weapons to and financing Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's faction during the Turkish War of Independence but Turkey's followed a course of relative international isolation during the period of Atatürk's Reforms in 1920s and 1930s. International conferences gave Turkey full control of the strategic straits linking the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, though the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 and the Montreux Convention of 1936.[2]

In the late 1930s Nazi Germany made a major effort to promote anti-Soviet propaganda in Turkey and exerted economic pressure. Britain and France, eager to outmaneuver Germany, negotiated a tripartite treaty in 1939. They gave Turkey a line of credit to purchase war materials from the West and a loan to facilitate the purchase of commodities.[3] Afraid of threats from Germany and Russia, Turkey maintained neutrality.[4] It and sold chrome—an important war material—to both sides. It was clear by 1944 that Germany would be defeated and the chrome sales to Germany stopped.[5][6][7]

After 1945[edit]

After World War II Turkey sought closer relations with Western powers. It became a founding member of the United Nations in 1945, a recipient of Marshall Plan aid and a member of North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1952. European Union–Turkey relations warmed during the Cold War period and the post-Cold War period has seen a diversification of relations, with Turkey, at various moments, seeking to strengthen its regional presence in the Balkans, the Middle East and the Caucasus, as well as taking steps toward EU membership.

Under the AKP government (2003–), Turkey's economy has grown rapidly and the country's influence has grown in the Middle East based on a strategic depth doctrine, also called Neo-Ottomanism.[8][9] Debate on Turkey's foreign relations is controversial both within Turkey itself and outside the country. In the West, there is a divide between those who are worried about Turkey's perceived movement away from the West toward a less democratic, more Islamic or more pro-Russian and pro-Chinese[10] orientation and those who do not see Turkey's changing political structure, growing regional power and relations with Russia as a threat.[11]

Bilateral relations[edit]

Africa[edit]

There has been a revival in Turkey's relation with Africa after 1998 and civil society is the leading factor in this process.[12] Initially this revival came as a passive attempt, but after 2005 it became an offensive interest in developing relations with the continent. The recent Turkey-Africa Cooperation Summit in 2008 marks the latest stage in Turkey's keen interest in developing relations with Africa, and should be seen as a turning point.[13] Turkey since its involvement in Somalia in 2011, is eager to be considered as a political actor in the continent.[14][15]

Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 Algeria 1962[16] See Algeria–Turkey relations X
 Angola 1975[20] See Angola–Turkey relations X
 Benin March 26, 2001[21] X
 Botswana 1981[23]
  • Permanent Representation of Botswana in the UN Geneva Office is also accredited to Turkey.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Gaborone[23]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 2.9 million USD in 2019.[23]
X
 Burkina Faso 1960[24] See Burkina Faso–Turkey relations
  • Burkina Faso has an embassy in Ankara.[25]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Ouagadougou.[25]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 52.2 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 31.4/20.8 million USD).[25]
X
 Burundi 1962[26]
  • Burundi has an embassy in Ankara.[27]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Bujumbura.[27]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 3.1 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 2.6/0.5 million USD).[27]
X
 Cameroon Jan. 1, 1960[28]
  • Cameroon has an embassy in Ankara
  • Turkey has an embassy in Yaoundé
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 205 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 151/54 million USD).[29]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Yaoundé.
X
 Cape Verde July 19, 1975[30]
  • The Turkish Embassy in Dakar is accredited to Cabo Verde.[31]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 9.5 million USD in 2019.[31]
X
 Central African Republic 1995[32] X
 Chad 1593[34] See Chad–Turkey relations
  • Chad has an embassy in Ankara.[34]
  • Turkey has an embassy in N’Djamena.[34]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 72.4 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 39.9/32.5 million USD).[34]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to N’Djamena since December 12, 2013.[34]
X
 Comoros 1979[35] See Comoros–Turkey relations
  • The Embassy of the Comoros in Cairo is accredited to Turkey.[35]
  • The Turkish Embassy in Antananarivo is accredited to the Union of the Comoros.[35]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 21.1 million USD in 2019.[35]
X
 Congo 1960[36]
  • Congo has an embassy in Ankara.[36]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Brazzaville.[36]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 57.25 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 55.8/1.47 million USD).[36]
X
 Côte d’Ivoire 1964[37] See Ivory Coast–Turkey relations X
 Democratic Republic of Congo 1974[38] X
 Djibouti 1977[39] See Djibouti–Turkey relations X
 Egypt 1922[40] See Egypt–Turkey relations [45]
 Eritrea 1993[46] See Eritrea–Turkey relations
  • The Embassy of Eritrea in Doha is accredited to Turkey.[46]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Asmara.[46]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 13.9 million USD in 2019.[46]
X
 Equatorial Guinea 1980[47] X
 Eswatini 1968[48] X
 Ethiopia 1896[50] See Ethiopia–Turkey relations
  • Ethiopia has an embassy in Ankara.[50]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Addis Ababa.[50]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 398.8 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 378.3/27.5 million USD).[50]
X
 Gabon 1960[51] X
 Gambia 1965[52] X
 Ghana 1958[53] See Ghana–Turkey relations
  • Ghana has an embassy in Ankara.[53]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Accra.[53]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 353.3 million USD in 2018.[53]
Pending Ratification[45]
 Guinea 1960[54] X
 Guinea Bissau 1975[56] X
 Kenya 1963[58] See Kenya–Turkey relations X
 Lesotho 1967[59]
  • Embassy of Lesotho in Rome is accredited to Turkey.[60]
  • Turkish Embassy in Pretoria is also accredited to Lesotho.[60]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.65 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.62/0.03 million USD).[60]
X
 Liberia 1864[61] X
 Libya 1711[63] See Libya–Turkey relations
  • Libya has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Tripoli[64] and a Consulate General in Misurata.[65]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.865 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.50/0.37 billion USD).[66]
  • 188,312 Libyan tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[66]
X
 Madagascar Feb. 13, 1866[67] See Madagascar–Turkey relations
  • Embassy of Madagascar in Rome is accredited to Turkey.[68]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Antananarivo.[68]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 76.5 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 71.3/5.2 million USD).[68]
X
 Mali 1998[69]
  • Mali has an embassy in Ankara.[70]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Bamako.[70]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 57 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 48.4/8.6 million USD).[70]
X
 Malawi 1964[71]
  • Embassy of Malawi in Berlin is accredited to Turkey.[71]
  • Turkish Embassy in Lusaka is accredited to Malawi.[71]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 21 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 4.67/16.4 million USD).[71]
X
 Mauritius 1968[72] See Mauritius–Turkey relations [74]
 Mauritania 1974[75] See Mauritania–Turkey relations X
 Morocco April 17, 1956[76] See Morocco–Turkey relations
  • Morocco has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Rabat.[77]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 2.71 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.99/0.72 billion USD).[78]
  • 114,155 Moroccan tourists visited Turkey in 2017.[78]
  • Yunus Emre Institute has a local headquarters in Rabat.
[74]
 Mozambique Sep. 23, 1975[79]
  • Embassy of Mozambique in Rome is accredited to Turkey.[80]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Maputo.[80]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 153 million USD in 2019.[80]
X
 Namibia 1966[81]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Windhoek.[81]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 11.84 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 9.40/2.44 million USD).[81]
X
 Niger 1967[82] See Niger–Turkey relations X
 Nigeria 1960[83] See Nigeria–Turkey relations X
 Rwanda 1962[84]
  • Rwanda has an embassy in Ankara.[85]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Kigali.[85]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 32.4 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 32.2/0.2 million USD).[85]
X
 Sao Tome and Principe July 12, 1975[86] X
 Senegal 1962[88] X
 Seychelles 1995[89]
  • Embassy of Seychelles in Paris is accredited to Turkey.[89]
  • The Turkish Embassy in Nairobi is accredited to Seychelles.[89]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 25.4 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 17.7/7.7 million USD).[89]
X
 Sierra Leone 1971[90] X
 Somalia 1979[91] See Somalia–Turkey relations X
 South Africa 1993[93] See South Africa–Turkey relations X
 South Sudan 2012[94] X
 Sudan 1956[95] See also Sudan–Turkey relations X
 Tanzania 1979[96] X
 Togo Jan. 13, 1997[97]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Lomé (planned).[98]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 106 million USD in 2019.[98]
X
 Tunisia 1956[99] See Tunisia–Turkey relations [45]
 Uganda 2010[102] See Turkey–Uganda relations X
 Zambia 1964[103]
  • Zambia has an embassy in Ankara.[103]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Lusaka.[103]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 23.7 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 17.8/5.9 million USD).[103]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Lusaka since December 14, 2018.[103]
X
 Zimbabwe 1980[104]
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Ankara.[105]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Harare.[105]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 17.7 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 5.9/11.8 million USD).[105]
X

Americas[edit]

Southern Cone[edit]

Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 Argentina 1910[106] See Argentina–Turkey relations X
 Chile 1913[108] See Chile–Turkey relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Santiago.
  • Both countries are members of OECD and WTO.
  • Chile-Turkey Free Trade Agreement was signed on 14 July 2009 and is in effect since 1 March 2011.[108]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 579 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 344/236 million USD.[108]
  • Chile was the first country in Latin America that recognized Turkey.
[45]
 Paraguay 1953[109] See Paraguay–Turkey relations
  • Paraguay has an embassy in Ankara.[110]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Asuncion.[110]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 82.1 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 47.1/35 million USD).[110]
X
 Uruguay 1929[111] See Turkey–Uruguay relations X

North America[edit]

Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 Canada 1943[112] See Canada–Turkey relations X
 Mexico 1927[113] See Mexico–Turkey relations X
 United States 1830[116] See Turkey–United States relations
U.S. President Donald Trump and Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan at the G20 Osaka summit in June 2019
X

Caribbean[edit]

Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 Antigua and Barbuda Feb. 3, 1982[117] See Antigua and Barbuda–Turkey relations X
 Bahamas Sep. 21, 1981[119] See Bahamas–Turkey relations X
 Barbados 1970[121] See Barbados–Turkey relations
  • Turkish Embassy in Port of Spain is accredited to Barbados.[122]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 8.5 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 8.45/0.05 million USD).[122]
X
 Cuba 1952[123] See Cuba–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an embassy in Havana.[123]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 54.7 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 42.9/11.8 million USD).[123]
X
 Dominica Nov. 3, 1978[124] See Dominica–Turkey relations X
 Dominican Republic July 23, 1904[126] See Dominican Republic–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an embassy in Santo Domingo.[127]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 132.7 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 118.6/14.1 million USD).[127]
X
 Grenada Feb. 25, 1975[128] See Grenada–Turkey relations X
 Haiti March 23, 1943[130] See Haiti–Turkey relations
  • Turkish Embassy in Santo Domingo is accredited to Haiti.[131]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 129.7 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 128.9/0.8 million USD).[131]
X
 Jamaica 1970[132] See Jamaica–Turkey relations
  • Turkish Embassy in Havana is accredited to Jamaica.[133]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 90.5 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 90/0.5 million USD).[133]
X
 St. Lucia 2005[134] See Saint Lucia–Turkey relations X
 St. Kitts and Nevis Aug. 22, 1984[136] See Saint Kitts and Nevis–Turkey relations X
 St. Vincent and Grenadines July 27, 2004[138] See Saint Vincent and the Grenadines–Turkey relations X
 Trinidad and Tobago 1963[132] See Trinidad and Tobago–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an embassy in Port of Spain.[140]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 120.8 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 68.4/52.4 million USD).[140]
X

Central America[edit]

Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 Belize Oct. 29, 1981[141] See Belize–Turkey relations
  • Turkish Embassy in Port of Spain is accredited to Belize.[141]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 13.7 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 10.1/3.6 million USD).[141]
X
 Costa Rica Jan. 15, 1898[132] See Costa Rica–Turkey relations
  • Costa Rica has an embassy in Ankara.[142]
  • Turkey has an embassy in San Jose.[142]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 100 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 58.9/41.8 million USD).[142]
X
 El Salvador Jan. 26, 1934[132] See El Salvador–Turkey relations X
 Guatemala Aug. 10, 1882[132] See Guatemala–Turkey relations
  • Guatemala has an embassy in Ankara and an Honorary Consulate in Istanbul.[144]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Guatemala.[144]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 63.5 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 53.5/10 million USD).[144]
X
 Honduras April 25, 1862[132] See Honduras–Turkey relations
  • Turkish Embassy in Guatemala is accredited to Honduras.[145]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 19.8 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 15/4.8 million USD).[145]
X
 Nicaragua Nov. 11, 1926[146] See Nicaragua–Turkey relations
  • Turkish Embassy in San José is accredited to Nicaragua.[146]
  • Nicaraguan embassy in Berlin is accredited to Turkey.[146]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 11.6 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 11.1/0.5 million USD).[146]
X
 Panama April 14, 1950[147] See Panama–Turkey relations
  • Panama has an embassy in Ankara.[147]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Panama.[147]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 260.9 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 248.8/12.1 million USD).[147]
X

Latin America, rest of[edit]

Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 Bolivia 1849[132] See Bolivia–Turkey relations
  • Turkey has an embassy in La Paz.[148]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 130 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 22/108 million USD).[148]
X
 Brazil 1927[149] See Brazil–Turkey relations X
 Colombia 1959[150] See Colombia–Turkey relations
  • Colombia has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Bogotá.
  • Both countries are members of OECD and WTO.
  • Flights from Istanbul to Bogotá commenced in May 2016.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.7 billion USD USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.25/1.46 billion USD.[151]
X
 Ecuador 1950[152] See Ecuador–Turkey relations
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Quito and a consulate in Guayaquil.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 117 million USD USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 59/58 million USD.[152]
X
 Guyana 2005[132] See Guyana–Turkey relations
  • Turkish Embassy in Port of Spain is accredited to Guyana.[153]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 29.6 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 28.6/1 million USD).[153]
X
 Peru 1950[154] See Peru–Turkey relations
  • Peru has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.[154]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Lima.[154]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 250 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 177.4/72.6 million USD).[154]
X
 Suriname 1976[155]
  • Turkish Embassy in Port of Spain is accredited to Suriname.[155]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 18.2 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 18.1/0.1 million USD).[155]
X
 Venezuela 1950[156] See Turkey–Venezuela relations
  • Turkey has an embassy in Caracas and an Honorary Consulate in Maracaibo.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 150 million USD USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 130/20 million USD.[156]
X

Asia and Oceania[edit]

Turkic States[edit]

Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 Azerbaijan Jan. 14, 1992[157] See Azerbaijan–Turkey relations X
 Kazakhstan March 2, 1992[159] See Kazakhstan–Turkey relations X
 Kyrgyzstan Jan. 29, 1992[161] See Kyrgyzstan–Turkey relations X
 Turkmenistan Feb. 29, 1992[164] See Turkey–Turkmenistan relations X
 Uzbekistan March 4, 1992[166] See Turkey–Uzbekistan relations X

Asia-Pacific[edit]

Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 Afghanistan 1921[168] See Afghanistan–Turkey relations X
 Australia 1967[170] See Australia–Turkey relations X
 Bangladesh Feb. 22, 1974[172] See Bangladesh–Turkey relations
  • Bangladesh has an embassy in Ankara.[172]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Dhaka.[172]
  • Both countries are members of OIC.[172]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 934 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 427/509 billion USD.[173]
X
 Bhutan 2012[174] See Bhutan–Turkey relations
  • Bhutan and Turkey cooperate through their respective embassies in New Delhi.[175]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.58 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.1/1.48 million USD).[176]
X
 Brunei Darussalam 1984[177] X
 Cambodia 1959[179] See Cambodia–Turkey relations
  • Cambodia has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Phnom Penh.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 108.4 million USD in 2015 (Turkish exports/imports: 13.7/94.7 million USD).[180]
X
 China 1971[181] See China–Turkey relations X
 East Timor 2002[186] X
 Fiji Dec. 17, 1975[187] X
 India Aug. 15, 1947[188] See India–Turkey relations
  • India has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in New Delhi and a Consulates General in Hyderabad and Mumbai.[188]
  • Both countries are members of G20 and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 7.80 billion USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.17/6.64 million USD).[189]
X
 Indonesia 1571[190] See Indonesia–Turkey relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Ankara.[190]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Jakarta.[190]
  • Both countries are members of D-8, G20, MIKTA, OIC and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.85 billion USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.21/1.64 billion USD.[191]
  • 2,400 Indonesian citizens reside in Turkey.[190]
X
 Japan 1890[192] See Japan–Turkey relations X
 Kiribati 2008[196] X
 Laos 1958[197] See Laos–Turkey relations
  • The Embassy of Laos in Vienna is accredited to Turkey.[197]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Vientiane.[197]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 2.86 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.44/1.48 billion USD).[198]
X
 Maldives 1979[199]
  • The Permanent Mission of the Republic of Maldives to the United Nations Office in Geneva is accredited to Turkey.[199]
  • The Turkish Embassy in New Delhi is accredited to the Maldives.[199]
  • Both countries are members of OIC.[199]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 46.5 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 28.2/18.3 million USD).[200]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Malé since 24 November 2012.
X
 Malaysia 1964[201] See Malaysia–Turkey relations [45]
 Marshall Islands April 9, 2008[203] X
 Micronesia Nov. 3, 1986[207] X
 Mongolia June 24, 1969[210] See Mongolia–Turkey relations X
 Myanmar 1958[212]
  • The Burmese Embassy in Cairo is accredited to Turkey.[212]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Yangon.[212]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 38.7 million USD in 2015 (Turkish exports/imports: 30.7/8 million USD).[213]
X
 Nauru Oct. 24, 1976[214] X
 New Zealand 1915[217] See New Zealand–Turkey relations
  • New Zealand has an embassy in Ankara.[217]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Wellington.[217]
  • Both countries are members of OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 152.8 million USD in 2015 (Turkish exports/imports: 90.1/62.7 million USD).[218]
  • 1,700 Turkish citizens reside in New Zealand.[217]
X
 North Korea Jan. 15, 2001[219] See North Korea–Turkey relations X
 Pakistan 1947[220] See Pakistan–Turkey relations X
 Palau May 10, 2007[225]
  • Turkish Embassy in Tokyo is accredited to Palau.[225]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 3.7 million USD in 2014.[225]
X
 Papua New Guinea 10 May 2007[226] X
 Philippines June 13, 1949[227] See Philippines–Turkey relations
  • Philippines has an embassy in Ankara.[227]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Manila.[227]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 219.7 million USD in 2015 (Turkish exports/imports: 104/115.7 million USD).[228]
  • 2,200 Philippine nationals are residing in Turkey.[227]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Manila since March 2015.[227]
X
 Samoa April 12, 1979[229] X
 Singapore Feb. 12, 1969[230] See Singapore–Turkey relations [45]
 Solomon Islands March 8, 1979[232] X
 South Korea Aug. 11, 1949[233] See South Korea–Turkey relations
  • South Korea has an embassy in Ankara.[233]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Seoul.[233]
  • Both countries are members of G20, MIKTA, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 6.53 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.88/5.64 billion USD).[234]
  • 212.970 South Korean tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[234]
  • Free Trade Agreement between the two countries entered into force on 1 May 2013 and was updated on 1 August 2018 to include an Investment Agreement.[234]
  • Turkey ranks third in number of martyrs among the 16 countries that participated in the Korean War. United Nations Memorial Cemetery in Busan honors 462 of the 966 Turkish soldiers who died during the war.[233]
  • Yunus Emre Institute has a local headquarters in Seoul.
[45]
 Sri Lanka Feb. 4, 1948[235]
  • Sri Lanka has an embassy in Ankara.[235]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Colombo.[235]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 185.7 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 84.3/101.4 million USD).[236]
X
 Taiwan Diplomatic recognition withdrawn in 1971 by the establishment of diplomatic relations between Turkey and China. X
 Tajikistan Jan. 29, 1992[237] See Tajikistan–Turkey relations X
 Thailand 1958[239] See Thailand–Turkey relations
  • Thailand has an embassy in Ankara.[239]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Bangkok.[239]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.342 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.256/1.09 billion USD).[240]
  • Negotiations on a bilateral Free Trade Agreement (FTA) began in 2017.[239]
  • There are direct flights from Istanbul to Bangkok and Phuket.[239]
X
 Tonga Jan. 26, 1976[241] X
 Tuvalu July 19, 1979[242] X
 Vanuatu April 10, 1987[243] X
 Vietnam 1978[247] See Turkey–Vietnam relations X

Western Asia[edit]

Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 Armenia Diplomatic relations suspended over the Nagorno-Karabakh War. X
 Bahrain Dec. 4, 1973 See Bahrain–Turkey relations X
 Cyprus Diplomatic relations suspended.
 Northern Cyprus 1983[250] Free Trade
 Georgia May 21, 1992[252] See Georgia–Turkey relations [45]
 Iran Aug. 23, 1514[254] See Iran–Turkey relations X
 Iraq 1932[257] See Iraq–Turkey relations
  • Iraq has an embassy in Ankara and Consulates General in Gaziantep and Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Baghdad and a Consulate General in Erbil.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 9.77 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 8.35/1.42 billion USD).[258]
X
 Israel May 11, 1949[259] See Israel–Turkey relations
  • Israel has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Tel Aviv.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 4.37 billion USD in 2015 (Turkish exports/imports: 2.70/1.67 billion USD).[260]
  • During the 1930s and 1940s, the Republic of Turkey again served as a safe haven for the European Jewish refugees fleeing the Nazi-perpetrated Holocaust.[261] A Turkish diplomat, Selahattin Ulkumen, is honoured as one of the Righteous Among The Nations for his work in rescuing Jews from Nazi officials on the island of Rhodes, by issuing them Turkish visas and later arranging for their transport to Turkish territory. Another diplomat, Necdet Kent, also rescued Jews from Nazi authorities, for which he was awarded a special medal by the government of the State of Israel.
  • Turkey was the first country with a Muslim majority to formally recognize the State of Israel.
[45]
 Jordan Jan. 11, 1947[262] See Jordan–Turkey relations X
 Kuwait 1964[264] See Kuwait–Turkey relations
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Kuwait City.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 678 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 534/144 million USD).[265]
X
 Lebanon Oct. 3, 1952[266] See Lebanon–Turkey relations
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Beirut.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1070 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 901/169 million USD).
  • 37.476 Lebanese tourists visited Turkey in 2017.[267]
  • Yunus Emre Institute has a local headquarters in Beirut.
Pending Ratification[45]
 Oman 1973[268] See Oman–Turkey relations
  • Oman has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Muscat.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 489 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 422/67 million USD).[269]
X
 Palestine Nov. 15, 1988[270] See Palestine–Turkey relations [45]
 Qatar 1972[272] See Qatar–Turkey relations X
 Saudi Arabia 1932[275] See Saudi Arabia–Turkey relations X
 Syria Nov. 17, 1944[280] Diplomatic relations suspended since 2011. [45]
 United Arab Emirates 1971[281] See Turkey–United Arab Emirates relations
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a Consulate General in Dubai.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 6.92 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 3.14/3.78 million USD).[282]
X
 Yemen March 4, 1946[283] See Turkey–Yemen relations X

Europe[edit]

Country Relations Began Notes Free Trade Agreement
 Albania 1958[285] See Albania–Turkey relations [45]
 Andorra Oct. 8, 1998[287] See Andorra–Turkey relations
  • The Turkish Embassy in Madrid is accredited to Andorra[287]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 478 thousand USD in 2010 (Turkish exports/imports: 476/1.4 thousand USD).[287]
[45]
 Austria 1526[288] See Austria–Turkey relations [45]
 Belarus March 25, 1992[294] See Belarus–Turkey relations
  • Belarus has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.[295]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Minsk.[295]
  • Both countries are members of OSCE.[296]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 691 million USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 531/160 million USD.[294]
X
 Belgium 1838[297] See Belgium–Turkey relations [45]
 Bulgaria 1908[300] See Bulgaria–Turkey relations [45]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Aug. 29, 1992[305] See Bosnia and Herzegovina–Turkey relations [45]
 Croatia Aug. 6, 1992[307] See Croatia–Turkey relations [45]
 Czech Republic 1924[309] See Czech Republic–Turkey relations
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Prague.[310]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 3.65 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1/2.65 billion USD.[309]
  • 4.500 Turkish citizens reside in the Czech Republic.[309]
  • 228 thousand Czech tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[309]
[45]
 Denmark 1756[311] See Denmark–Turkey relations
  • Denmark has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Copenhagen.[312]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.88 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.1/0.813 billion USD.[313]
  • 70 thousand Turkish citizens reside in Denmark.[313] See Turks in Denmark
  • 326 thousand Danish tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[313]
[45]
 Estonia 1924[314] See Estonia–Turkey relations
  • Estonia has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Tallinn.[315]
  • Both countries are members of OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 312 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 92/220 million USD.[314]
  • 61,707 Estonian tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[314]
  • 575 Turkish citizens live in Estonia.[314]
[45]
 Finland 1924[316] See Finland–Turkey relations
  • Finland has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Helsinki.[317]
  • Both countries are members of OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.32 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 0.34/0.98 billion USD.[316]
  • 13 thousand Turkish citizens reside in Finland.[316] See Turks in Finland
  • 129 thousand Finnish tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[316]
[45]
 France 1483[318] See France–Turkey relations [45]
 Germany 1790[326] See Germany–Turkey relations [45]
 Greece 1830[342] See Greece-Turkey relations
Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou and Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan in Ankara, November 2009
  • Greece has an embassy in Ankara and Consulates General in Edirne, Istanbul and İzmir.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Athens[343] and Consulates General in Komotini,[344] Piraeus,[345] Rhodes[346] and Thessaloniki.[347]
  • Both countries are members of BSCE, OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 4.18 billion USD in 2018.[348]
  • 150 thousand ethnic Turks reside in Western Thrace, Greece.[349]
  • Turkey and Greece have clashed for decades over the status of Aegean islands and over the extent of territorial waters and airspace. The tensions came to the brink of war on a number of occasions, most recently in 1996, when Greek and Turkish warships faced each other close to the disputed Imia-Kardak rocks. Only U.S. and NATO intervention subsided the conflict. In February 1999, relations between Greek officials and Abdullah Öcalan (holding a Greek Cypriot passport) and the role of the Greek Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya, where Öcalan was captured by agents of the Turkish National Intelligence Organization (MİT) caused crisis in relations between the two countries for a period of time; but relations have since improved, particularly following the earthquakes that struck both countries in 1999.
[45]
  Holy See 1960[350] See Holy See–Turkey relations
 Hungary 1521[351] See Hungary–Turkey relations [45]
 Iceland June 17, 1944[354]
  • Bilateral relations between Turkey and Iceland are being coordinated by the Embassy of the Republic of Turkey in Oslo and the Embassy of Iceland in Copenhagen.[355]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.[355]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 51 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 24/27 million USD).[355]
  • 100 Turkish citizens reside in Iceland.[355]
[45]
 Ireland 1972[356] See Ireland–Turkey relations [45]
 Italy 1381[360] See Italy–Turkey relations [45]
 Kosovo Feb. 18, 2008[364] See Kosovo–Turkey relations [45]
 Latvia 1925[366] See Latvia–Turkey relations
  • Latvia has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Riga.[367]
  • Both countries are members of OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • 200 Turkish citizens reside in Latvia.[366]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 291 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 126/165 million USD).[366]
[45]
 Liechtenstein Aug. 24, 1992[368] See Liechtenstein–Turkey relations
  • Bilateral relations between Turkey and Liechtenstein are being coordinated by the Embassies of the Republic of Turkey and Liechtenstein in Bern.[368]
  • Both countries are members of WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 7 million USD in 2017.[369]
[45]
 Lithuania 1930[370] See Lithuania–Turkey relations
  • Lithuania has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Vilnius.[371]
  • Both countries are members of OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 687 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 277/410 million USD).[370]
  • 350 Turkish citizens reside in Lithuania.[370]
[45]
 Luxembourg Aug. 24, 1992[368] See Luxembourg–Turkey relations
  • Luxembourg has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Luxembourg.[372]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 160 million USD in 2017 (Turkish exports/imports: 36/124 million USD).[373]
  • 900 Turkish citizens reside in Luxembourg.[373]
[45]
 Malta 1522[374] See Malta–Turkey relations
  • Malta has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Valletta.[375]
  • Both countries are members of WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 593 million USD in 2017 (Turkish exports/imports: 541/52 million USD).[376]
[45]
 Moldova Feb. 3, 1992[377] See Moldova–Turkey relations [45]
 Monaco 1954[379] See Monaco–Turkey relations
  • Bilateral relations between Turkey and Monaco are being coordinated by the Consulates General of Turkey and Monaco in Marseille.[379]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 12.8 million EUR in 2017.[379]
[45]
 Montenegro July 3, 2006[380] See Montenegro–Turkey relations [45]
 Netherlands 1612[382] See Netherlands–Turkey relations [45]
 North Macedonia Aug. 26, 1992.[388] See North Macedonia–Turkey relations
  • North Macedonia has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Skopje and a Consulate General in Bitola.
  • Both countries are members of NATO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 503 million USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 396/107 million USD).[389]
  • 209,519 Macedonian tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[389]
  • Yunus Emre Institute has a local headquarters in Skopje.
[45]
 Norway 1926[390]
  • Norway has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.28 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 513/765 million USD).[390]
  • 20 thousand Turkish citizens reside in Norway .[390]
  • 161 thousand Norwegian tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[390]
[45]
 Poland 1414[391] See Poland–Turkey relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Warsaw.[392]
  • Both countries are members of NATO, OECD and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 6.45 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 3.34/3.34 billion USD).[393]
  • 646 thousand Polish tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[393]
[45]

See also Polonezköy

 Portugal 1843[394] See Portugal–Turkey relations [45]
 Romania Oct. 22, 1879[397] See Romania–Turkey relations [45]
 Russia 1699[401] See Russia–Turkey relations
Vladimir Putin, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Silvio Berlusconi in Turkey in November 2005
X
 Serbia 1879[407] See Serbia–Turkey relations [45]
 Slovakia 1993[410] See Slovakia–Turkey relations
  • Slovakia has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Bratislava.[411]
  • Both countries are members of OECD, NATO and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.29 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 532/767 million USD).[410]
  • 157 thousand Slovak tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[410]
[45]
 Slovenia Feb. 6, 1992[412] See Slovenia–Turkey relations [45]
 Spain 1782[414] See Spain–Turkey relations [45]
 Sweden 1603[418] See Sweden–Turkey relations
  • Sweden has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Stockholm.[419]
  • Both countries are members of [OECD]] and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 3.2 billion USD in 2018 (Turkish exports/imports: 1.5/1.7 billion USD).[418]
  • 115 thousand people of Turkish origin reside in Sweden.[418] See also Turks in Sweden
  • 385 thousand Swedish tourists visited Turkey in 2018.[418]
[45]
  Switzerland 1899[420] See Switzerland–Turkey relations [45]
 Ukraine Feb. 3, 1992[426] See Turkey–Ukraine relations
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Ankara and Consulates General in Antalya and Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Kiev[427] and a Consulate General in Odessa.[428]
  • Both countries are members of WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 4.8 billion USD in 2019 (Turkish exports/imports: 2.1/2.72 billion USD).[426]
  • 1 million 600 thousand Ukrainian tourists visited Turkey in 2019.[426]
  • Yunus Emre Institute has a local headquarters in Kyiv.
X
 United Kingdom 1583[429] See Turkey–United Kingdom relations Expires 31 December 2020[45]

International organizations[edit]

Turkey is a founding member of the UN (1945),[432] the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (1961),[433] the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (1969),[434] the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) (1973),[435] and the G20 industrial nations (1999). Turkey is a member state of the Council of Europe (1949) and NATO (1952) as well as being in full accession negotiations with the European Union since 2005, having been an associate member since 1963. Turkey was also an associate member of the Western European Union from 1992 to 2011, and signed the E.U. Customs Union agreement in 1995.

Turkey entered NATO in 1952 and serves as the organization's vital eastern anchor, controlling the Turkish Straits which lead from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean and sharing a border with Syria, Iraq, and Iran. A NATO headquarters is located in İzmir, and the United States has maintained air forces at the Incirlik Air Base in the province of Adana.

Turkey is also a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) since 1995. It has signed free trade agreements with the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), Israel, and many other countries. In 1992, Turkey and 10 other regional nations formed the BSEC to expand regional trade and economic cooperation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  364. ^ "Türkiye – Kosova İlişkileri".
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  426. ^ a b c "Relations between Turkey and Ukraine".
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 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.

Further reading[edit]

European Union–Turkey relations[edit]

  • Aybet, Gülnur. Turkey's Foreign Policy and Its Implications for the West: A Turkish Perspective. London: Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies, 1994.
  • Aydin-Duzgit, Senem and Keyman, Fuat, “EU–Turkey Relations and the Stagnation of Turkish Democracy,” IAI/IPC, Global Turkey in Europe, Working Paper 2 (2012).
  • Barchard, David. Turkey and the West. (Chatham House Papers, No. 27, published for the Royal Institute of International Affairs.) London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985.
  • Cakir, A.E. (ed.), Fifty Years of EU–Turkey Relations (Oxon: Routledge, 2011).
  • Dixon, Jeffrey C., “Turkey, Islam and the EU,” Contexts, 8.4 (2009).
  • Engert, Stefan, EU Enlargement and Socialization: Turkey and Cyprus (New York: Routledge, 2010).
  • Esfahani, Hadi Salehi and Ceviker-Gurakar, Esra, “Fading Attraction: Turkey’s Shifting Relationship with the European Union,” The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 53.4 (November 2013).
  • Fuller, Graham E. Turkey's New Geopolitics: From the Balkans to Western China. (A Rand Study.) Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1993.
  • Gocek, Fatma Muge. East Encounters West: France and the Ottoman Empire in the 18th Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
  • Goffman, Daniel. Izmir and the Levantine World, 1550-1650. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1990.
  • International Crisis Group, “Turkey and Europe: The Way Ahead,” Europe Report No. 184 (17 August 2007).
  • Kramer, Heinz, A Changing Turkey: A Challenge to Europe and the US (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2000).
  • Kubicek, Paul, “Turkey’s Inclusion in the Atlantic Community: Looking Back, Looking Forward,” Turkish Studies, 9.1 (March 2008).
  • Kuniholm, Bruce R. "Turkey and the West," Foreign Affairs, 70, No. 2, Spring 1991, pp. 34-48.
  • Kuniholm, Bruce R., “Turkey and NATO,” in Kaplan, L., Clawson, R. and Luraghi, R. (eds.), NATO and the Mediterranean (Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, 1985).
  • McGhee, George C. "Turkey Joins the West." Foreign Affairs, July 1954, pp. 617-30.
  • Oguzlu, Tarik, “Turkey and Europeanization of Foreign Policy?” Political Science Quarterly, 125.4 (Winter 2010/2011).
  • Pierini, Marc, “Options for the EU–Turkey Relationship,” Carnegie Europe, 3 May 2019.
  • Pierini, Marc and Ulgen, Sinan, “A Moment of Opportunity in the EU–Turkey Relationship,” Carnegie Europe (Brussels, December 2014).
  • Reuther, Helmut (ed.). Deutschlands Aussenpolitik seit 1955. With a contribution by Franz von Cancig, "Die Türkei, Griechenland und die deutsche Aussenpolitik." Stuttgart-Degerloch: Seewald Verlag, 1965.
  • Steinbach, Udo. "Turkey-ECC Relations: Cultural Dimension." pp. 13-24 in Erol Manisali, ed., Turkey's Place in Europe: Economic, Political, and Cultural Dimensions. Istanbul: Ucer, 1990.
  • Tocci, Nathalie, “New Doubts and Uncertainties in Turkey–EU Relations,” Paper, Centre for European Policy Studies (October 2000). * Narbone, Luigi and Tocci, Nathalie, “Running Around in Circles? The Cyclical Relationship Between Turkey and the European Union,” in Verney, S. and Infantis, K. (eds.), Turkey’s Road to European Union Membership: National Identity and Political Change (London: Routledge, 2009).

Greece–Turkey relations[edit]

  • "Der Zypern-Konflikt, eine Bewahrungsprobe westlicher Friedensordnung." Europa-Archiv, 1964, pp. 713-26.
  • Bahcheli, Tozun. Greek-Turkish Relations since 1955. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990.
  • Balci, Ali, “Foreign Policy as Politicking in the Sarikiz Coup Plot: Cyprus Between the Coup Plotters and the JDP,” Middle East Critique, 21.2 (Summer 2012).
  • Brus, Marcel et al., “A Promise to Keep: Time to End the International Isolation of the Turkish Cypriots,” TESEV, Foreign Policy Analysis Series, No. 7 (Istanbul, June 2008).
  • Couloumbis, Theodore A. The United States, Greece, and Turkey: The Troubled Triangle. New York: Praeger, 1983.
  • Engert, Stefan, EU Enlargement and Socialization: Turkey and Cyprus (New York: Routledge, 2010).
  • Ertekün, Necati M. The Cyprus Dispute and the Birth of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Nicosia, Northern Cyprus: Rustem, 1984.
  • International Crisis Group, “Reunifying Cyprus: The Best Chance Yet,” Europe Report No. 194 (23 June 2008).
  • International Crisis Group, “The Cyprus Stalemate: What Next?” Europe Report No. 171 (8 March 2006).
  • Migdalovitz, Carol, “Cyprus: Status of U.N. Negotiations and Related Issues,” CRS Report (Washington, DC, 20 July 2007).
  • Ozcan, Gencer, “The Military and the Making of Foreign Policy in Turkey,” in Kirisci, K. and Rubin, B. (eds.), Turkey in World Politics. An Emerging Multiregional Power (London: Lynne Rienner, 2001).
  • Pipinelis, Panayotis. "The Greco-Turkish Feud Revived." Foreign Affairs, January 1959, pp. 306-16.
  • Psomiades, Harry J. The Eastern Question: The Last Phase. A Study in Greek Turkish Diplomacy. Salonika (Greece): Institute for Balkan Studies, 1968.
  • Qicek, Kemal. "Living Together: Muslim-Christian Relations in 18th-Century Cyprus as Reflected by the Shari'a Court Record," Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations [Birmingham, United Kingdom], 4, No. 1, 1993.
  • Sozen, Ahmet, “The Cyprus Challenge in Turkey–EU Relations: Heading Towards the Defining Moment?” in Cengiz, F. and Hoffmann, L. (eds.), Turkey and the European Union: Facing New Challenges and Opportunities (London: Routledge, 2014).
  • Stearns, Monteagle. Entangled Allies: US Policy toward Greece, Turkey, and Cyprus. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1992.
  • Turkeş, Alpaslan. Dış Politikamız ve Kıbrıs (Our Foreign Policy and Cyprus). Istanbul: Publication of the Istanbul Cypriote-Turkish Society, 1966.

Middle East–Turkey relations[edit]

  • Ayoob, Mohammed, “Beyond the Democratic Wave in the Arab World: The Middle East’s Turko-Persian Future,” Insight Turkey, 13.2 (2011).
  • Bank, André and Karadag, Roy, “The ‘Ankara Moment’: The Politics of Turkey’s Regional Power in the Middle East,” Third World Quarterly, 34.2 (2013).
  • Bengio, Ofra and Ozcan, Gencer, “Old Grievances, New Fears: Arab Perceptions of Turkey and Its Alignment with Israel,” Middle Eastern Studies, 37.2 (April 2001).
  • Bolukbasi, Suha. "Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and the Euphrates Dam," Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, 16, No. 4, June 1993, pp. 9-32.
  • Brummett, Palmira. Ottoman Seapower and Levantine Diplomacy in the Age of Discovery. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994.
  • Burton, J.A. "Relations Between the Khanate of Bukhara and Ottoman Turkey, 1558-1702," International Journal of Turkish Studies, 5, 1990-91, pp. 83-103.
  • Fuller, Graham, The New Turkish Republic: Turkey as a Pivotal State in the Muslim World (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 2008). * Haddad, Benjamin, “Time for Turkey and Europe to Face Reality: Turkey Is Not Going to Join the EU. And That Is OK,” Foreign Policy, 23 May 3016. * Nafi, Basheer M., “The Arabs and Modern Turkey: A Century of Changing Perceptions,” Insight Turkey, 11.1 (2009).
  • Hale, William M. "Turkey, the Middle East, and the Gulf Crisis, International Affairs [London], 68, No. 2, Spring 1992, pp. 679- 92.
  • International Crisis Group, “Turkey and the Middle East: Ambitions and Constraints,” Europe Report No. 203 (7 April 2010).
  • Jennings, Ronald C. Christians and Muslims in Ottoman Cyprus and the Mediterranean World, 1571-1640. New York: New York University Press, 1993.
  • Karpat, Kemal H., “Turkish and Arab-Israeli Relations,” in Karpat, K. (ed.), Turkey’s Foreign Policy in Transition (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1975).
  • Kirisci, Kemal, Tocci, Nathalie, and Walker, Joshua, “A Neighborhood Rediscovered: Turkey’s Transatlantic Value in the Middle East,” The German Marshall Fund of the United States, Paper Series (Washington, DC, 2010).
  • Kirisci, Kemal, “The EU, Turkey and the Arab Spring: Challenges and Opportunities for Regional Integration,” IAI/IPC, Global Turkey in Europe, Working Paper 1 (2012).
  • Kirisci, Kemal and Winrow, Gareth M., The Kurdish Question and Turkey: An Example of a Trans-State Ethnic Conflict (London: Frank Cass, 1997).
  • Levy, Aviador. The Sephardim in the Ottoman Empire. Princeton: Darwin Press and Washington: Institute of Turkish Studies, 1992.
  • Robins, Philip. Turkey and the Middle East. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs and New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1991.
  • Sayari, Sabri. "Turkey: The Changing European Security Environment and the Gulf Crisis," Middle EastJournal, 46, No. 1, Winter 1992, pp. 9-21.
  • Shaw, Stanford. The Jews of the Ottoman Emire and Modern Turkey. New York: New York University Press, 1991.

Russia–Turkey relations and the Turkish Straits[edit]

  • "The Turkish Straits in the Light of Recent Turkish-Soviet Russian Correspondence." American Journal of International Law, October 1947, pp. 727-47.
  • Bayazit, Vural. "Black Sea and Mediterranean Challenges for the Turkish Navy," NATO's Sixteen Nations [Brussels], 39, January 1994, pp. 67-69.
  • DeLuca, Anthony R. The Great Power Rivalry at the Turkish Straits: The Montreux Conference and the Convention of 1936. (East European Monographs.) Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1981.
  • Dranov, B. Chernomorskie Prolivy-Mezhdunarodno-pravovoi rezhim (The Black Sea Straits-International-legal regime). Moscow: Yurid, izd-vo, 1948.
  • Edmonds, Martin, and John Skitt. "Current Soviet Maritime Strategy and NATO." International Affairs, January 1969, pp. 28-43.
  • Eren, Nuri. "Die türkisch-sowjetischen Beziehungen." Europa-Archiv, September 1965, pp. 337-48.
  • Erkin, Feridun Cerna!. Les Relations Turco-Soviétiques et la Question des Detroits. Ankara: Banur Matbaas1, 1968.
  • Esmer, Ahmed Şükrü. "The Straits: Crux of World Politics." Foreign Affairs, January 1947, pp. 290-302.
  • Fernau, Friedrich-Wilhelm. "Nachbarschaft am Schwarzen Meer. Wendepunkte in den türkisch-sowjetischen Beziehungen." Europa-Archiv, September 1967, pp. 613-20.
  • Howard, Harry N. "The United States and the Question of the Turkish Straits." Middle East journal, January 1947, pp. 59-72.
  • Hurewitz, J. C. The Background of Russia's Claims to the Turkish Straits. Ankara: Turk Tarih Kurumu Basimevi, 1964.
  • Imhoff, Christoph von. Duell in Mittelmeer: Moskau greift nach dem Nahen und Mittleren Osten. Freiburg i. Br.: Rombach, 1968.
  • Rohn, Peter H. "Turkish Treaties in Global Perspective." Turkish Yearbook of International Relations, 1965, pp. n9-60.
  • Routh, D. A. "The Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Black Sea Straits." Survey of International Affairs, 1936. London: Oxford University Press, 1937.
  • Sadak, Necmeddin. "Turkey Faces the Soviets." Foreign Affairs, April 1949, pp. 449-61.
  • Shotwell, James T., and Francis Deak. Turkey at the Straits: A Short History. New York: Macmillan, 1940.
  • Yanik, Lerna. "Allies or Partners An Appraisal of Turkey's Ties to Russia 1991-2007", East European Quarterly 41#3 (2007), pp. 349- 370.

Turkey–Turkic world relations[edit]

  • Contessi, Nicola P. "Turkey and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Common values, economics or pure geopolitics?" in Emre Erşen, Seçkin Köstem, eds. Turkey's Pivot to Eurasia. Geopolitics and Foreign Policy in a Changing World Order, (Routledge, 2019), pp. 93–110.
  • Gokalp, Ziya. The Principles of Turkism. Trans., Robert Devereux. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1968.
  • Kubilay Yado Arin. The AKP's Foreign Policy, Turkey's Reorientation from the West to the East? (Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Berlin, 2013).
  • Landau, Jacob M. Pan-Turkism in Turkey: A Study of Irredentism. Hamden, Connecticut: Archon Books, 1981.
  • Robins, Philip. "Between Sentiment and Self-interest: Turkey's Policy toward Azerbaijan and the Central Asian States," Middle EastJournal, 47, No. 4, Autumn 1993, pp. 593-610.

Turkey–United States relations[edit]

  • Armaoglu, Fahir H. "Turkey and the United States: A New Alliance." The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations, 1965, pp. 1-15.
  • Aybet, Gülnur. Turkey's Foreign Policy and Its Implications for the West: A Turkish Perspective. London: Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies, 1994.
  • Barkey, Henri. Turkish-American Relations in the Post-War Era: An Alliance of Convenience," Orient [Leverkusen, Germany], 33, No. 3, 1992, pp. 447-64.
  • Barlas, Dilek, and Şuhnaz Yilmaz. "Managing the transition from Pax Britannica to Pax Americana: Turkey's relations with Britain and the US in a turbulent era (1929–47)." Turkish Studies (2016): pp. 1–25.
  • Bolukbasi, Suha. The Superpowers and the Third World: Turkish- American Relations and Cyprus. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1988.
  • Couloumbis, Theodore A. The United States, Greece, and Turkey: The Troubled Triangle. New York: Praeger, 1983.
  • Yilmaz, Şuhnaz. Turkish-American Relations, 1800–1952: Between the Stars, Stripes and the Crescent (Routledge, 2015).

Foreign Relations (1923–1945)[edit]

  • "Türk Dış Politikasına Yon Veren Etkenler (1923-1968)" (Controlling Factors of Turkish Foreign Policy, 1923-1968). Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Dergisi (Review of the Political Science Faculty), 23 (1968).
  • Ataöv, Türkkaya. "Turkish Foreign Policy: 1923-1938." Turkish Yearbook of International Relations, 1961, pp. 103-42.
  • Ataöv, Türkkaya. Turkish Foreign Policy, 1939-1945. Ankara: Publication of the Faculty of Political Sciences of the University of Ankara, 1965.
  • Hale, William. “Turkish foreign policy since 1774” (Routledge, 2012).
  • Howard, Harry N. The Partition of Turkey: A Diplomatic History, 1913-1923. New York: Ferig, 1966.
  • Kohn, Hans. "Ten Years of the Turkish Republic." Foreign Affairs, October 1933, pp. 141-55.
  • Sousa, Nasim. The Capitulatory Regime of Turkey: Its History, Origin, and Nature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1957.
  • Vere-Hodge, Edward Reginald. Turkish Foreign Policy, 1918-1948. Ambilly Annemasse: Imprimerie Franco-Suisse, 1950.

Foreign Relations (1945–2002)[edit]

  • Abramowitz, Morton. "Dateline Ankara: Turkey after Özal," Foreign Policy, No. 91, 1993, pp. 164-81.
  • Balci, Ali and Mis, Nebi, “Turkey’s Role in the Alliance of Civilizations: A New Perspective in Turkish Foreign Policy?” Turkish Studies, 9.3 (September 2008).
  • Batu, Hamit. "La politique étrangère de la Turquie." Turkish Yearbook of International Relations, 1964, pp. 1-12.
  • Black, Joseph E., and Kenneth W. Thompson (eds.). Foreign Policies in a World of Change. New York: Harper & Row, 1963. With a contribution by Nuri Eren, "The Foreign Policy of Turkey."
  • Deshocquets, Claude. "La Turquie de 1960 et la stratégie globale." Revue de Defense Nationale, 17 (1961), pp. 222-36.
  • Dodd, Clement H., ed. Turkish Foreign Policy: New Prospects. Huntingdon, United Kingdom: Eothen Press, 1992.
  • Hale, William. “Turkish foreign policy since 1774” (Routledge, 2012).
  • Hartmann, Hans Walter. Die auswärtige Politik der Türkei, pp. 923-940. Zurich: Leemann & Co., 1999.
  • Karpat, Kemal H. (ed.), Turkey’s Foreign Policy in Transition (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1975).
  • Kirisci, Kemal and Rubin, Barry (eds.), Turkey in World Politics: An Emerging Multiregional Power (London: Lynne Rienner, 2001).
  • Robins, Philip, “Turkish Foreign Policy Under Erbakan,” Survival, 39.2 (Summer 1997).
  • Rouleau, Eric. "The Challenges to Turkey," Foreign Affairs, 72, No. 5, November-December 1993, pp. 110-26.

Foreign Relations (2002–present)[edit]

  • Duran, Burhanettin, “JDP and Foreign Policy as an Agent of Transformation,” in Yavuz, H.M. (ed.), The Emergence of a New Turkey: Democracy and the AK Party (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2006).
  • Hale, William. “Turkish foreign policy since 1774” (Routledge, 2012).
  • Kirisci, Kemal, “Turkey’s Foreign Policy in Turbulent Times,” Chaillot Paper 92 (Paris, EUISS, 2006).
  • Kutlay, Mustafa, “Economy as the ‘Practical Hand’ of ‘New Turkish Foreign Policy’: A Political Economy Explanation,” Insight Turkey, 13.1 (2011).
  • Renda, Kadri Kaan, “Turkey’s Neighborhood Policy: An Emerging Complex Interdependence?” Insight Turkey, 13.1 (2011).
  • Sandole, Dennis J.D., “Turkey’s Unique Role in Nipping in the Bud the ‘Clash of Civilizations’,” International Politics, 46.5 (September 2009).
  • Schenkkan, Nate, Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Europe, Eurasia and Emerging Threats, Foreign Affairs Committee, United States House of Representatives, Hearings on “The Future of Turkish Democracy,” 15 July 2014.

External links[edit]