Temporal range: Late Miocene to Early Pliocene 10.3–4.9 Ma
Borophagus dudleyi ("devouring glutton") is an extinct species of the genus Borophagus of the subfamily Borophaginae, a group of canids endemic to North America from the late Hemphillian of the Miocene epoch (10.3 Mya) through the Pliocene epoch (4.9 Mya). Borophagus dudleyi existed for approximately .
Borophagus dudleyi was originally named Pliogulo dudleyi by T.E. White in 1941. Borophagus dudleyi, like other Borophaginae, are loosely known as "bone-crushing" or "hyena-like" dogs. Though not the most massive borophagine by size or weight, it had a more highly evolved capacity to crunch bone than earlier, larger genera such as Epicyon, which seems to be an evolutionary trend of the group (Turner, 2004). During the Pliocene epoch, Borophagus began being displaced by Canis genera such as Canis edwardii and later by Canis dirus. Early species of Borophagus were placed in the genus Osteoborus until recently, but the genera are now considered synonyms. Borophagus parvus possibly led a hyena-like lifestyle scavenging carcasses of recently dead animals.
Borophagus dudleyi was recombined as Cynogulo dudleyi by Kretzoi in 1968. It was recombined again as Osteoborus dudleyi by Webb in 1969 and Munthe in 1998. The animal was then synonymized subjectively with Borophagus crassapineatus by Richey in 1979. In 1987, Richard H. Tedford returned its original name and Xiaoming Wang along with Richard H. Tedford and Beryl E. Taylor concurred in a 1999 examination.
Typical features of this genus are a bulging forehead and powerful jaws; it was probably a scavenger. Its crushing premolar teeth and strong jaw muscles would have been used to crack open bone, much like the hyena of the Old World. The adult animal is estimated to have been about 80 cm in length, similar to a coyote, although it was much more powerfully built.
Borophagus dudleyi fossil specimens are exclusive to a coastal area of North Carolina.
- Borophagus diversidens existed for (synonymous with Felis hillianus, Hyaenognathus matthewi, Hyaenognathus pachyodon, Hyaenognathus solus, Porthocyon dubius)
- Borophagus hilli existed for (synonymous with Osteoborus crassapineatus, Osteoborus progressus)
- Borophagus littoralis existed for (syn. Osteoborus diabloensis)
- Borophagus orc existed for
- Borophagus parvus existed for
- Borophagus pugnator existed for (synonymous with Osteoborus galushai)
- Borophagus secundus existed for (synonymous with Hyaenognathus cyonoides, Hyaenognathus direptor)
Existence based on age of fossil collections and recombination with other species.
Can be found in Florida as well. Not exclusive to North Carolina.
- Wang, Xiaoming; Richard Tedford; Beryl Taylor (1999-11-17). "Phylogenetic systematics of the Borophaginae" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 243. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-03-20. Retrieved 2007-07-08.
- PaleoBiology Database: Borophagus dudleyi, basic info
- T. E. White. 1941. Addition to the fauna of the Florida Pliocene. Proceedings of the New England Zoological Club 67-70
- Lambert, David (1985). The Field Guide to Prehistoric Life. New York: Facts on File. p. 163. ISBN 0-8160-1125-7.
- Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 220. ISBN 1-84028-152-9.
- Alan Turner, "National Geographic: Prehistoric Mammals" (Washington, D.C.: Firecrest Books Ltd., 2004), pp. 112-114. ISBN 0-7922-7134-3
- Xiaoming Wang, "The Origin and Evolution of the Dog Family" Accessed 1/30/06.
- Picture of an Osteoborus skull in a museum, from "World of the Wolf." (Accessed 6/19/06)
- Russell Hunt, "Ecological Polarities Of the North American Family Canidae: A New Approach to Understanding Forty Million Years of Canid Evolution" (Accessed 1/30/06).
- Wang et al., "Phylogenetic Systematics of the Borophaginae (Carnivora:Canidae)." Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, No. 243, Nov. 17 1999. (PDF) (Accessed 4/11/06)