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Temporal range: early Miocene - Recent
Eucyon davisi.JPG
Eucyon davisi fossil
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Subfamily: Caninae
G. Fischer de Waldheim, 1817

The Caninae are the only living subfamily of Canidae. Many extinct species of Caninae were endemic to North America, living from 34 million to 11,000 years ago.[5] Some members of the endemic North American canines survived to the present time. This subfamily was recently revised.[6] More basal canids are placed in the extinct subfamilies Hesperocyoninae and Borophaginae.

Present-day basal Caninae include:


  1. ^ McKenna, M. C, and S. K. Bell (1997). Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11012-X. 
  2. ^ Lyras G.A., Van der Geer A.E., Dermitzakis M., De Vos J. (2006) Cynotherium sardous, an insular canid (Mammalia: Carnivora) from the Pleistocene of Sardinia (Italy), and its origin. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology: Vol. 26, No. 3 pp. 735–745
  3. ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 532–628. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  4. ^ Sotnikova, M. (2006). "A new canid Nurocyon chonokhariensis gen. et sp. nov.(Canini, Canidae, Mammalia) from the Pliocene of Mongolia" (PDF). Courier-Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 256: 11. Retrieved 2008-05-04. 
  5. ^ Paleobiology Database: Caninae Basic info.
  6. ^ Tedford, Richard; Xiaoming Wang; Beryl E. Taylor (2009). "Phylogenetic systematics of the North American fossil Caninae (Carnivora: Canidae)". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 325: 1–218. doi:10.1206/574.1. 

Additional reading[edit]

  • Xiaoming Wang, Richard H. Tedford, Mauricio Antón, Dogs: Their Fossil Relatives and Evolutionary History, New York : Columbia University Press, 2008; ISBN 978-0-231-13528-3