Page protected

List of largest stars

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of largest known stars)
Jump to: navigation, search

Below is a list of the largest stars so far discovered, ordered by radius. The unit of measurement used is the radius of the Sun (695,700 km; 432,288 mi).


UY Scuti as seen in visible light.

The exact order of this list is not complete, nor is it perfectly defined:

  • There are sometimes high uncertainties in derived values and sizes;
  • The distances to most of these stars are uncertain to differing degrees and this uncertainty affects the size measurements;
  • All the stars in this list have extended atmospheres, many are embedded in mostly opaque dust shells or disks, and most pulsate, such that their radii are not well defined;
  • There are theoretical reasons for expecting that no stars in the Milky Way are larger than approximately 1,500 times the Sun (roughly 3,715 K and Mbol = −9), based on evolutionary models. The exact limit depends on the metallicity of the star, so for example supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds have slightly different limiting temperature and luminosity. Stars exceeding the limit have been seen to undergo large eruptions and to change their spectral type over just a few months;[1] while Humphreys et al calculates that the real unexceedable limit on the maximum radius of a star is ~2,600 R.
  • A survey of the Magellanic Clouds has catalogued most of the red supergiants and 50 of them are larger than the 700 R (490,000,000 km; 3.3 AU; 300,000,000 mi) cutoff point of this table, with the largest at 1,200–1,300.[2]
  • Another survey on the star cluster Westerlund 1 revealed that there are several red supergiant or red hypergiant stars that have a large physical extent of more than 2,000 R, with only one of them, Westerlund 1-26, in this list.[3]


List of the largest stars
Star name Best given radius in Solar radii
(Sun = 1)
UY Scuti 1,708 ± 192[4] Margin of error in size determination: ± 192 solar radii. At the smallest, it would have a size similar to VX Sagittarii (see below)
WOH G64 1,540 ± 77[5] (1,730[6]) This would be the largest star in the LMC, but is unusual in position and motion and might still be a foreground halo giant. Monnier (2004) previously estimated the radius to be 2,000 R.[7]
RW Cephei 1,535 [8][9] RW Cep is variable both in brightness (by at least a factor of 3) and spectral type (observed from G8 to M2Ia-0), thus probably also in diameter. Because the spectral type and temperature at maximum luminosity are not known, the quoted size is just an estimate.
Westerlund 1-26 1,530-1,580[10] (–2,544) [3][b] Very uncertain parameters for an unusual star with strong radio emission. The spectrum is variable but apparently the luminosity is not.
VX Sagittarii 1,520[11] VX Sgr is a pulsating variable with a large visual range and varies significantly in size. Other recent estimates range from 1,350 R to 1,940 R.[12]
KY Cygni 1,420–2,850 [1] The upper estimate is due to an unusual K band measurement and thought to be an artifact of a reddening correction error, and is thought to be against stellar evolutionary theory. The lower estimate is consistent with other stars in the same survey and with theoretical models.
VY Canis Majoris 1,420 ± 120[13] Once thought to be a star so large that it contradicted stellar evolutionary theory, improved measurements have brought it down to size.[14]
AH Scorpii 1,411 ± 124[4] AH Sco is variable by nearly 3 magnitudes in the visual range, and an estimated 20% in total luminosity. The variation in diameter is not clear because the temperature also varies.
VV Cephei A 1,400[15]1,050–1,800[16][17][c] VV Cep A is a highly distorted star in a close binary system, losing mass to the secondary for at least part of its orbit. Older estimates have given much larger sizes.[18]
HR 5171 A 1,315 ± 260[19]
1,490 ± 540[20]
HR 5171 A is a highly distorted star in a close binary system, losing mass to the secondary. Traditionally, it is considered a particularly large yellow hypergiant at 1,315 ± 260 R, although the latest research suggests it is a red supergiant with a radius of 1,490 ± 540 R. It varies significantly in size.
SMC 18136 1,310[2] This would be the largest star in the Small Magellanic Cloud.
Mu Cephei (Herschel's "Garnet Star") 1,260[21] Other recent estimates range from 650 R[22] to 1,420 R[1]
BI Cygni 916[11]-1,240[1]
V354 Cephei 690[11]-1,520[1]
S Persei 780-1,230[1] In the Perseus Double Cluster
RAFGL 2139 1,200[23] RAFGL 2139 is a rare red supergiant companion to WR 114 that has a bow shock.
PZ Cassiopeiae 1,190-1,940[1] 1,260-1,340[24] The largest estimate is due to an unusual K band measurement and thought to be an artifact of a reddening correction error. The lowest estimate is consistent with other stars in the same survey and with theoretical models, and the intermediate ones have been obtained refining the distance to this star, and thus its parameters.
NML Cygni 1,183[25]-2,769[26] An accurate measure combined with assumptions of its temperature give 1,640 R for a temperature of 3,250 K or 2,770 R for a temperature of 2,500 K.[26]
Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) 1,180[27][28] Ninth brightest star in the night sky. The angular diameter of Betelgeuse is only exceeded by R Doradus and the Sun.
EV Carinae 1,168[29]-2,880[30] EV Car is an unstable star plagued by dust extinction. The value on the left is subject to inaccuracy and thus not yet well defined.
BC Cygni 1,140[1]-1,230[31] Other recent estimates range from 856 R to 1,553 R.[32]
RT Carinae 1,090[1]
V396 Centauri 1,070[1]
HV 11423 1,060–1,220[33] HV 11423 is variable in spectral type (observed from K0/1 I to M4.5/5 I), thus probably also in diameter. In October 1978, it was a star of M0I type.
CK Carinae 1,060[1]
U Lacertae 1,025[11]
KW Sagittarii 1,009[4]-1,460[1] Margin of possible error: ± 142 solar radii (Torres 2013).
NR Vulpeculae 980[1]
RW Cygni 980[1] An alternate calculation gives a higher temperature of 3,920 K and a correspondingly radius of 680 R.
GCIRS 7 960 ± 92[34]
S Cassiopeiae 930[35][36]
IX Carinae 920[1]
HV 2112 918[37]
OH 104.9+2.4 891[25]
Antares A (Alpha Scorpii A) 883[38] 15th brightest star in the Night Sky. Other recent estimates range from 653 R to 1,246 R.[foot 1]
OH 26.5+0.6 874[25]
V602 Carinae 860[1]-1,050[39]
V669 Cassiopeiae 859[25]
AFGL 5379 830[25]
CW Leonis 826[25] CW Leonis has been one of the mistaken identities as the claimed planet "Nibiru" or "Planet X", due to its brightness as it approaches 1st magnitude.
LP Andromedae 815[25]
BO Carinae 790[1]
SU Persei 780[1] In the Perseus Double Cluster
RS Persei 770[40]-1,000[1] In the Perseus Double Cluster. Margin of possible error: ± 30 solar radii (Baron 2014).
AV Persei 770[1]
V355 Cepheus 300[11]-770[1]
HD 95687 760[1]
V915 Scorpii 760[41]
S Cephei 760[42]
HD 303250 750[1]
V382 Carinae 747 ± 250[43] The brightest yellow hypergiant in the night sky, one of the rarest types of star.
RU Virginis 742[42]
XX Persei 710[44] In the Perseus Double Cluster
V648 Cassiopeiae 710[1]
V528 Carinae 700[1]
TV Geminorum 620-710[45] (-770[1])
The following well-known stars are listed for the purpose of comparison.
Psi1 Aurigae 637
NO Aurigae 630[1]
CE Tauri ("119 Tauri") 608[46] Unofficially nicknamed the Ruby Star[47]. Can be occulted by the Moon, allowing accurate determination of its apparent diameter.
W Hydrae 520[48]
V384 Puppis 500-850[1]
R Andromedae 485 ± 125[49]
R Hydrae 460[50]
S Pegasi 459–574[51]
Rho Cassiopeiae 450[52] Yellow hypergiant, one of the rarest types of a star.
V810 Centauri 420[53]
S Orionis 411–498[54] (530[55]) A pulsating Mira variable.
Mira A (Omicron Ceti) 332–402[56] Prototype Mira variable.
Eta Carinae A (Tseen She) 400[57] Previously thought to be the most massive single star, but in 2005 it was realized to be a binary system. Its size is poorly defined. Other recent estimates range from 60 R to 800 R.[58] or from 85 R to 195 R.[59]
V509 Cassiopeiae 400–900[60] Yellow hypergiant, one of the rarest types of a star.
R Leporis (Hind's "Crimson Star") 400–535[61] One of the largest carbon stars existent in the Milky Way. Margin of possible error: ± 90 solar radii.
Iota Scorpii (Apollyon) 125[62]-400[63]
V838 Monocerotis 380 ± 90 (in 2009)[64]
1,570 ± 400
The very large cool "L-type supergiant" reported with this radius was a transient object that shrunk about four-fold over a few years. Once topped to the list as one of the largest stars, after experiencing a nova outburst it gradually decreased in size.
S Doradus 100-380[66] Prototype S Doradus variable
U Orionis 370±96[67]
R Doradus 370 ± 50[68] Star with the second largest apparent size after the Sun.
IRC+10420 357[69] (1,342[25])
V337 Carinae 350[70]
The Pistol Star 340[71] Blue hypergiant, currently among the most massive and luminous stars.
T Cephei 329[72] One topped to the list, improved measurements brought it down to size.
V381 Cephei 327
Chi Cygni 316[73] (348–480[74])
Delta Apodis 314
S Coronae Borealis 308[75] Other recent estimates range from 537 R to 664 R.
La Superba (Y Canum Venaticorum) 307[25]-390[76] Currently one of the coolest and reddest stars.
IRAS 17163-3907 (the Fried egg nebula) 300-400[77]
R Leonis 299[25] (320-350[78]) This red giant has a possible evaporating extrasolar companion orbiting it.
Delta2 Lyrae 286[79]-381[80]
Omicron1 Canis Majoris 280[1]
IK Tauri (NML Tauri) 278[81]
Alpha Herculis (Ras Algethi) 264–303[82]
R Cassiopeiae 263[75]
The Sun's red giant phase 256[83] (436[84]) The core hydrogen would be exhausted in 5.4 billion years. In 7.647 billion years, The Sun would reach the tip of the red-giant branch of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram.
Reported for reference
Cygnus OB2-12 246[85]
Delta Canis Majoris (Wezen) 237±66[86] 36th brightest star in the night sky.
Zeta Cephei 230[87]
HR Carinae 220[85] Other recent estimates range from 100 R[88] to 350 R[89].
Deneb (Alpha Cygni) 220 ± 17[90] 19th brightest star in the night sky.
6 Cassiopeiae 217[91]
Lambda Velorum (Al Suhail) 210[92]
LBV 1806-20 >200[93] Formerly a candidate for the most luminous star in the Milky Way.
AS 314 (V452 Scuti) 200[94]
31 Cygni 197±20[95]
RS Puppis 194[96]
Epsilon Pegasi (Enif) 185[97]
32 Cygni 184[95]
ℓ Carinae 169±8[98]
Rho Persei (Gorgonea Tertia) 150[99]
Gamma Cygni (Sadir) 150±80[100]
Epsilon Aurigae A (Almaaz) 143-358[101] ε Aur was incorrectly hailed as the largest star with a radius up to 3,000 R, even though it later turned out not to be an infrared light star but rather a dusk torus surrounding the system.
V533 Carinae (VV Storm) 141.5[102]
Epsilon Geminorum (Mebsuta) 140±35[103]
Nu Cephei 137[104]
Alpha Trianguli Australis (Atria) 130
Alpha Leporis (Arneb) 129[97]
HIP 110307 124.1
L Puppis 123±14[105]
Xi Puppis (Asmidiske) 120[106]
Mu Sagittarii (Polis) 115[107]
Beta Cygni A1 (Albireo) 109[108]
Peony Nebula Star 100[109] Candidate for most luminous star in the Milky Way.
Beta Andromedae (Mirach) 100[110]
Gamma Aquilae (Tarazed) 95[97]
Beta Pegasi (Scheat) 95
Theta Herculis (Rukbalgethi Genubi) 89.97[111]
R Coronae Borealis 85[112]
Gamma Crucis (Gacrux) 84[113] The closest red giant star to the sun.
Gamma Andromedae (Almach) 80[114]
Rigel A (Beta Orionis A) 78.9 ± 7.4[115] Seventh brightest star in the night sky.
Nu Aquilae (Equator Star) 78[116]
Alpha Aquarii (Sadalmelik) 77±15[103]
P Cygni 76[117] The earliest known candidate for a luminous blue variable.
Canopus 71 ± 4[118] Second brightest star in the night sky.
R Scuti 70-90[119]
Epsilon Carinae (Avior) 70
Alpha Persei (Mirfak) 68±3[103]
Beta Doradus 67.8[120]
Eta Aquilae (Bezek) 66±22[103]
Zeta Geminorum (Mekbuda) 65.24[121]
Chi Orionis 61.9[122]
Alpha Persei (Mirfak) 60
Zeta Geminorum (Mekbuda) 60
Eta Aquilae (Bezek) 60
89 Herculis 60
Upsilon Sagittarii 60
Alpha Aquarii (Sadalmelik) 60
CPD -572874 60
Alpha Persei (Mirfak) 56
Iota Aurigae (Al Kab) 55
FF Aquilae 55
Alpha Apodis 55
Tau Serpentis 54
Beta Cancri (Tarf) 53
Alpha Antliae 53
Zeta¹ Scorpii 52
Alphard (Alpha Hydrae) 50.5
Beta Cancri (Tarf) 53
Zeta¹ Scorpii 52
Alphard (Alpha Hydrae) 50.5
Var 83 50-80[123] (150[124]) The brightest star in the Triangulum Galaxy.
Upsilon Sagittarii 50[125]
Gamma Draconis (Eltanin) 50
Beta Aquarii (Sadalsuud) 50
HD 5980 A 48-160
Delta Virginis (Auva) 48[110]
Pi Puppis 48[126]
Epsilon Boötis (Izar) 48
Zeta² Scorpii 48
AG Antliae 47
V428 Andromedae 46.3
HD 13189 46
HD 203857 46
Delta Cephei 44.5[127] Prototype Delta Cephei variable
Aldebaran (Alpha Tauri) 44.2 ± 0.9[128]
Alpha Cassiopeiae (Schedar) 42
Alpha Ceti (Menkar) 42
Delta Cephei (Alrediph) 41.6
Beta Ursae Minoris (Kochab) 41
Beta Draconis (Rastaban) 40
BD Camelopardalis 40
HD 5980 B 40
Eta Canis Majoris (Aludra) 37.8
Polaris (Alpha Ursae Minoris) 37.5[129] The current northern pole star.
87 Leonis 37
Gamma Centauri (Muhlifan) 36.5
S Normae 35.6
R136a1 35.4[130] Also on the list as the most massive and luminous star.
Sher 25 35
Gamma Leonis (Algieba) 31.9
Alpha Camelopardalis 31.2
Alpha Ursae Majoris (Dubhe) 30
11 Lacertae 30
Beta Camelopardalis 30
Cygnus OB2-8 28
Eta Leonis (Al Jabhah) 27
R Apodis 26.3
Epsilon Orionis (Alnilam) 26
Eta Piscium (Kullat Nunu) 26
Melnick 42 26
Arcturus (Alpha Boötis) 25.4[131] Brightest star in the northern hemisphere
HD 93129A 25
11 Ursae Minoris 24.1
HD 47536 23.5
Epsilon Leonis (Algenubi) 23
42 Draconis 22 ± 1
Alpha Reticuli 21
Chi Virginis 20.9
19 Cephei 20–30
HDE 226868 20–22[132] The supergiant companion of black hole Cygnus X-1. The black hole is 500,000 times smaller than the star.
Zeta Orionis (Alnitak) 20
Theta Scorpii (Sargas) 20
Beta Herculis (Kornephoros) 20
Theta Apodis 20
Alpha Sagittae (Alsahm) 20
HR 2422 Monocerotis (Plaskett's Star) 19.2
Kappa Cassiopeiae 19
Beta Scorpii (Acrab) 19
Beta Lyrae (Sheliak) 19
R 122 18.5
HD 93250 18
Alpha Microscopii 17.5
LH45-425 A 17.5
Upsilon Hydrae 17.1
Beta Ceti (Deneb Kaitos) 17
Epsilon Canis Majoris (Adhara) 17
LY Aurigae 16
Theta Centauri (Menkent) 16
Beta Corvi (Kraz) 16
Delta Sagittarii (Kaus Media) 16[126]
Zeta Puppis (Naos) 14-26[133] One of the most massive stars visible to the naked eye.
Gamma Cassiopeiae (Tsih) 14
Beta Ophiuchi (Celbalrai) 13.2
37 Aquilae 13
HD 240210 13
Xi Aquilae 12
Gamma Arae 12
Alpha Aurigae A (Capella A) 11.98[134] Sixth brightest star in the night sky.
WR 104 10 WR 104 is located about 7,500 light years from Earth, the star could take away our planet in its self-destructive frenzy.
VV Cephei B 10[18]-25[135] The B-type main sequence companion of VV Cephei A.
Sun 1 The largest object in the solar system.
Reported for reference

Relations between solar radius and orbital radius of planets

List of orbital radius of planets
Planet Astronomical unit
(AU = 149,597,870.691 km)
(AU = 214.9 solar radii)
Solar radii
(Sun = 695,742 km)
(Sun = 1)
Example stars
Mercury 0.31 - 0.47 66 - 100 Canopus (71) Rigel (78.9) Beta Cygni (109) Epsilon Aurigae (143 - 358)
Venus 0.72 - 0.73 154 - 157 Epsilon Pegasi (185) LBV 1806-20 (>200)
Earth 0.98 - 1.02 211 - 219 Deneb (220) Alpha Herculis (264 – 303)
Mars 1.38 - 1.67 297 - 358 La Superba (307) Chi Cygni (316) Pistol Star (340) V838 Monocerotis (380) η Carinae (400) Tail of Comet Hyakutake (for comparison) (~400) Mira (332 - 402)
Inner limits of the Asteroid Belt 1.92 412 Rho Cassiopeiae (450) S Pegasi (459-574) TZ Cassiopeiae (645-800) 6 Geminorum (670-950) RW Cygni (680-980) TV Geminorum (620-710) V382 Carinae (747)
Outer limits of the Asteroid Belt 3.79 816 CW Leonis (826) Antares (883) KW Sagittarii (1,009 - 1,460)
Jupiter 4.95 - 5.46 1,064 - 1,173 EV Carinae (1,168 - 2,880) Betelgeuse (887 – 1,180) NML Cygni (1,183) S Persei (780 - 1,230) μ Cephei (1,260) HR 5171 (1,315 - 1,490) VV Cephei (1,400) VY Canis Majoris (1,420) KY Cygni (1,420) WOH G64 (1,540-1,730) V838 Monocerotis (Lane et al estimate) (1,570) UY Scuti (1,708)
Saturn 9.02 - 10.08 1,940 - 2,169 VY Canis Majoris (Humphreys et al estimate, obsolete) (1,800 - 2,200) Westerlund 1-26 (upper estimate) (2,544) KY Cygni (upper estimate) (2,850)
Uranus 18.33 - 20.11 3,941 - 4,324
Neptune 29.81 - 30.33 6,411 - 6,526
Pluto 29.658 - 49.305 6,377 - 10,602
Haumea 29.658 - 49.305 11,297 - 14,382 Quasi-star (hypothetical) (7,187)
Planet Nine 200 - 1,200 43,006 - 258,039

See also


  1. ^ approximately 800, derived from the 1990 lunar occultation measurement of apparent diameter of 43.1 milliarcsec (up to ±1 milliarcsec error) ( page 361) together with 1997 parallax of 5.40 [1.68] milliarcsec (SIMBAD citing Hipparcos). The parallax gives a derived distance from 460 to 877 light years. This in turn yields an actual diameter from 653 to 1,246 solar radius. An average of 800 is used here.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Table 4 in Levesque, Emily M.; Massey, Philip; Olsen, K. A. G.; Plez, Bertrand; Josselin, Eric; Maeder, Andre; Meynet, Georges (2005). "The Effective Temperature Scale of Galactic Red Supergiants: Cool, but Not as Cool as We Thought". The Astrophysical Journal. 628 (2): 973. Bibcode:2005ApJ...628..973L. arXiv:astro-ph/0504337Freely accessible. doi:10.1086/430901. 
  2. ^ a b Levesque, Emily M.; Massey, Philip; Olsen, K. A. G.; Plez, Bertrand; Meynet, Georges; Maeder, Andre (2006). "The Effective Temperatures and Physical Properties of Magellanic Cloud Red Supergiants: The Effects of Metallicity". The Astrophysical Journal. 645 (2): 1102. Bibcode:2006ApJ...645.1102L. arXiv:astro-ph/0603596Freely accessible. doi:10.1086/504417. 
  3. ^ a b Clark, J. S.; Ritchie, B. W.; Negueruela, I.; Crowther, P. A.; Damineli, A.; Jablonski, F. J.; Langer, N. (2011). "A VLT/FLAMES survey for massive binaries in Westerlund 1. III. The WC9d binary W239 and implications for massive stellar evolution". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 531: A28. Bibcode:2011A&A...531A..28C. arXiv:1105.0776Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201116990. 
  4. ^ a b c Arroyo-Torres, B.; Wittkowski, M.; Marcaide, J. M.; Hauschildt, P. H. (2013). "The atmospheric structure and fundamental parameters of the red supergiants AH Scorpii, UY Scuti, and KW Sagittarii". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 554: A76. Bibcode:2013A&A...554A..76A. arXiv:1305.6179Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201220920. 
  5. ^ Emily M. Levesque; Philip Massey; Bertrand Plez & Knut A. G. Olsen (June 2009). "The Physical Properties of the Red Supergiant WOH G64: The Largest Star Known?". Astronomical Journal. 137 (6): 4744. Bibcode:2009AJ....137.4744L. arXiv:0903.2260Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/137/6/4744. 
  6. ^ Ohnaka, K.; Driebe, T.; Hofmann, K. H.; Weigelt, G.; Wittkowski, M. (2009). "Resolving the dusty torus and the mystery surrounding LMC red supergiant WOH G64". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 4: 454. Bibcode:2009IAUS..256..454O. doi:10.1017/S1743921308028858. 
  7. ^ Monnier, J. D; Millan-Gabet, R; Tuthill, P. G; Traub, W. A; Carleton, N. P; Coudé Du Foresto, V; Danchi, W. C; Lacasse, M. G; Morel, S; Perrin, G; Porro, I. L; Schloerb, F. P; Townes, C. H (2004). "High-Resolution Imaging of Dust Shells by Using Keck Aperture Masking and the IOTA Interferometer". The Astrophysical Journal. 605: 436. Bibcode:2004ApJ...605..436M. arXiv:astro-ph/0401363Freely accessible. doi:10.1086/382218. 
  8. ^ Humphreys, R. M. (1978). "Studies of luminous stars in nearby galaxies. I. Supergiants and O stars in the Milky Way". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 38: 309. Bibcode:1978ApJS...38..309H. doi:10.1086/190559. 
  9. ^ Davies, Ben; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Figer, Donald F. (2010). "The potential of red supergiants as extragalactic abundance probes at low spectral resolution". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 407 (2): 1203. Bibcode:2010MNRAS.407.1203D. arXiv:1005.1008Freely accessible. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16965.x. 
  10. ^ Wright, N. J.; Wesson, R.; Drew, J. E.; Barentsen, G.; Barlow, M. J.; Walsh, J. R.; Zijlstra, A.; Drake, J. J.; Eisloffel, J.; Farnhill, H. J. (16 October 2013). "The ionized nebula surrounding the red supergiant W26 in Westerlund 1". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters. 437 (1): L1–L5. Bibcode:2014MNRAS.437L...1W. arXiv:1309.4086Freely accessible. doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slt127. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Mauron, N.; Josselin, E. (2011). "The mass-loss rates of red supergiants and the de Jager prescription". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 526: A156. Bibcode:2011A&A...526A.156M. arXiv:1010.5369Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201013993. 
  12. ^ Lockwood, G.W.; Wing, R. F. (1982). "The light and spectrum variations of VX Sagittarii, an extremely cool supergiant". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 198 (2): 385–404. Bibcode:1982MNRAS.198..385L. doi:10.1093/mnras/198.2.385. 
  13. ^ Wittkowski, M.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Arroyo-Torres, B.; Marcaide, J. M. (2012). "Fundamental properties and atmospheric structure of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris based on VLTI/AMBER spectro-interferometry". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 540: L12. Bibcode:2012A&A...540L..12W. arXiv:1203.5194Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219126. 
  14. ^ Y. K. Choi; Hirota, Tomoya; Honma, Mareki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Bushimata, Takeshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Iwadate, Kenzaburo; Jike, Takaaki; Kameno, Seiji (2008). "Distance to VY CMa with VERA". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. Publications Astronomical Society of Japan. 60 (5): 1007. Bibcode:2008PASJ...60.1007C. arXiv:0808.0641Freely accessible. doi:10.1093/pasj/60.5.1007. 
  15. ^ Ridpath & Tirion 2001, pp. 112–113.
  16. ^ Bauer, W. H.; Gull, T. R.; Bennett, P. D. (2008). "Spatial Extension in the Ultraviolet Spectrum of Vv Cephei". The Astronomical Journal. 136 (3): 1312. Bibcode:2008AJ....136.1312H. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/136/3/1312. 
  17. ^ Moellenhoff, C.; Schaifers, K. (1981). "Spectroscopic observations of VV Cep. II - the egress phase of the 1976/78 eclipse". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 94: 333. Bibcode:1981A&A....94..333M. 
  18. ^ a b Wright, K. O. (1977). "The system of VV Cephei derived from an analysis of the H-alpha line". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 71: 152. Bibcode:1977JRASC..71..152W. 
  19. ^ Chesneau, O.; Meilland, A.; Chapellier, E.; Millour, F.; Van Genderen, A. M.; Nazé, Y.; Smith, N.; Spang, A.; Smoker, J. V.; Dessart, L.; Kanaan, S.; Bendjoya, Ph.; Feast, M. W.; Groh, J. H.; Lobel, A.; Nardetto, N.; Otero, S.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Tekola, A. G.; Whitelock, P. A.; Arcos, C.; Curé, M.; Vanzi, L. (2014). "The yellow hypergiant HR 5171 A: Resolving a massive interacting binary in the common envelope phase". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 563: A71. Bibcode:2014A&A...563A..71C. arXiv:1401.2628v2Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201322421. 
  20. ^ Wittkowski, M.; Arroyo-Torres, B.; Marcaide, J. M.; Abellan, F. J.; Chiavassa, A.; Guirado, J. C. (2017). "VLTI/AMBER spectro-interferometry of the late-type supergiants V766 Cen (=HR 5171 A), σ Oph, BM Sco, and HD 206859". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 597: A9. Bibcode:2017A&A...597A...9W. arXiv:1610.01927Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201629349. 
  21. ^ Josselin, E.; Plez, B. (2007). "Atmospheric dynamics and the mass loss process in red supergiant stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 469 (2): 671–680. Bibcode:2007A&A...469..671J. arXiv:0705.0266Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20066353. 
  22. ^ Tsuji, Takashi (2000). "Water in Emission in the Infrared Space Observatory Spectrum of the Early M Supergiant Star μ Cephei". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 540 (2): 99–102. Bibcode:2000ApJ...540L..99T. arXiv:astro-ph/0008058Freely accessible. doi:10.1086/312879. 
  23. ^ Gvaramadze, V. V.; Menten, K. M.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Langer, N.; MacKey, J.; Kraus, A.; Meyer, D. M.-A.; Kamiński, T. (2014). "IRC -10414: A bow-shock-producing red supergiant star". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 437: 843. Bibcode:2014MNRAS.437..843G. arXiv:1310.2245Freely accessible. doi:10.1093/mnras/stt1943. 
  24. ^ Kusuno, K.; Asaki, Y.; Imai, H.; Oyama, T. (2013). "Distance and Proper Motion Measurement of the Red Supergiant, Pz Cas, in Very Long Baseline Interferometry H2O Maser Astrometry". The Astrophysical Journal. 774 (2): 107. Bibcode:2013ApJ...774..107K. arXiv:1308.3580Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/774/2/107. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; De Koter, A.; Justtanont, K.; Verhoelst, T.; Kemper, F.; Menten, K. M. (2010). "Probing the mass-loss history of AGB and red supergiant stars from CO rotational line profiles. II. CO line survey of evolved stars: Derivation of mass-loss rate formulae". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 523: A18. Bibcode:2010A&A...523A..18D. arXiv:1008.1083Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200913771. 
  26. ^ a b Zhang, B.; Reid, M. J.; Menten, K. M.; Zheng, X. W.; Brunthaler, A. (2012). "The distance and size of the red hypergiant NML Cygni from VLBA and VLA astrometry". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 544: A42. Bibcode:2012A&A...544A..42Z. arXiv:1207.1850Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219587. 
  27. ^ Smith, Nathan; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Ryde, Nils (March 2009). "Red Supergiants as Potential Type IIn Supernova Progenitors: Spatially Resolved 4.6 μm CO Emission Around VY CMa and Betelgeuse". The Astronomical Journal. 137 (3): 3558–3573. Bibcode:2009AJ....137.3558S. arXiv:0811.3037Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/137/3/3558. 
  28. ^ Dolan, Michelle M.; Mathews, Grant J.; Lam, Doan Duc; Lan, Nguyen Quynh; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Dearborn, David S. P. (2016). "Evolutionary Tracks for Betelgeuse". The Astrophysical Journal. 819: 7. Bibcode:2016ApJ...819....7D. arXiv:1406.3143v2Freely accessible. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/819/1/7. 
  29. ^ Van Loon, J. Th.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Loup, C. (2005). "An empirical formula for the mass-loss rates of dust-enshrouded red supergiants and oxygen-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 438: 273. Bibcode:2005A&A...438..273V. arXiv:astro-ph/0504379Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20042555. 
  30. ^ . Bibcode:1988A&AS...72..259D.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  31. ^ Josselin, E.; Plez, B. (2007). "Atmospheric dynamics and the mass loss process in red supergiant stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 469 (2): 671. Bibcode:2007A&A...469..671J. arXiv:0705.0266Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20066353. 
  32. ^ Turner, David G.; Rohanizadegan, Mina; Berdnikov, Leonid N.; Pastukhova, Elena N. (2006). "The Long-Term Behavior of the Semiregular M Supergiant Variable BC Cygni". The Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 118 (849): 1533. Bibcode:2006PASP..118.1533T. doi:10.1086/508905. 
  33. ^ Massey, Philip; Levesque, Emily M.; Olsen, K. A. G.; Plez, Bertrand; Skiff, B. A. (2007). "HV 11423: The Coolest Supergiant in the SMC". The Astrophysical Journal. 660: 301. Bibcode:2007ApJ...660..301M. arXiv:astro-ph/0701769Freely accessible. doi:10.1086/513182. 
  34. ^ Paumard, T.; Pfuhl, O.; Martins, F.; Kervella, P.; Ott, T.; Pott, J.-U.; Le Bouquin, J. B.; Breitfelder, J.; Gillessen, S.; Perrin, G.; Burtscher, L.; Haubois, X.; Brandner, W. (2014). "GCIRS 7, a pulsating M1 supergiant at the Galactic centre. Physical properties and age". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 568 (85): A85. Bibcode:2014A&A...568A..85P. arXiv:1406.5320Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201423991. 
  35. ^ Ramstedt, S.; Schöier, F. L.; Olofsson, H. (2009). "Circumstellar molecular line emission from S-type AGB stars: mass-loss rates and SiO abundances". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 499 (2): 515–527. Bibcode:2009A&A...499..515R. arXiv:0903.1672Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200911730. 
  36. ^ Ramstedt, S.; Schöier, F. L.; Olofsson, H.; Lundgren, A. A. (2006). "Mass-loss properties of S-stars on the AGB". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 454 (2): L103. Bibcode:2006A&A...454L.103R. arXiv:astro-ph/0605664Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20065285. 
  37. ^ Levesque, Emily M.; Massey, P.; Zytkow, A. N.; Morrell, N. (1 September 2014). "Discovery of a Thorne-̇Żytkow object candidate in the Small Magellanic Cloud". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters. 443: L94. Bibcode:2014MNRAS.443L..94L. arXiv:1406.0001Freely accessible. doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slu080. 
  38. ^ Baade, R.; Reimers, D. (October 2007). "Multi-component absorption lines in the HST spectra of α Scorpii B". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 474 (1): 229–237. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..229B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20077308. 
  39. ^ Arroyo-Torres, B.; Wittkowski, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Scholz, M.; Freytag, B.; Marcaide, J. M.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Wood, P. R.; Abellan, F. J. (2015). "What causes the large extensions of red supergiant atmospheres?. Comparisons of interferometric observations with 1D hydrostatic, 3D convection, and 1D pulsating model atmospheres". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 575: A50. Bibcode:2015A&A...575A..50A. arXiv:1501.01560Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201425212. 
  40. ^ Baron, F.; Monnier, J. D.; Kiss, L. L.; Neilson, H. R.; Zhao, M.; Anderson, M.; Aarnio, A.; Pedretti, E.; Thureau, N.; Ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Ridgway, S. T.; McAlister, H. A.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N. (2014). "CHARA/MIRC Observations of Two M Supergiants in Perseus OB1: Temperature, Bayesian Modeling, and Compressed Sensing Imaging". The Astrophysical Journal. 785: 46. Bibcode:2014ApJ...785...46B. arXiv:1405.4032Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/785/1/46. 
  41. ^ Stickland, D. J. (1985). "IRAS observations of the cool galactic hypergiants". The Observatory. 105: 229. Bibcode:1985Obs...105..229S. 
  42. ^ a b Bergeat, J.; Chevallier, L. (2005). "The mass loss of C-rich giants". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 429: 235. Bibcode:2005A&A...429..235B. arXiv:astro-ph/0601366Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041280. pp. 235-246. 
  43. ^ Achmad, L.; et al. (1992). "A photometric study of the G0-4 Ia(+) hypergiant HD 96918 (V382 Carinae)". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 259: 600–606. Bibcode:1992A&A...259..600A. 
  44. ^ Fok, Thomas K. T.; Nakashima, Jun-Ichi; Yung, Bosco H. K.; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Deguchi, Shuji (2012). "Maser Observations of Westerlund 1 and Comprehensive Considerations on Maser Properties of Red Supergiants Associated with Massive Clusters". The Astrophysical Journal. 760: 65. Bibcode:2012ApJ...760...65F. arXiv:1209.6427Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/760/1/65. 
  45. ^ Wasatonic, Richard P.; Guinan, Edward F.; Durbin, Allyn J. (2015). "V-Band, Near-IR, and TiO Photometry of the Semi-Regular Red Supergiant TV Geminorum: Long-Term Quasi-Periodic Changes in Temperature, Radius, and Luminosity". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Pacific. 127 (956): 1010. Bibcode:2015PASP..127.1010W. doi:10.1086/683261. 
  46. ^
  47. ^ "Big and Giant Stars"
  48. ^ "VizieR Detailed Page". Retrieved 2012-10-14. 
  49. ^ van Belle, G. T.; et al. (1997). "Angular Size Measurements of Carbon Miras and S-Type Stars". The Astronomical Journal. 114 (5): 2150–2156. Bibcode:1997AJ....114.2150V. doi:10.1086/118635. 
  50. ^ Zijlstra, A. A.; Bedding, T. R.; Mattei, J. A. (2002). "The evolution of the Mira variable R Hydrae". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 334 (3): 498. Bibcode:2002MNRAS.334..498Z. arXiv:astro-ph/0203328Freely accessible. doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05467.x. 
  51. ^ Van Belle, G. T.; Thompson, R. R.; Creech-Eakman, M. J. (2002). "Angular Size Measurements of Mira Variable Stars at 2.2 Microns. II". The Astronomical Journal. 124 (3): 1706. Bibcode:2002AJ....124.1706V. arXiv:astro-ph/0210167Freely accessible. doi:10.1086/342282. 
  52. ^ Gorlova, N.; Lobel, A.; Burgasser, A. J.; Rieke, G. H.; Ilyin, I.; Stauffer, J. R. (2006). "On the CO Near‐Infrared Band and the Line‐splitting Phenomenon in the Yellow Hypergiant ρ Cassiopeiae". The Astrophysical Journal. 651 (2): 1130–1150. Bibcode:2006ApJ...651.1130G. arXiv:astro-ph/0607158Freely accessible. doi:10.1086/507590. 
  53. ^ Kienzle, F.; Burki, G.; Burnet, M.; Meynet, G. (1998). "The pulsating yellow supergiant V810 Centauri". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 337: 779. Bibcode:1998A&A...337..779K. arXiv:astro-ph/9807088Freely accessible. 
  54. ^ Wittkowski, M.; Boboltz, D. A.; Ohnaka, K.; Driebe, T.; Scholz, M. (2007). "The Mira variable S Orionis: Relationships between the photosphere, molecular layer, dust shell, and SiO maser shell at 4 epochs". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 470: 191. Bibcode:2007A&A...470..191W. arXiv:0705.4614Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20077168. 
  55. ^ "VizieR Detailed Page". Retrieved 2012-10-14. 
  56. ^ Woodruff, H. C.; Eberhardt, M.; Driebe, T.; Hofmann, K.-H.; et al. (2004). "Interferometric observations of the Mira star o Ceti with the VLTI/VINCI instrument in the near-infrared". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 421 (2): 703–714. Bibcode:2004A&A...421..703W. arXiv:astro-ph/0404248Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20035826. 
  57. ^
  58. ^ Gull, T. R.; Damineli, A. (2010). "JD13 – Eta Carinae in the Context of the Most Massive Stars". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 5: 373. Bibcode:2010HiA....15..373G. arXiv:0910.3158Freely accessible. doi:10.1017/S1743921310009890. 
  59. ^ "The HST Treasury Program on Eta Carinae". 2003-09-01. Retrieved 2012-10-14. 
  60. ^ Nieuwenhuijzen, H.; De Jager, C.; Kolka, I.; Israelian, G.; Lobel, A.; Zsoldos, E.; Maeder, A.; Meynet, G. (2012). "The hypergiant HR 8752 evolving through the yellow evolutionary void". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 546: A105. Bibcode:2012A&A...546A.105N. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201117166. 
  61. ^ Hofmann, K.-H.; Eberhardt, M.; Driebe, T.; Schertl, D.; Scholz, M.; Schoeller, M.; Weigelt, G.; Wittkowski, M.; Woodruff, H. C. (2005). "Interferometric observations of the Mira star o Ceti with the VLTI/VINCI instrument in the near-infrared". Proceedings of the 13th Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars. 560: 651. Bibcode:2005ESASP.560..651H. 
  62. ^ Kaler, James B., "Iota-1 Scorpii", Stars, University of Illinois, retrieved 2012-01-12 
  63. ^ Pasinetti-Fracassini, L. E.; et al. (February 2001) [November 2000 (arXiv)], "Catalogue of Stellar Diameters (CADARS)", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 367 (2): 521–524, Bibcode:2001A&A...367..521P, arXiv:astro-ph/0012289Freely accessible, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20000451 
  64. ^ Tylenda, R.; Kamiński, T.; Schmidt, M.; Kurtev, R.; Tomov, T. (2011). "High-resolution optical spectroscopy of V838 Monocerotis in 2009". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 532: A138. Bibcode:2011A&A...532A.138T. arXiv:1103.1763Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201116858. 
  65. ^ Lane, B. F.; Retter, A.; Thompson, R. R.; Eisner, J. A. (April 2005). "Interferometric Observations of V838 Monocerotis". The Astrophysical Journal. The American Astronomical Society. 622 (2): L137–L140. Bibcode:2005ApJ...622L.137L. arXiv:astro-ph/0502293Freely accessible. doi:10.1086/429619. 
  66. ^ Lamers, H. J. G. L. M. (February 6–10, 1995). "Observations and Interpretation of Luminous Blue Variables". Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 155, Astrophysical applications of stellar pulsation. Astrophysical applications of stellar pulsation. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series. 83. Cape Town, South Africa: Astronomical Society of the Pacific. pp. 176–191. Bibcode:1995ASPC...83..176L. 
  67. ^ Van Belle; et al. (1996). "Angular Size Measurements of 18 Mira Variable Stars at 2.2 microns". Astronomical Journal. 112: 2147. Bibcode:1996AJ....112.2147V. doi:10.1086/118170. 
  68. ^ Bedding, T. R.; et al. (April 1997), "The angular diameter of R Doradus: a nearby Mira-like star", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 286 (4): 957–962, Bibcode:1997MNRAS.286..957B, arXiv:astro-ph/9701021Freely accessible, doi:10.1093/mnras/286.4.957 
  69. ^ Dinh-V.-Trung; Muller, Sébastien; Lim, Jeremy; Kwok, Sun; Muthu, C. (2009). "Probing the Mass-Loss History of the Yellow Hypergiant IRC+10420". The Astrophysical Journal. 697: 409. Bibcode:2009ApJ...697..409D. arXiv:0903.3714v1Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/697/1/409. 
  70. ^ HD 89388, database entry, Catalog of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS), 3rd edition, L. E. Pasinetti-Fracassini, L. Pastori, S. Covino, and A. Pozzi, CDS ID II/224. Accessed on line August 27, 2008.
  71. ^ Najarro, F.; Figer, D. F.; Hillier, D. J.; Geballe, T. R.; Kudritzki, R. P. (2009). "Metallicity in the Galactic Center: The Quintuplet Cluster". The Astrophysical Journal. 691 (2): 1816. Bibcode:2009ApJ...691.1816N. arXiv:0809.3185Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/691/2/1816. 
  72. ^ Weigelt, Gerd; Beckmann, Udo; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bloecker, Thomas; Brewer, Michael K.; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Lacasse, Marc G.; Malanushenko, Victor; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; et al. (2003). "JHK-band spectro-interferometry of T Cep with the IOTA interferometer". SPIE. Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II. 4838: 181–184. Bibcode:2003SPIE.4838..181W. doi:10.1117/12.458659. 
  73. ^ Hinkle; Hall, D. N. B.; Ridgway, S. T.; et al. (1982). "Time series infrared spectroscopy of the mira variable Chi Cygni". The Astrophysical Journal, Part 1. 252: 697–714. Bibcode:1982ApJ...252..697H. doi:10.1086/159596. 
  74. ^ Lacour, S.; Thiébaut, E.; Perrin, G.; Meimon, S.; Haubois, X.; Pedretti, E.; Ridgway, S. T.; Monnier, J. D.; Berger, J. P.; Schuller, P. A.; Woodruff, H.; Poncelet, A.; Le Coroller, H.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Lacasse, M.; Traub, W. (2009). "The Pulsation of χ Cygni Imaged by Optical Interferometry: A Novel Technique to Derive Distance and Mass of Mira Stars". The Astrophysical Journal. 707: 632. Bibcode:2009ApJ...707..632L. arXiv:0910.3869Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/707/1/632. 
  75. ^ a b Takeuti, Mine; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Honma, Mareki (2013). "A Method to Estimate the Masses of Asymptotic Giant Branch Variable Stars". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 65 (3): 60. Bibcode:2013PASJ...65...60T. doi:10.1093/pasj/65.3.60. 
  76. ^ Luttermoser, Donald G.; Brown, Alexander (1992). "A VLA 3.6 centimeter survey of N-type carbon stars". Astrophysical Journal. 384: 634. Bibcode:1992ApJ...384..634L. doi:10.1086/170905. 
  77. ^ Lagadec, E.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Verhoelst, T.; Cox, N. L. J.; Szczerba, R.; Mékarnia, D.; Van Winckel, H. (2011). "A double detached shell around a post-red supergiant: IRAS 17163-3907, the Fried Egg nebula". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 534: L10. Bibcode:2011A&A...534L..10L. arXiv:1109.5947Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201117521. 
  78. ^ Fedele; Wittkowski; Paresce; Scholz; Wood; Ciroi (2004). "The K-band intensity profile of R Leonis probed by VLTI/VINCI". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 431 (3): 1019–1026. Bibcode:2005A&A...431.1019F. arXiv:astro-ph/0411133Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20042013. 
  79. ^ Tsuji, T. (2007). "Isotopic abundances of Carbon and Oxygen in Oxygen-rich giant stars". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 2: 307. Bibcode:2007IAUS..239..307T. arXiv:astro-ph/0610180Freely accessible. doi:10.1017/S1743921307000622. 
  80. ^ Blum, R. D.; Ramirez, S. V.; Sellgren, K.; Olsen, K. (2003). "Really Cool Stars and the Star Formation History at the Galactic Center". The Astrophysical Journal. 597: 323. Bibcode:2003ApJ...597..323B. arXiv:astro-ph/0307291Freely accessible. doi:10.1086/378380. 
  81. ^ Decin, L.; De Beck, E.; Brünken, S.; Müller, H. S. P.; Menten, K. M.; Kim, H.; Willacy, K.; De Koter, A.; Wyrowski, F. (2010). "Circumstellar molecular composition of the oxygen-rich AGB star IK Tauri. II. In-depth non-LTE chemical abundance analysis". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 516: A69. Bibcode:2010A&A...516A..69D. arXiv:1004.1914Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201014136. 
  82. ^ Moravveji, Ehsan; Guinan, Edward F.; Khosroshahi, Habib; Wasatonic, Rick (2013). "The Age and Mass of the α Herculis Triple-star System from a MESA Grid of Rotating Stars with 1.3 <= M/M ⊙ <= 8.0". The Astronomical Journal. 146 (6): 148. Bibcode:2013AJ....146..148M. arXiv:1308.1632Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/146/6/148. 
  83. ^ Rybicki, K. R.; Denis, C. (2001). "On the Final Destiny of the Earth and the Solar System". Icarus. 151 (1): 130–137. Bibcode:2001Icar..151..130R. doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6591. 
  84. ^ Schroder, K. P.; Connon Smith, Robert (2008). "Distant Future of the Sun and Earth Revisited". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 386 (1): 155–163. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.386..155S. arXiv:0801.4031Freely accessible. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13022.x. 
  85. ^ a b Clark, J. S.; Najarro, F.; Negueruela, I.; Ritchie, B. W.; Urbaneja, M. A.; Howarth, I. D. (2012). "On the nature of the galactic early-B hypergiants". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 541: A145. Bibcode:2012A&A...541A.145C. arXiv:1202.3991Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201117472. 
  86. ^ Davis, J.; Booth, A. J.; Ireland, M. J.; Jacob, A. P.; North, J. R.; Owens, S. M.; Robertson, J. G.; Tango, W. J.; Tuthill, P. G. (2007). "The Emergent Flux and Effective Temperature of Delta Canis Majoris". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia. 24 (3): 151. Bibcode:2007PASA...24..151D. arXiv:0709.3873Freely accessible. doi:10.1071/AS07017. 
  87. ^ Hutsemekers, D; van Drom, E. (1991). "HR Carinae - A luminous blue variable surrounded by an arc-shaped nebula". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 281: 141–149. Bibcode:1991A&A...248..141H. 
  88. ^ Machado, M. A. D.; de Araújo, F. X.; Pereira, C. B.; Fernandes, M. B. (2002). "HR Carinae: New spectroscopic data and physical parameters". Astronomy and Astrophysics. Astronomy and Astrophysics. 387: 151–161. Bibcode:2002A&A...387..151M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20020295. pp. 151-161. 
  89. ^ Schiller, F.; Przybilla, N. (2008). "Quantitative spectroscopy of Deneb". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 479 (3): 849–858. Bibcode:2008A&A...479..849S. arXiv:0712.0040Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078590. 
  90. ^ Verdugo, Eva; Talavera, Antonio; Gómez De Castro, Ana I.; Henrichs, Huib F. (2003). "Search for magnetic fields in A-type supergiants". A Massive Star Odyssey: from Main Sequence to Supernova. 212: 255. Bibcode:2003IAUS..212..255V. 
  91. ^ Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Robinson, Richard D.; Harper, Graham M.; Bennett, Philip D.; Brown, Alexander; Mullan, Dermott J. (1999). "GHRS Observations of Cool, Low-Gravity Stars. V. The Outer Atmosphere and Wind of the Nearby K Supergiant λ Velorum". The Astrophysical Journal. 521: 382. Bibcode:1999ApJ...521..382C. doi:10.1086/307520. 
  92. ^
  93. ^ Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Chentsov, E. L.; Klochkova, V. G. (2000). "AS?314: A dusty A?type hypergiant". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series. 144 (3): 379. Bibcode:2000A&AS..144..379M. doi:10.1051/aas:2000216. 
  94. ^ a b Schröder, K.-P.; Cuntz, M. (April 2007), "A critical test of empirical mass loss formulas applied to individual giants and supergiants", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 465 (2): 593–601, Bibcode:2007A&A...465..593S, arXiv:astro-ph/0702172Freely accessible, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20066633. 
  95. ^ Moskalik, P.; Gorynya, N. A. (2005). "Mean Angular Diameters and Angular Diameter Amplitudes of Bright Cepheids". Acta Astronomica. 55: 247. Bibcode:2005AcA....55..247M. arXiv:astro-ph/0507076Freely accessible. 
  96. ^ a b c Lang, Kenneth R. (2006), Astrophysical formulae, Astronomy and astrophysics library, 1 (3 ed.), Birkhäuser, ISBN 3-540-29692-1 
  97. ^ Davis, J.; et al. (April 2009), "Observations of the pulsation of the Cepheid l Car with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 394 (3): 1620–1630, Bibcode:2009MNRAS.394.1620D, arXiv:0812.4791Freely accessible, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14433.x. 
  98. ^ Cox, Arthur N.; Becker, Stephen A.; Pesnell, W. Dean, "Chapter 20. Theoretical Stellar Evolution", Allen's astrophysical quantities (PDF) (4th ed.), New York: Springer, p. 516, ISBN 0-387-98746-0, retrieved 2012-01-25 
  99. ^ Gray, David F. (November 2010), "Photospheric Variations of the Supergiant γ Cyg", The Astronomical Journal, 140 (5): 1329–1336, Bibcode:2010AJ....140.1329G, doi:10.1088/0004-6256/140/5/1329 
  100. ^ Kloppenborg, B.K.; Stencel, R.E.; Monnier, J.D.; Schaefer, G.H.; Baron, F.; Tycner, C.; Zavala, R. T.; Hutter, D.; Zhao, M.; Che, X.; Ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Farrington, C.D.; Parks, R.; McAlister, H. A.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Sallave-Goldfinger, P.J.; Turner, N.; Pedretti, E.; Thureau, N. (2015). "Interferometry of ɛ Aurigae: Characterization of the Asymmetric Eclipsing Disk". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 220: 14. Bibcode:2015ApJS..220...14K. arXiv:1508.01909Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/220/1/14. 
  101. ^ Snow, Theodore P.; Lamers, Henny J. G. L. M.; Lindholm, Douglas M.; Odell, Andrew P. (1994). "An atlas of ultraviolet P Cygni profiles". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 95: 163. Bibcode:1994ApJS...95..163S. doi:10.1086/192099. 
  102. ^ a b c d Nordgren, Tyler E.; et al. (December 1999), "Stellar Angular Diameters of Late-Type Giants and Supergiants Measured with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer", The Astronomical Journal, 118 (6): 3032–3038, Bibcode:1999AJ....118.3032N, doi:10.1086/301114 
  103. ^ Firnstein, Markus (2010). Quantitative Spectroscopy of Galactic BA-Type Supergiants (Ph.D.). Erlangen, Nürnberg, Univ. 
  104. ^ Kervella, P.; Homan, W.; Richards, A. M. S.; Decin, L.; McDonald, I.; Montargès, M.; Ohnaka, K. (2016). "ALMA observations of the nearby AGB star L2 Puppis - I. Mass of the central star and detection of a candidate planet". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 596: A92. Bibcode:2016A&A...596A..92K. arXiv:1611.06231Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201629877. 
  105. ^ Kaler, James B., "Iota-1 Scorpii", Stars, University of Illinois, retrieved 2012-01-12 
  106. ^ Polidan, R. S.; Plavec, M. J. (1984). "A hot companion to MU Sagittarii - an opportunity to sound the atmosphere of a B8 IA supergiant". Astronomical Journal. 89: 1721. Bibcode:1984AJ.....89.1721P. doi:10.1086/113678. 
  107. ^
  108. ^ Barniske, A.; Oskinova, L. M.; Hamann, W. -R. (2008). "Two extremely luminous WN stars in the Galactic center with circumstellar emission from dust and gas". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 486 (3): 971. Bibcode:2008A&A...486..971B. arXiv:0807.2476Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200809568. 
  109. ^ a b Massarotti, Alessandro; et al. (January 2008), "Rotational and Radial Velocities for a Sample of 761 HIPPARCOS Giants and the Role of Binarity", The Astronomical Journal, 135 (1): 209–231, Bibcode:2008AJ....135..209M, doi:10.1088/0004-6256/135/1/209 
  110. ^ Reffert, Sabine; Bergmann, Christoph; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Trifonov, Trifon; Künstler, Andreas (2015). "Precise radial velocities of giant stars. VII. Occurrence rate of giant extrasolar planets as a function of mass and metallicity". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 574: A116. Bibcode:2015A&A...574A.116R. arXiv:1412.4634Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201322360. 
  111. ^ Montiel, Edward J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Marcello, Dominic C.; Lockman, Felix J. (2015). "What is the Shell Around R Coronae Borealis?". The Astronomical Journal. 150: 14. Bibcode:2015AJ....150...14M. arXiv:1505.04173Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/1/14. 
  112. ^ Ireland, M. J.; et al. (May 2004), "Multiwavelength diameters of nearby Miras and semiregular variables", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 350 (1): 365–374, Bibcode:2004MNRAS.350..365I, arXiv:astro-ph/0402326Freely accessible, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.07651.x 
  113. ^ Almach, Jim Kaler, Stars. Accessed on line August 19, 2008.
  114. ^ Moravveji, Ehsan; Guinan, Edward F.; Shultz, Matt; Williamson, Michael H.; Moya, Andres (March 2012). "Asteroseismology of the nearby SN-II Progenitor: Rigel. Part I. The MOST High-precision Photometry and Radial Velocity Monitoring". The Astrophysical Journal. 747 (1): 108–115. Bibcode:2012ApJ...747..108M. arXiv:1201.0843Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/747/2/108. 
  115. ^ Lyubimkov, L. S.; et al. (2010). "Accurate fundamental parameters for A-, F- and G-type Supergiants in the solar neighbourhood". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 402 (2): 1369–1379. Bibcode:2010MNRAS.402.1369L. arXiv:0911.1335Freely accessible. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15979.x. 
  116. ^ Najarro, F. (2001). "Spectroscopy of P Cygni". P Cygni 2000: 400 Years of Progress. 233: 133. Bibcode:2001ASPC..233..133N. 
  117. ^ Cruzalebes, P.; Jorissen, A.; Rabbia, Y.; Sacuto, S.; Chiavassa, A.; Pasquato, E.; Plez, B.; Eriksson, K.; Spang, A.; Chesneau, O. (2013). "Fundamental parameters of 16 late-type stars derived from their angular diameter measured with VLTI/AMBER". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 434 (1): 437–450. Bibcode:2013MNRAS.434..437C. arXiv:1306.3288Freely accessible. doi:10.1093/mnras/stt1037. 
  118. ^ Lebre, A.; Gillet, D. (1991). "The bright RV Tauri star R Scuti during an exceptional irregular light phase". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 246: 490. Bibcode:1991A&A...246..490L. 
  119. ^ Taylor, Melinda M.; Booth, Andrew J. (August 1998), "The bright southern Cepheid beta Doradus: the radial velocity curve, distance and size", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 298 (2): 594–600, Bibcode:1998MNRAS.298..594T, doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.1998.01670.x 
  120. ^ Groenewegen, M. A. T. (November 2007), "The projection factor, period-radius relation, and surface-brightness colour relation in classical cepheids", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 474 (3): 975–981, Bibcode:2007A&A...474..975G, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078225 
  121. ^ Crowther, P. A.; Lennon, D. J.; Walborn, N. R. (2006). "Physical parameters and wind properties of galactic early B supergiants". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 446: 279–293. Bibcode:2006A&A...446..279C. arXiv:astro-ph/0509436Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20053685. 
  122. ^ Humphreys, R. M.; Blaha, C.; d'Odorico, S.; Gull, T. R.; Benvenuti, P. (1984). "IUE and ground-based observations of the Hubble-Sandage variables in M31 and M33". The Astrophysical Journal. 278: 124. Bibcode:1984ApJ...278..124H. doi:10.1086/161774. 
  123. ^ Valeev, A. F.; Sholukhova, O.; Fabrika, S. (2009). "A new luminous variable in M33". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters. 396: L21. Bibcode:2009MNRAS.396L..21V. arXiv:0903.5222Freely accessible. doi:10.1111/j.1745-3933.2009.00654.x. 
  124. ^ Bonneau, D.; Chesneau, O.; Mourard, D.; Bério, Ph.; Clausse, J. M.; Delaa, O.; Marcotto, A.; Perraut, K.; Roussel, A.; Spang, A.; Stee, Ph.; Tallon-Bosc, I.; McAlister, H.; Ten Brummelaar, T.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Farrington, C.; Goldfinger, P. J. (2011). "A large Hα line forming region for the massive interacting binaries β Lyrae and υ Sagitarii". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 532: A148. Bibcode:2011A&A...532A.148B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201116742. 
  125. ^ a b Pasinetti Fracassini, L. E.; Pastori, L.; Covino, S.; Pozzi, A. (February 2001), "Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS)", Astronomy and Astrophysics (3rd ed.), 367: 521–524, Bibcode:2001A&A...367..521P, arXiv:astro-ph/0012289Freely accessible, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20000451. 
  126. ^ Matthews, L. D.; et al. (January 2012), "New Evidence for Mass Loss from δ Cephei from H I 21 cm Line Observations", The Astrophysical Journal, 744 (1): 53, Bibcode:2012ApJ...744...53M, arXiv:1112.0028Freely accessible, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/744/1/53. 
  127. ^ Richichi, A.; Roccatagliata, V. (2005). "Aldebaran's angular diameter: how well do we know it?". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 433: 305–312. Bibcode:2005A&A...433..305R. arXiv:astro-ph/0502181Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041765. 
  128. ^ Fadeyev, Y. A. (2015). "Evolutionary status of Polaris". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 449: 1011. Bibcode:2015MNRAS.449.1011F. arXiv:1502.06463Freely accessible. doi:10.1093/mnras/stv412. 
  129. ^ Crowther, P. A.; Schnurr, O.; Hirschi, R.; Yusof, N.; Parker, R. J.; Goodwin, S. P.; Kassim, H. A. (2010). "The R136 star cluster hosts several stars whose individual masses greatly exceed the accepted 150 M stellar mass limit". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 408 (2): 731. Bibcode:2010MNRAS.408..731C. arXiv:1007.3284Freely accessible. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17167.x. 
  130. ^ I. Ramírez; C. Allende Prieto (December 2011). "Fundamental Parameters and Chemical Composition of Arcturus". The Astrophysical Journal. 743 (2): 135. Bibcode:2011ApJ...743..135R. arXiv:1109.4425Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/743/2/135. 
  131. ^ Ziółkowski, J. (2005), "Evolutionary constraints on the masses of the components of HDE 226868/Cyg X-1 binary system", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 358 (3): 851–859, Bibcode:2005MNRAS.358..851Z, arXiv:astro-ph/0501102Freely accessible, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.08796.x  Note: for radius and luminosity, see Table 1 with d=2 kpc.
  132. ^ Schilbach, E.; Röser, S. (2008). "On the origin of field O-type stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 489: 105. Bibcode:2008A&A...489..105S. arXiv:0806.0762Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200809936. 
  133. ^ Torres, Guillermo; Claret, Antonio; Pavlovski, Krešimir; Dotter, Aaron (2015). "Capella (α Aurigae) Revisited: New Binary Orbit, Physical Properties, and Evolutionary State". The Astrophysical Journal. 807: 26. Bibcode:2015ApJ...807...26T. arXiv:1505.07461Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/807/1/26. 
  134. ^ Hack, M.; Engin, S.; Yilmaz, N.; Sedmak, G.; Rusconi, L.; Boehm, C. (1992). "Spectroscopic study of the atmospheric eclipsing binary VV Cephei". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series (ISSN0365-0138). 95: 589. Bibcode:1992A&AS...95..589H. 


  1. ^ NML Cygni would be this size when applying the Stefan-Boltzman Law with a nominal effective temperature of 5,772 K.
  2. ^ This value appeared in an earlier edition of the Clark et al ref, but was later omitted. The current value cites a radius of ~2,000 R
  3. ^ The Bauer et al ref gives a value of up to 1,900 R, but also estimates the Roche lobe of VV Cephei A to be 1,800 R, so the radius can be no larger than this.

External links

  • Giant Stars An interactive website comparing the Earth and the Sun to some of the largest stars
  • BBC News Three largest stars identified
  • Universe Today What is the Biggest Star in the Universe?