Black star (semiclassical gravity)
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A black star is a gravitational object composed of matter. It is a theoretical alternative to the black hole concept from general relativity. The theoretical construct was created through the use of semiclassical gravity theory. A similar structure should also exist for the Einstein–Maxwell–Dirac equations system, which is the (super)classical limit of quantum electrodynamics, and for the Einstein–Yang–Mills–Dirac system, which is the (super)classical limit of the standard model.
A black star need not have an event horizon, and may or may not be a transitional phase between a collapsing star and a singularity. A black star is created when matter compresses at a rate significantly less than the freefall velocity of a hypothetical particle falling to the center of its star, because quantum processes create vacuum polarization, which creates a form of degeneracy pressure, preventing spacetime (and the particles held within it) from occupying the same space at the same time. This vacuum energy is theoretically unlimited, and if built up quickly enough, will stop gravitational collapse from creating a singularity. This may entail an ever-decreasing rate of collapse, leading to an infinite collapse time, or asymptotically approaching a radius less than zero.
A black star with a radius slightly greater than the predicted event horizon for an equivalent-mass black hole will appear very dark, because almost all light produced will be drawn back to the star, and any escaping light will be severely gravitationally redshifted. It will appear almost exactly like a black hole. It will feature Hawking radiation, as virtual particle pairs created in its vicinity may still be split, with one particle escaping and the other being trapped. Additionally, it will create thermal Planckian radiation that will closely resemble the expected Hawking radiation of an equivalent black hole.
The predicted interior of a black star will be composed of this strange state of spacetime, with each length in depth heading inward appearing the same as a black star of equivalent mass and radius with the overlayment stripped off. Temperatures increase with depth towards the centre.
- Carlos Barceló, Stefano Liberati, Sebastiano Sonego and Matt Visser, Scientific American (October 2009) Black Stars, Not Black Holes
- Barceló, C.; Liberati, S.; Sonego, S.; Visser, M. (2008). "Fate of gravitational collapse in semiclassical gravity". Physical Review D. 77 (4): 044032. arXiv:0712.1130. Bibcode:2008PhRvD..77d4032B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.77.044032.
- Visser, Matt; Barcelo, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano (2009) "Small, dark, and heavy: But is it a black hole?", Bibcode: 2009arXiv0902.0346V, arXiv:0902.0346