Foreign relations of Azerbaijan
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
Azerbaijan is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, NATO's Partnership for Peace, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, the World Health Organization, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; the Council of Europe, CFE Treaty, the Community of Democracies; the International Monetary Fund; and the World Bank.
The major trends in the foreign relations of Azerbaijan toward both global and regional powers active in Caucasus area. External variables are categorized depending on their original nature into two groups: global and regional. The former category includes global players such as Moscow and Washington, while the latter category rival regional players, namely Ankara and Tehran. Azerbaijan has formal involvement with senior ex-U.S. government officials including James Baker and Henry Kissinger, as they serve on the Honorary Council of Advisors of the U.S.-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce (USACC). USACC is co-chaired by Tim Cejka, President of ExxonMobil and Reza Vaziri, President of R.V. Investment Group and Chairman of the Anglo Asian Mining Plc (LSE Ticker: AAZ).
- 1 International organization participation
- 2 Diplomatic relations
- 3 Information on some of the countries with which Azerbaijan maintains formal relations
- 4 Disputes
- 5 See also
- 6 Further reading
- 7 References
- 8 External links
International organization participation
AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, United Nations, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
- Central African Republic
- Republic of the Congo
- Federated States of Micronesia
- Papua New Guinea
- Saint Kitts and Nevis
Information on some of the countries with which Azerbaijan maintains formal relations
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Angola||1 December 1994|
|Burkina Faso||31 May 2004|
|Comoros||2 February 2010|
|DR Congo||23 October 2011|
|Djibouti||22 October 1996||See Azerbaijan–Djibouti relations|
|Equatorial Guinea||11 November 2004|
|Eritrea||20 April 2004|
|Ethiopia||2 November 1992||
|Kenya||31 May 2004|
|Lesotho||28 September 2012|
|Malawi||21 May 2004|
|Morocco||25 December 1992||
|Nigeria||11 March 1992|
|Rwanda||31 May 2004|
|Swaziland||7 January 2010|
|South Africa||29 April 1992||
|Togo||29 December 2010|
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Argentina||8 November 1992||See Argentina–Azerbaijan relations|
|Bahamas||2 May 2017|
|Brazil||21 October 1993||See Azerbaijan–Brazil relations|
|Canada||10 July 1992||See Azerbaijan–Canada relations|
|Chile||11 January 1995||
|Colombia||13 December 1994|
|Cuba||27 March 1992||
|Dominican Republic||12 November 2007|
|Ecuador||22 March 2004|
|Grenada||23 September 2010|
|Mexico||14 January 1992||See Azerbaijan–Mexico relations|
|Nicaragua||10 February 1994||
|Paraguay||20 April 2004|
|Peru||25 June 1996|
|Saint Lucia||11 March 2010|
|Trinidad and Tobago||11 April 2011|
28 February 1992
|See Azerbaijan–United States relations|
|Uruguay||12 January 1995||See Azerbaijan–Uruguay relations
|Venezuela||12 May 1995||
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|China||2 April 1992||See Azerbaijan-China relations
|India||28 February 1992||See Azerbaijan-India relations|
12 March 1992
|See Azerbaijan–Iran relations
|Israel||7 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–Israel relations|
|Japan||7 September 1992||See Azerbaijan–Japan relations
|Jordan||13 February 1993||
|Kazakhstan||27 August 1992||See Azerbaijan–Kazakhstan relations
|Lebanon||18 September 1992||
|Pakistan||9 June 1992||See Azerbaijan–Pakistan relations
|Palestine||15 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–Palestine relations
|Russia||4 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–Russia relations|
|Saudi Arabia||24 February 1992||See Azerbaijan–Saudi Arabia relations|
|South Korea||23 March 1992||See Azerbaijan–South Korea relations|
|Syria||28 March 1992|
|United Arab Emirates||1 September 1992||The United Arab Emirates recognized the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan on December 26, 1991.|
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Albania||23 September 1992||See Albania–Azerbaijan relations|
Armenia and Azerbaijan do not have diplomatic relations today.
|See Armenia–Azerbaijan relations, Nagorno-Karabakh War
The neighboring nations of Armenia and Azerbaijan have had formal governmental relations between 1918–1921, when both countries were briefly independent. The two nations have fought two wars in 1918–20 (Armenian–Azerbaijani War) and in 1988–94 (Nagorno-Karabakh War), in the past century, with last one ended with provisional cease fire agreement signed in Bishkek. There are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries, because of the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and dispute. In 2008, Azerbaijani president Ilham Aliyev declared, "Nagorno Karabakh will never be independent; the position is backed by international mediators as well; Armenia has to accept the reality," and "in 1918, Yerevan was granted to the Armenians. It was a great mistake. The khanate of Iravan was the Azeri territory, the Armenians were guests here."
During the Soviet period, many Armenians and Azeris lived side by side in peace. However, when Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the policies of Glasnost and Perestroika, the majority of Armenians from the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) of the Azerbaijan SSR began a movement to unify with the Armenian SSR. In 1988, the Armenians of Karabakh voted to secede and join Armenia. This, along with mutual massacres in Azerbaijan and Armenia resulted in the conflict that became known as the Nagorno-Karabakh War. The violence resulted in de facto Armenian control of former NKAO and seven surrounding Azerbaijani regions, which was effectively halted when both sides agrees to observe a cease-fire, which has since been in effect since May 1994, and in late 1995 both also agreed to mediation of the OSCE Minsk Group. The Minsk Group is currently co-chaired by the U.S., France, and Russia and comprises Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, and several Western European nations. Despite the cease fire, up to 40 clashes are reported along the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict lines of control each year.
The two countries are still technically at war. Citizens of the Republic of Armenia, as well as citizens of any other country who are of Armenian descent, are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.
If a person's passport shows any evidence of travel to Nagorno-Karabakh, they are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.
In 2008, in what became known as the 2008 Mardakert Skirmishes, Armenia and Azerbaijan clashed over Nagorno-Karabakh. The fighting between the two sides was brief, with few casualties on either side.
|Austria||20 February 1992||See Austria–Azerbaijan relations|
|Belarus||11 June 1993||See Azerbaijan–Belarus relations
|Belgium||17 June 1992||
|Bulgaria||5 June 1992||
|Croatia||26 January 1995||
|Cyprus||Azerbaijan formally recognizes the government of the Republic of Cyprus as the sole representative of the island, but has not yet established diplomatic relations with Cyprus. The parliament of Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic issued a resolution recognizing the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus as a sovereign state. While this recognition is not regarded by Azerbaijan and internationally as 'official state-to-state', Azerbaijan itself maintained cordial unofficial relations with the TRNC. In 2004, Azerbaijan threatened to formally recognize the TRNC if the Annan Plan was voted down by the Greek Cypriots (who rejected the plan in one of twin referendums held 24 April 2004 in both the Greek and Turkish zones simultaneously), but backed off the threat when it was pointed out by Cyprus that doing so would be hypocritical, as a portion of its territory just like that of Cyprus itself is under occupation and would probably result in negative impact on its ongoing dispute with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh.|
|Czech Republic||29 January 1993||
|Denmark||2 April 1992||See Azerbaijan-Denmark relations|
|Estonia||20 April 1992||See Azerbaijan-Estonia relations|
|France||21 February 1992||
18 November 1992
|See Azerbaijan–Georgia relations
|Germany||20 February 1992||
|Greece||2 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–Greece relations
|Hungary||27 April 1992||See Azerbaijan–Hungary relations
|Ireland||1 July 1996|
|Italy||8 May 1992||See Azerbaijan–Italy relations
|Latvia||11 January 1994||
|Lithuania||27 November 1995||
|Montenegro||24 April 2008||Azerbaijan recognized the independence of Montenegro on July 24, 2006. On April 24, 2008, diplomatic relations between these two countries were established.|
|Netherlands||1 April 1992|
|North Macedonia||28 June 1995||
|Poland||21 February 1992||See Azerbaijan-Poland relations
|Portugal||4 August 1992||See Azerbaijan-Portugal relations|
|Romania||21 June 1992||See Azerbaijan–Romania relations|
|Serbia||21 August 1997||See Azerbaijan–Serbia relations
|Spain||11 February 1992||
|Sweden||8 May 1992||
|Switzerland||21 January 1992||See Azerbaijan–Switzerland relations
14 January 1992
|See Azerbaijan–Turkey relations
6 February 1992
|See Azerbaijan–Ukraine relations
11 March 1992
|See Azerbaijan – United Kingdom relations
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Australia||19 June 1992||
|Fiji||19 March 2010|
|Marshall Islands||10 March 2010|
|Nauru||11 November 2004|
|New Zealand||29 June 1992||
|Solomon Islands||8 February 2011|
|Tuvalu||9 September 2009|
The frozen conflict over currently largely Armenian-populated region of Nagorno-Karabakh within the Republic of Azerbaijan began when in 1988 the Armenian majority of Nagorno-Karabakh demanded autonomy with demonstrations and persecutions against ethnic Azeris following in Armenia. This led to anti-Armenian rioting in Azerbaijan, with Azerbaijani militias beginning their effort to expel Armenians from the enclave. In 1992 a war broke out and pogroms of Armenians and Azeris forced both groups to flee their homes. In 1994, a Russian-brokered ceasefire ended the war but more than 1 million ethnic Armenians and Azeris are still not able to return home. The conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh remains unresolved despite negotiations, that are ongoing since 1992 under the aegis of the Minsk Group of the OSCE, to resolve the conflict peacefully.
The European Stability Initiative (ESI) has revealed in a report from 2012 with the title "Caviar diplomacy: How Azerbaijan silenced the Council of Europe", that since Azerbaijan's entry into the Council of Europe, each year 30 to 40 deputies are invited to Azerbaijan and generously paid with expensive gifts, including caviar (worth up to 1.400 euro), silk carpets, gold, silver and large amounts of money. In return they become lobbyists for Azerbaijan. This practice has been widely referred to as "Caviar diplomacy".
ESI also published a report on 2013 Presidential elections in Azerbaijan titled "Disgraced: Azerbaijan and the end of election monitoring as we know it". The report revealed the ties between Azerbaijani government and the members of certain observation missions who praised the elections. Azerbaijan's "Caviar diplomacy" at 2013 presidential elections sparked a major international scandal, as the reports of two authoritative organizations Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe/European Parliament and OSCE/ODIHR completely contradicted one another in their assessments of elections.
Non-governmental anti-corruption organization Transparency International has regularly judged Azerbaijan to be one of the most corrupt countries in the world and has also criticized Azerbaijan for the "Caviar diplomacy".
At June 2016 the public prosecutor of Milan has accused the former leader of the (Christian) Union of the Center and of the European People's Party of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe Luca Volonte of accepting large bribes from representatives of the Azerbaijani government. Two people with high-level experience of the Council of Europe's parliamentary assembly (Pace) have told the Guardian they believe its members have been offered bribes for votes by Azerbaijan. Former Azerbaijani diplomat, Arif Mammadov, alleged that a member of Azerbaijan's delegation at the Council of Europe had €30m (£25m) to spend on lobbying its institutions, including the Council of Europe assembly. PACE ratified the terms of reference of an independent external investigation body to carry out a detailed independent inquiry into the allegations of corruption at the council involving Azerbaijan.
On 6 March 2017, ESISC (European Strategic Intelligence and Security Center) published a scandalous report called "The Armenian Connection" where it veraciously attacked human rights NGOs and research organisations criticising human rights violations and corruption in Azerbaijan, Turkey, and Russia.
ESISC in that report asserted that "Caviar diplomacy" report elaborated by ESI aimed to create climate of suspicion based on slander to form a network of MPs that would engage in a political war against Azerbaijan. In the Second Chapter of the report called "The Armenian Connection: «Mr X», Nils Muižnieks, Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights" that was published on 18 April 2017 ESISC asserted that the network composed of European PMs, Armenian officials and some NGOs: Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, "Human Rights House Foundation", "Open Dialog, European Stability Initiative, and Helsinki Committee for Human Rights , was financed by the Soros Foundation. According to ESISC the key figure of the network since 2012 has been Nils Muižnieks, Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe and the network has served to the interests of George Soros and the Republic of Armenia.
"The report is written in the worst traditions of authoritarian propaganda, makes absurd claims, and is clearly aimed at deflecting the wave of criticism against cover-up of unethical lobbying and corruption in PACE and demands for change in the Assembly", said Freedom Files Analytical Centre.
According Robert Coalson (Radio Free Europe), ESISC is a part of Baku's lobbying efforts to extend to the use of front think tanks to shift public opinion.
European Stability Initiative said that "ESISC report is full of lies (such as claiming that German PACE member Strasser holds pro-Armenian views and citing as evidence that he went to Yerevan in 2015 to commemorate the Armenian genocide, when Strasser has never in his life been to independent Armenia)".
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- Azerbaijan and the International Monetary Fund
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- List of diplomatic missions of Azerbaijan
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