Both countries were part of the Achaemenid Empire, Sassanid Empire, Umayyad Caliphate, Abbasid Caliphate, Great Seljuq Empire, Russian Empire and Soviet Union. Following the Dissolution of the Soviet Union both countries declared their independence. Diplomatic relations were established on August 27, 1992. Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), Turkic Council, Joint Administration of Turkic Arts and Culture, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
Azerbaijanis and Kazakhs are both Turkic-speaking people and share close historical, religious and cultural ties. Both are littoral states of the Caspian Sea and possess a common maritime border. During the Great Purge in the Soviet Union, more than 150.000 Azerbaijanis immigrated to Kazakhstan  and the current Azeri population reaches 85,000. Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan see each other as main allies and partners in Central Asia and Transcaucasia.
|“||We knew each other for decades. When Heydar Aliyev was working in Kremlin, I was visiting him regularly for to get support. I was one of the first persons who visited him when he was in hospital in Moscow. When he had a great loss - in the funeral of his wife, I was there too. I think Azerbaijani people did the right choice with choosing him for a president. He was my friend and a politician that I was respecting a lot. He had carried out number of works aimed to the strengthening of the many-centurial friendship between Kazakh and Azeri nations, development of the Republic of Azerbaijan, CIS.||”|
Head of both states paid a visit to each other regularly. Heydar Aliyev paid a visit to Kazakhstan in order to take part at the 150th anniversary of Abay Kunanbayev. Heydar Aliyev was awarded with the medal "Astana" for his services in the development of friendly relations with Kazakhstan.
During the presidency of Aliyev the Azeri-Kazakh relations mostly covered the legal status of the Caspian Sea and the fields of agriculture and energy. New impulse to the development of Azerbaijani–Kazakhstani relations was given by a state visit of current President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev to Astana in March 2004, and a state visit of President Nursultan Nazarbayev to Azerbaijan in May 2005. A number of bilateral instruments, including the "Strategic Partnership and Allies' Relations Treaty", were signed. Both presidents regularly pays an official visit to each countries for discussing economical development, strategic alliance and co-operation in other areas, particularly on the transportation of the Caspian oil and gas to the world markets. Both of the presidents emphasized the importance of the role of Kazakhstan in large-scale projects, especially in Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan.
One of priority directions in bilateral cooperation is co-ordination of legal status of the Caspian Sea. On November 29, 2001, Presidents of the two countries signed the "Agreement on Delimitation of the Bottom of the Caspian Sea" during a CIS summit in Moscow.
The Nagorno Karabakh War
Kazakhstan played a role during Nagorno-Karabakh War with showing the first peace attempt. Nursultan Nazarbayev and then President of Russia Boris Yeltsin attempted to end the three-year-long hostilities between Armenia and Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh region. Although consensus was reached, Armenia didn't stop its attacks. The peace efforts came to a halt during the crash of Azerbaijani MI-8 helicopter with Russian, Kazakh observers and Azerbaijani high-ranking state officials on board when it was shot down by Armenians over Karakend village of Khojavend district Despite of big part of Kazakh politicians supports Azerbaijan's positions, official Astana seeks for a peaceful resolution, also supports Lithuania's efforts as the OSCE chairman to resolve protracted conflicts, in particular those of Nagorno-Karabakh and Transnistria. Famous Kazakh poet and politician Olzhas Suleimenov have described Armenia as an "occupier" and added that Armenian forces should leave Azerbaijani territory.
Trade and economical cooperation
Both countries are members of Turkic Council and Joint Administration of Turkic Arts and Culture. Famous Azerbaijani singer-songwriter and diplomat/politician Polad Bülbüloğlu was awarded with National Award of Peace and Progress for his special contribution to peace and friendship and resolution of cultural problems in the Turkic-speaking world. Ilham Aliyev was awarded with being Honorary Professor of L.N.Gumilev Eurasian National University while his father Heydar Aliyev was named as an honorary doctor of Kazakh National University (which was named after Al-Farabi). Nursultan Nazarbayev was presenting in the celebration of "One thousand three hundredth anniversary of the epic Azerbaijani legend Book of Dede Korkut".
On 25 September 2006 Azerbaijani Culture Center named after Imadaddin Nasimi was opened in Cambul province of Kazakhstan. Since 2007 Azerbaijani diaspora publishes a newspaper named "Vətən" in Kazakhstan. Besides that, Sumgayit and Aktau are twin towns. There's a monument in Kazakhstan dedicated to victims of Stalin's repressions in Azerbaijan. In 2011, Baku State University opened center named after Kazakh poet Abai Qunanbaiuli.
- Azerbaijan - Kazakhstan: brotherhood
- Gunaz TV article on Stalin's Repressions Archived April 5, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- Demographics of Kazakhstan[permanent dead link]
- Nursultan Nazarbayev: Azərbaycan Qazaxıstanın Qafqazda Əsas Tərəfdaşıdır[permanent dead link]
- Dünyanı Heyran Qoyan İnsan, Azərnəşr by Ramiz Mehdiyev. p. 94
- [library.aliyev-heritage.org/en/549420.html General Historical reference on Azeri-Kazakh relations]
- President of Azerbaijan officially welcomed in Kazakhstan
- " "The Transitional Justice Peace Agreements Database. Record 617". Retrieved April 14, 2010.
- Eichensehr, Kristen; Reisman, W.Michael (1998). Stopping Wars and Making Peace: Studies in International Intervention. Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 54. ISBN 978-90-04-17855-7. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
- President: Kazakhstan supports Lithuania's efforts to resolve Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
- Oljas Süleymenov: Ermənistan öz xətasını mütləq anlamalı və Qarabağdan çəkilməlidir - Zaman interview Archived April 7, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Nazarbayev Awarded Azerbaijan National Artist Polad Bülbüloğlu with National Award of Peace and Progress". Newskaz.ru. December 15, 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-04.
- UNESCO website, accessed March 19, 2007 Archived April 6, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.Celebration of anniversaries with which UNESCO was associated since 1996, UNESCO website, accessed March 19, 2007
- Azərbaycan milli müsiqisi Qazaxıstanda milli azlıqların festivalında səslənib
- Stalin Repressiyası Qurbanları Xatirinə Abidə Ucaldılıb Archived April 5, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- Baku State University opens center named after Kazakh poet