List of Middle-earth rivers

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Middle-earth, the main setting of J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, contains many rivers, some of which are described below.

A[edit]

Adorn
A river of Rohan, arising in the White Mountains. Together with the river Isen, it formed the western border of the Kingdom of Rohan. The Adorn joined with the Isen about 150 miles (240 km) west of the Gap of Rohan.
The triangle of land between the Isen, Adorn, and the White Mountains was nominally part of the Kingdom of Rohan, but in the late Third Age it was a contested area between the Rohirrim and the Dunlendings.

Adurant
The sixth and most southerly tributary of the Gelion. It was the last of the seven rivers that defined Ossiriand. Like the others it flowed from the west side of the Blue Mountains.
The name means double stream in Ilkorin, referring to a parting of the river about the isle of Tol Galen, and many more along its path due to its slow current.
Agathurush
See Gwathló
Anduin
Angren
See Isen

Aros
A river in East Beleriand and a tributary of the Sirion. It rose in the northern highlands of Dorthonion,[1] flowing generally south and then west before meeting the Sirion at Aelin-uial, more or less in the centre of Beleriand. The Aros formed the southern border of the Kingdom of Doriath.

Ascar
A river in Ossiriand. The name means rushing, impetuous. It flowed from the west side of the Blue Mountains and was a tributary of the Gelion. The Ascar was the second of the seven rivers that defined Ossiriand, and formed its northern boundary. After the Sack of Doriath by Dwarves, Beren Erchamion fought and killed the looters there. Doriath's treasure was lost in the Ascar, and it was renamed Rathlóriel ('Goldenbed').

B[edit]

Baranduin
Also called the Brandywine, the Baranduin was one of the main rivers of Eriador, and the fourth-longest river in Middle-earth behind the Anduin, the Celduin (or Running), and the Gwathló/Mitheithel (Greyflood/Hoarwell).
Originating from Nenuial (Lake Evendim), a catchment of the Hills of Evendim in north-western Eriador, the river flowed generally southwards. It ran through the easternmost reaches of the Shire, forming its eastern border except for Buckland which lay between it and the Old Forest. Its only major crossings in the Shire were the Brandywine Bridge (originally Bridge of Stonebows) on the East Road, Bucklebury Ferry, and Sarn Ford in the Southfarthing. Skirting the Old Forest to the south, the river then crossed Sarn Ford and flowed to the north of the depopulated region of Minhiriath before flowing into the Sundering Sea to the north of the forested region of Eryn Vorn.
The name Baranduin was Sindarin for "golden-brown river". The Hobbits of the Shire originally gave it the punning name Branda-nîn, meaning "border water" in original Hobbitish Westron. This was later punned again as Bralda-hîm meaning "heady ale" (referring to the color of its water), which Tolkien renders into English as Brandywine. To the Hobbits of the Shire, the Brandywine was the boundary between the known and unknown, and even those who lived in Buckland on the immediate opposite shore were considered "peculiar".
No tributaries of the Baranduin are described except those near or in the Shire. The Withywindle flowed through the Old Forest, and entered the Baranduin at Haysend. The other named tributaries arose in the Shire: The Water, which ran through the central Shire, entered the Baranduin near the Brandywine Bridge; the Stockbrook, which arose in the Woody End and entered the Baranduin at Stock; and the Shirebourn, which arose in the Green Hill Country along with its own tributary Thistle Brook, and entered the Baranduin at Deephallow.
There was a Girdley Island in the river a few miles (1 mile=1.6 km) north of the Brandywine Bridge.
The Hobbits Drogo Baggins and his wife Primula Brandybuck died in a boating accident on the Brandywine in T.A. 2980, leaving their only child, Frodo Baggins, as an orphan.

Brilthor by Matěj Čadil
Brilthor
A tributary of the Gelion. It was the fifth from the north of the seven rivers that defined Ossiriand. Like the others it flowed from the west side of the Blue Mountains.

Brithon
A river of the Falas region of West Beleriand. Its name is Sindarin, probably meaning "pebbly", from brith "broken stones".
Bruinen
Also called the Loudwater, a major tributary of the Mitheithel (or Hoarwell) river in eastern Eriador. The Bruinen began with two tributaries in the Misty Mountains, one of which flowed from the High Pass where Goblin Town was later dug. The river formed the southern border of the Kingdom of Arnor and later the petty-realm of Rhudaur, south of it lay Eregion or Hollin. The southern arm of the Bruinen flowed through the deep valley where Elrond founded the refuge of Imladris or Rivendell. Elrond had some control over the river. The Bruinen could be crossed only at a ford near Rivendell. This ford, and by extension the river, was called the Edge of the Wild. When Thorin Oakenshield and company went to reclaim Erebor, they passed the Bruinen after their adventure with the Trolls, before they rested at Rivendell. At the beginning of the War of the Ring, Frodo Baggins was carried on Glorfindel's horse towards the Ford of Bruinen, with the Ringwraiths in hot pursuit. It was here that Frodo, poisoned by a deadly wound, made his stand, and defied the Witch-king of Angmar. This lured the Ringwraiths into the Bruinen, and Elrond and Gandalf the Grey released a great flood, which took the form of horses made out of water due to Gandalf's magic. This flood killed the horses of the Ringwraiths.
Mark T. Hooker observes that Loudwater is the name used in the nineteenth century for a river south-east of Oxford. Modern maps, however, show the name of this body of water as the Wye. Loudwater is also the name of a village on the Loudwater, three miles(4.8 km) from Beaconsfield, along the A40.
Hooker parses the name Bruinen as: brui (loud) + nen (water), and remarks on the similarity of the element brui to the French word bruit (noise), which is pronounced [brui], the final ‘T’ being silent.[2]

C[edit]

Carnen
A river of north-east Wilderland, it was also called Redwater. The Carnen flowed southward from the Iron Hills east of the Lonely Mountain until it met the Celduin about 250 miles to the south. From there the rivers flowed as one to the Sea of Rhûn, past the land of Dorwinion.
The kingdom of Dale after its refounding extended into the angle between the Celduin and the Carnen. It is quite possible that the Men of Dale and Esgaroth and the Wood-elves traded along the rivers.
The reddish colour of the river, together with its source in the Iron Hills, suggests a significant iron content.

Celduin
A river of north-east Wilderland and western Rhûn, also named the River Running. The Celduin was about 600 miles long. It arose in the Lonely Mountain and ran south into the Long Lake, where it was joined by the Forest River, and thence through the eastern outskirts of Mirkwood. Afterwards it flowed south east through the wide eastern plains of Rhovanion to its confluence with the Carnen, and finally in a long south-eastward loop to the great inland Sea of Rhûn, past the land of Dorwinion.
Celebrant
See Silverlode

Celebros
A tributary of the Taeglin in West Beleriand. It arose on Amon Obel, a great hill in Brethil forest, and flowed generally south through the forest until it joined the Taeglin. Glaurung was slain by Túrin near where the Celebros met the Taeglin, and Nienor Níniel committed suicide by jumping in it.

Celon
A river of East Beleriand. It began on the hill of Himring and ran generally south-west. It flowed past the forested valley of Nan Elmoth, which was part of Celon's catchment, before it met up with the river Aros. The Aros was in turn a tributary of the great river Sirion.

Celos
The Second of the Five Rivers of Lebennin in Gondor. It began in the White Mountains and became a tributary of the Sirith.

Ciril
A river of Gondor, springing at an isolated peak in Lamedon. It flowed past Calembel and became a tributary of the Ringló. The Ciril was one of the Seven Rivers of Gondor.

D[edit]

Deeping-stream
A river of Rohan which arose on Thrihyrne, a massive peak in the northern White Mountains. It flowed through the gorge of Helm's Deep and then through the Deeping-coomb. The lower course is not referred to in Tolkien's writings, but he made a map of Helm's Deep which shows the Deeping-stream flowing west towards the Isen.[3] (Prior to the publication of this map some concluded that it flowed across Rohan to join the Entwash.[4])
Tolkien confirmed that Deeping-stream is the correct spelling, not Deeping Stream.[5]

Dry River
The former river whose bed served as the hidden entrance to Gondolin. The Dry River had been a northern tributary of the Sirion.

Duilwen
A tributary of the Gelion. It was the sixth from the north of the seven rivers that defined Ossiriand. Like the others it flowed from the west side of the Blue Mountains.

E[edit]

Enchanted River

Not to be confused with the Hinatuan Enchanted River

A dark running river under a sleeping spell in Mirkwood. Its origin was in the Mountains of Mirkwood, and it met the Forest River near Thranduil's Caverns. The stream was enchanted because anyone who touched its waters fell into a dream-filled sleep from which they could not be woken for days.
The Mirkwood Elves kept a small boat where their Elf-path reached the Enchanted River, so that they could cross the stream without touching it. In The Hobbit, this river forms an obstacle for the quest of Thorin and company: the boat was on the far side of the stream.
In the First Age, the Esgalduin in Beleriand was also called the Enchanted River.

Entwash
A river of Fangorn forest and Rohan. Its main source was the springs that arose on Methedras, the southernmost peak of the Misty Mountains. Treebeard's home, aptly named Wellinghall, was located near these springs. After leaving Fangorn forest, the Entwash flowed past the Wold of Rohan and headed south, dividing Rohan's central plain into the West and East Emnets. At the latitude of Edoras it was joined by the river Snowbourn; it then ran east, fed by other streams from the White Mountains, before forming a huge inland delta known as the Mouths of the Entwash, which flowed into the great river Anduin just south of the Falls of Rauros. The Mering Stream met one of the Entwash's arms there.
The Entwash was named for the Ents (Onodrim) of Fangorn, but the origin of the name was largely forgotten by the Rohirrim at the end of the Third Age. According to Tolkien's "Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings," the second element of the name is a modernization of Old English wæsc "flood-water," representing an unknown original in the notional language of Rohan"[6]. No Sindarin name for the river is found in LotR. but Tolkien's later account of the gift of the province of Calenardhon to Eorl and his people by Cirion the Steward gives the Sindarin name as Onodló, of which “Entwash” is a translation[7].

Erui
A river of Gondor, arising in the White Mountains. It was counted the first of the Five Rivers of Lebennin, and was the nearest of the five to Minas Tirith.
The river began near Mount Mindolluin and flowed south through the province of Lossarnach, where it met the Anduin about 100 miles (160 km) south of Minas Tirith. During the Kin-strife of Gondor, the Battle of the Crossings of Erui was fought at the Crossings of Erui on the road to Pelargir.

Esgalduin
The main river of Doriath, in East Beleriand. Doriathrin for River under Veil, the Esgalduin flowed from the hills of Dorthonion through Doriath past the caves of Menegroth, finally meeting up with the Sirion.
The Esgalduin had two unnamed upper branches of its own in Ered Gorgoroth. One ran along the border between Dor Dínen and Nan Dungortheb, and the other ran west for about 20 miles from the mountains into Nan Dungortheb and further south-east until merging with the first.

F[edit]

Five Rivers
The Five Rivers is a translation of Lebennin, a province of Gondor.

Forest River
A river that flowed through northern Mirkwood. It began in the Grey Mountains far to the north, and then flowed south-east, diverging at points, until it was met by the Enchanted River near Thranduil's caverns. From there it continued eastwards to the Long Lake of Esgaroth, which it met in the Long Marshes. It was thus a tributary of the Celduin.

G[edit]

Gate Stream
See Sirannon

Gelion
The principal river of East Beleriand. Its two sources were the northern Blue Mountains, via the Greater Gelion, and the Hill of Himring, via the Little Gelion. It then passed south, dividing Estolad to the west from Thargelion to the east, then was crossed by the old dwarf-road at Sarn Athrad ("Ford of Stones"). It then passed into Ossiriand, the Land of Seven Rivers, where it was fed by the rivers Ascar, Thalos, Legolin, Brilthor, Duilwen, and Adurant, all rising in the Blue Mountains.
Gelion then passed by Taur-im-Duinath (the Forest between the Rivers) and emptied into the Great Sea Belegaer.
Late in his life, Tolkien apparently decided to change the name "Gelion", as it did not fit the pattern of Sindarin. The possible replacements he recorded were "Gelduin", "Gevilon", "Gevelon", "Duin Daer", and "Duin Dhaer".[8]

Gilrain
The last of the Five Rivers of Lebennin in Gondor. It started as two unnamed tributaries in the White Mountains, and flowed south meeting the Serni at Linhir. The Gilrain was also one of the Seven Rivers of Gondor.

Ginglith
A tributary of the Narog in West Beleriand. It had its wells in the woods of Núath, near the Ered Wethrin in northern West Beleriand. After passing by the lands of Tumhalad it met the Narog about 50 Númenórean miles north of Nargothrond.

Gladden
A river of Wilderland, called Ninglor in Sindarin (also Sîr Ninglor, sîr = stream, ninglor = Yellow Iris or gladden).[9] The Gladden was a short but important river of the Vales of Anduin. Beginning as two unnamed arms in the Misty Mountains, it flowed eastwards to the Great River Anduin, which it met in a series of marshes called the Gladden Fields.
After the Last Alliance of Elves and Men, Isildur, the High King of Arnor and Gondor, and the bearer of the One Ring at that time, was assailed by Orcs near the Gladden Fields, and the Ring was lost here in the river. Much later during the Third Age some Stoors lived near beside the Anduin upstream of the Gladden,[10] and they sometimes ventured down to the Gladden Fields to fish and forage. One of these was Sméagol, soon known as Gollum, and he thereby obtained the Ring. Saruman searched for the Ring extensively in the Gladden; he never found it since it was already in the possession of Gollum at that time, but he discovered Isildur's other garments.

Glanduin
A river of Eriador and one of the sources of the Gwathló. The name means 'border-river' in Sindarin, as it had been the southern boundary of the Elven realm of Eregion and later of the Kingdom of Men Arnor.
Beginning in the Misty Mountains south of Moria, it ran west-north-west until it was met by the Sirannon near the old location of Ost-in-Edhil. Further downstream the Glanduin flowed into the Swanfleet, the vast marshland north-east of Tharbad, which issued into Gwathló.
On some maps of Middle-earth, the name Swanfleet river is erroneously placed against the Glanduin or even against the Isen, but properly Swanfleet was the name of the marshlands alone.[11]
Glanhír
See Mering Stream

Glithui
A northern tributary to the Taeglin in West Beleriand.
Greyflood
See Gwathló

Greylin
The Greylin and the Langwell), which lay in the far north-west corner of Wilderland, were the main sources of the Grear River Anduin. The Greylin itself had two tributary branches; these flowed south from the Grey Mountains, which are reflected in the name of the river.

Gwathló
The river Gwathló or Greyflood is a large river on the south-east of Eriador. The Sindarin name Gwathló was adapted from the name Gwathir, given to the river by the Númenóreans in the Second Age. Its name translates as Shadowy River, and was given because over all its length it flowed through immense forests which covered Minhiriath to the north and Enedwaith to the south. It was one of the few rivers also given an Adûnaic name: Agathurush.[12]
The Gwathló began in a marshy area known as Nîn-in-Eilph or Swanfleet, at the confluence of the Mitheithel (Hoarwell) and the Glanduin. Its entire length was wide enough for sailing. When the Númenórean Ship Kings required more and more wood to build their ships, they set up a haven-fortress on the Gwathló called Lond Daer or Lond Daer Enedh, Great (Middle) Haven. From there the lands were rapidly deforested, and by the Third Age all the forests were gone.
In the late Second Age and early Third Age the Gwathló formed the border between the Kingdoms of Arnor and Gondor, and the great Gondorian northern outpost of Tharbad was built on the Old South Road at the only crossing of the lower Gwathló. By the late Third Age, Gondor had retreated far south and Arnor had been destroyed; Tharbad and its great bridge were abandoned and ruined, and the river had to be crossed by the ruins of Tharbad at a dangerous ford.

H[edit]

Harnen
A river that originally was the southern border of Gondor. The territory to the north of it, South Gondor, later became a debatable land. South of the Harnen lay the land of Near Harad. The river was some 600 miles (970 km) long, beginning in the mountains surrounding Mordor from the south and then running south-west for about 350 miles (560 km). There it bent west and flowed into a firth of the Great Sea. The Harad Road crossed the Harnen shortly after it bent westwards.
Hoarwell
See Mitheithel

I[edit]

Isen
The Isen (or Angren in Sindarin) began in the southern Misty Mountains, first flowing south through the fortress of Isengard (or Angrenost) and the Wizard's Vale into the Gap of Rohan, where it abruptly bent west and flowed to the sea of Belegaer. Its length was about 430 Númenórean miles, making it the eighth-longest known river of Middle-earth.
Isen means 'iron' (cf. German eisen and Old English isærn = iron),[13][14] Isengard meaning iron fortress.
One of the Isen's tributaries was the Deeping-stream,[15] which began in Helm's Deep near the fortress of Aglarond (thus mirroring the Isen's main source near Isengard).
At a distance of about 150 miles west of the Gap of Rohan, the Isen was joined by its main tributary, the river Adorn, which flowed down from the White Mountains in the south-east. The Isen and Adorn formed the western boundary of the Kingdom of Rohan, but the triangle of land between Isen, Adorn, and the White Mountains was a contested land, claimed by the Rohirrim as well as the Dunlendings. The Isen formed a natural boundary in the Gap of Rohan, and was only crossable at Isengard or at the Fords of Isen, where the Rohirrim fought a number of great battles against the Dunlendings and Saruman's Orcs in the late Third Age.
In the War of the Ring, when the Ents attacked Isengard, they diverted the Isen, temporarily drowning all of Isengard and Saruman's mines and machines. However in Peter Jackson's movie version, Saruman had already disrupted the Isen with a great dam, and the Ents deluged Isengard by breaking the dam.

K[edit]

Kibil-nâla
See Silverlode

L[edit]

Langwell
A river of Rhovanion, flowing from the northern Misty Mountains. Its name suggests it was the main source of the great Anduin river; the Langwell's confluence with the Greylin marked the start of the Anduin proper. On its northern bank was built the city of Framsburg, capital of the Éothéod
Lefnui
A river of Gondor, beginning in the south-western valleys of the Starkhorn peak of the White Mountains and flowing south-west parallel to a mountain range. It entered the Bay of Belfalas between the long cape of Andrast and the long coastal province of Anfalas.
The name means fifth in Sindarin, with a reference to the position of the river if counting the mouths: Erui, Sirith, Serni, Morthond, Lefnui. However the Lefnui was also the westernmost of the Seven Rivers of Gondor.
Legolin
A tributary of the Gelion. It was the fourth from the north of the seven rivers that defined Ossiriand. Like the others it flowed from the west side of the Blue Mountains.
Lhûn or Lune
A river of northern Lindon emptying through a long firth[16] into the Gulf of Lune, which breaks through the line of the Blue Mountains, and thence into Belegaer. The main map accompanying The Lord of the Rings shows three tributaries: two of them (including "the Little Lune"[17]) arising in the Mountains, and one beginning in the Hills of Evendim north of Annúminas. The Lhûn did not connect to Lake Evendim, the source of the Baranduin river.

Limlight
A stream rising in the Misty Mountains and flowing generally east. It ran through the north of Fangorn forest and emptied into the Anduin. The Limlight formed the southern boundary of the Field of Celebrant, and was claimed by people of Lothlórien as the southern boundary of their realm. It was also the historic northern border of Gondor, and later of Rohan.
The name is from an Elvish form, but Tolkien provided different explanations of the exact meaning and even languages used in the name, including Limlich, Limliht, Limlaith[18] and Limhîr.[19]

Lithir
A northern tributary of the Sirion that joined it just to the south of the Pass of Sirion. The sources of the Lithir were in Ered Wethrin.
Loudwater
See Bruinen

M[edit]

Malduin
A northern tributary to the Taeglin in West Beleriand. It arose in the Mountains of Shadow and flowed generally southwards.

Mering Stream
The border river of Rohan and Gondor. The Mering Stream or in (Sindarin) Glanhír formed the border between the Gondorian province of Anórien and Rohan's province of Eastfold. It arose on the north side of the White Mountains and flowed generally north-east, at first through the Firien Wood, which grew about the hill of Halifirien, and thence into the Entwash.

Mindeb
A northern tributary of the Sirion in East Beleriand. It began in the Ered Gorgoroth near the Pass of Anach, and was met by an unnamed tributary coming from the Crissaegrim.
The Mindeb was the boundary between Dimbar (on the west) and Nan Dungortheb and the forest of Neldoreth (both on the east). Neldoreth was part of the realm of Doriath, so there the Mindeb formed the north-west sector of the Girdle of Melian. The Mindeb is mentioned in Quenta Silmarillion chapter 14.

Mitheithel
A great river of Eriador, translated as Hoarwell in Westron.[20] The source lay in the northern Misty Mountains, from where the river sped past the Ettenmoors before bending south. The East Road crossed the Mitheithel at the Last Bridge, after which the river was met by the Bruinen, forming the Angle. From there Mitheithel formed the south-west border of Eregion, until it came to the Swanfleet, where the Glanduin flowed, and became the Gwathló (Greyflood) river.

Morgulduin
(S. 'river of sorcery') A river of Gondor that began at Cirith Ungol. It flowed past Minas Morgul towards the Anduin, and was followed by the old Númenórean road from Minas Morgul to Osgiliath. It was crossed by the Harad Road with a bridge just south of the Cross-roads.

Morthond
A river of Gondor beginning at the southern edges of the Dwimorberg at the end of the Paths of the Dead in the White Mountains. It then flowed past the ancient site of Erech and the Pinnath Gelin. After meeting its tributary the Ringló, it entered the Great Sea at Edhellond. Also translated as Blackroot.
The Morthond was one of the Seven Rivers of Gondor.

N[edit]

Narog
The chief river of West Beleriand. The Narog rose from the Pools of Ivrin in the Ered Wethrin, flowed south and then southeast, flowing through a gorge in a series of rapids where it crossed the hills of the Andram or Long Wall, finally meeting the Sirion in the Land of Willows Nan-tathren, not far above the Mouths of Sirion. The Narog's tributaries were the Ginglith in the north and the Ringwil in the Taur-en-Faroth.
Into its western bank, just south of where the Ringwil rushed into the Narog, was carved the city of Nargothrond, stronghold of Finrod Felagund and then his brother Orodreth.
During his time in Nargothrond, Túrin Turambar persuaded Orodreth to build a bridge over the Narog. He did, but it resulted in the downfall of Nargothrond as it provided a way for the dragon Glaurung to reach the city.

Nen Lalaith
A stream of Dor-lómin that rose near Amon Darthir in Ered Wethrin and ran past Húrin's house.

Nenning
A river of the Falas. Its wells were in the hills lying north-west in West Beleriand south of the Ered Wethrin, near the Woods of Núath. It ran to the bay of Eglarest where it met the sea Belegaer.

Nimrodel
A river of Lothlórien. It began in the eastern foothills of the Misty Mountains under the Celebdil peak, and then flowed through Lothlórien until it met the Silverlode. The river was named after the Elven lady Nimrodel who dwelt beside the stream.
Ninglor
See Gladden

Norbourn
A river in the Northfarthing of the Shire. Between it and the Brandywine River stretched the Greenfields, where the Battle of Greenfields was fought. The Norbourn is only mentioned in the detailed index Tolkien was preparing for The Lord of the Rings, but which was eventually left unfinished. In the partial map of the Shire published within The Lord of the Rings an unnamed river flows from the north to the Bywater Pool, which might possibly be the Norbourn.

O[edit]

Onodló
See Entwash

P[edit]

Poros
A river in the south of Gondor. It forms the northern border of the contested land of the South Gondor, and the southern border of Ithilien. During the later Third Age it was the effective southern border of Gondor.
About 400 miles (640 km) long, it began in the Ephel Dúath of Mordor and then flowed south-west for about 300 miles (480 km), when it bent north and met the Anduin just before its delta.
The Poros was crossed by the Harad Road at the Crossings of Poros. A battle was fought at the Crossings in T.A. 2885 between the forces of Gondor and Harad. The Gondorians, aided by a contingent from Rohan, were victorious, but the twin sons of Folcwine, 14th king of Rohan, were killed in the battle. They were buried near the crossings in a mound called Haudh in Gwanur.[21]

R[edit]

Rathlóriel
See Ascar.
Redwater
See Carnen

Ringló
A river of Gondor arising as two smaller unnamed rivers in the White Mountains, on the southern arm that bent towards Belfalas. Flowing through the city Ethring, it passed north of Tarnost, where it was met by the Ciril, and poured into the sea together with the Morthond at Edhellond.
The Ringló was one of the Seven Rivers of Gondor.

Ringwil
A tributary of the Narog in West Beleriand. It began in the hills about Nargothrond, and flowed north of the hidden city.
Where it met the Narog a secret door was built, which was used by Lúthien to escape from Nargothrond when Celegorm and Curufin held her prisoner.

Rivil
A stream in the north of Beleriand; it was a tributary of the Sirion. The Rivil's source was at Rivil's Well in Dorthonion; from there it flowed north-west until it met with the Sirion in the Fens of Serech.
The river is mentioned twice in The Silmarillion. The first mention is in the chapter concerning Beren and Lúthien. Rivil's Well was where a camp was made by the Orcs that had killed Barahir, father of Beren. Beren attacked them there, taking back the Ring of Barahir before escaping again.
The second mention is in the chapter concerning the Nírnaeth Arnoediad, where the valiant retreat of Húrin and Huor is described thus: "...foot by foot they withdrew, until they came behind the Fen of Serech, and had the stream of Rivil before them. There they stood and gave way no more."

Rushdown
An early tributary of the Anduin river in Wilderland. It flowed from the Misty Mountains and joined the Great River north of the Carrock. Early writings of Tolkien also gave its Sindarin name Rhimdath.[22]
Running
See Celduin

S[edit]

Serni
The fourth of the Five Rivers of Lebennin in Gondor. It began in the plains of Lebennin and met the Bay of Belfalas north of the Mouths of Anduin at the city of Linhir.
The name is usually written Serni, although in the Preface to The Adventures of Tom Bombadil Tolkien spelt it Sernui. There he noted that the watercourse was one of the Seven Rivers of Gondor.

Seven Rivers
There were two sets of Seven Rivers in Middle-earth.
The Seven Rivers of Gondor were the rivers that flowed to the Sea in that kingdom. From west to east these were: Lefnui, Morthond-Ciril-Ringló, Gilrain-Serni, and Anduin.[23] Two of these, the Gilrain and Serni, were among the five rivers of Lebennin.
In the First Age, the Seven Rivers of Ossir defined Ossiriand, a land in Beleriand on the western side of the Blue Mountains, where the sources of all seven rivers were located. The seven were the Gelion and six tributaries, which from north to south were: Ascar, Thalos, Legolin, Brilthor, Duilwen and Adurant. In The Lord of the Rings Treebeard reminisces on "the light and the music in the Summer by the Seven Rivers of Ossir".

Shirebourn
A river of the Shire which had its source in the Green Hill Country of the Eastfarthing. At first the Shirebourn ran south, but then turned more easterly. At Willowbottom it was joined by its tributary the Thistle Brook, before flowing into the Brandywine at Deephallow. At this confluence lay the boggy region known as the Overbourn Marshes.
The Shirebourn formed the southern boundary of the Eastfarthing; the Southfarthing lay on the other side of this boundary.

Silverlode
The main river of Lothlórien. It rose in the eastern Misty Mountains near the East Gate of Moria, and flowed out of the Dimrill Dale and into Lothlórien. There it was met by the Nimrodel before eventually emptying into the Anduin. The Company of the Ring followed this river when they travelled from Moria to Lothlórien.
The Silverlode was called Celebrant in Sindarin and Kibil-nâla in Dwarvish. It also formed the northern boundary of the Field of Celebrant.
Tolkien noted, "It is probable that the Dwarves actually found silver in the river".[24]
In drafts of The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien contemplated Zigilnâd as the Dwarvish name for the river.[25]

Sirannon
The Gate Stream of Khazad-dûm (Moria). Beginning on the Silvertine, near Moria's West Gate (hence the name), it flowed generally south-west towards the river Glanduin. The Sirannon encountered the Stair Falls under the gates of Moria, and its sound could have been heard from miles around.
During the War of the Ring, the Company of the Ring found that the Gate Stream had been dammed by someone or something, and before the gates of Moria there was a foul lake where the Watcher in the Water dwelt.

Sirion
A great river of Middle-earth in the First Age, and the principal river of Beleriand. During most of its course it was the border between East and West Beleriand. Karen Wynn Fonstad estimates its length as 390 miles in her Atlas of Middle-earth.
The Sirion's source was at Eithel Sirion (the Wells of Sirion); from there it flowed southwards along the eastern foot-hills of the Ered Wethrin, passing through the Fens of Serech before entering the valley between the Ered Wethrin and the Pass of Sirion. It then continued south into Beleriand, with the Forest of Brethil to the west, and Dimbar and then Doriath to the east. After leaving Doriath it ran through the Fens of Sirion and Aelin-uial before falling below ground in the Falls of Sirion at Andram (the Long Wall), where the ground fell steeply. Three leagues southwards the Sirion exited the underground caves at the Gates of Sirion. It then flowed southwards through Nan-tathren until it reached the Bay of Balar, part of Belegaer, at Ethir Sirion (the Mouths of Sirion).
Barad Eithel, at the source of the Sirion, was a chief fortress of Fingolfin and his son Fingon. Further south, in the Pass of Sirion, lay Tol Sirion in the centre of the river.
The Sirion essentially ran southwards, so its tributaries flowed in from the east (E) or west (W). Its direct tributaries were (beginning in the north): the Rivil (E), the Lithir (W), the Dry River (E), the Mindeb (E), the Teiglin (W), the Esgalduin (E), the Aros (E), and the Narog (W).

Sirith
The third of the Five Rivers of Lebennin in Gondor. The Celon was its tributary, while Sirith met the Anduin at Pelargir.

Snowbourn
A river of Rohan arising in the White Mountains under the mountain Starkhorn. It flowed through Harrowdale, then past Edoras (the capital of Rohan), and then ran east until it met the river Entwash.
The Snowbourn demarcated some of Rohan's regions: it separated the Eastfold and the West Emnet, and formed part of the boundary between the East-mark and the West-mark.

Stockbrook
The Stockbrook was a stream in the Eastfarthing of the Shire. It arose in the Woody End and flowed through the Marish before entering the Brandywine at Stock.

T[edit]

Taeglin
A tributary of the Sirion in West Beleriand. It rose in the southern reaches of the Ered Wethrin, ran generally southeast, receiving the waters of Glithui and Malduin, then passed along the southern margin of the Forest of Brethil, where it ran through a gorge named Cabed-en-Aras and then received the Celebros. The Taeglin then ran eastward into Sirion at the borders of Doriath.
An important ford on the river was the Crossings of Teiglin, near the western border of Brethil. A road ran through it from Nargothrond to Minas Tirith. Minor tributaries were the Celebros and Malduin. The river's banks near the Celebros were the scene of the encounter between Túrin Turambar and the dragon Glaurung.
In the published Silmarillion and early writings, the river was called Teiglin. As revealed in The History of Middle-earth, the river's name should actually have been spelt Taeglin. This was a relatively late change which was not adopted by Christopher Tolkien in his published Silmarillion.

Thalos
A tributary of the Gelion. It was the third from the north of the seven rivers that defined Ossiriand. Thalos arose on from the west side of the Blue Mountains, and at its springs Finrod met the first Men to enter Beleriand.

Thistle Brook
A stream of the Eastfarthing of the Shire. It flowed southeast round the Woody End and through the village of Willowbottom before its waters emptied into the Shirebourn.

W[edit]

The Water
A river in the Shire. It was a tributary of the river Brandywine that arose in the Westfarthing of the Shire, and flowed eastward through the Eastfarthing before entering the Brandywine just north of the Brandywine Bridge. Natural features along the river included Rushock Bog and the Bywater Pool.
The villages close to the river were Needlehole, Hobbiton, Bywater, Frogmorton and Whitfurrows.
The Water had its own tributaries. One of these was a stream which flowed down from the Green Hill Country to the south,[26] used by Frodo in the early part of his journey.[27] Another tributary (possibly the Norbourn) ran from the Northfarthing and entered the Water at the Bywater Pool.
The Water is the only watercourse of the Shire (or indeed of western Eriador) mentioned in The Hobbit.

Withywindle
The main river of the Old Forest, and a tributary of the Baranduin (Brandywine). The Withywindle rose in the Barrow-downs, flowed over a waterfall by the house of Tom Bombadil, meandered through the Old Forest, and joined the Brandywine at Haysend. The name means 'a winding river bordered by willows (withies).'[28] The element 'windel' means 'basket' in Old English, and thus the river's name alludes to the net of trees woven by Old Man Willow from the banks of the river.
In legends the stream was inhabited by nature-spirits, namely the River-woman and her daughter Goldberry. Bombadil discovered Goldberry in one of the river's pools, and they wed, living together in Bombadil's house. He regularly travelled along the Withywindle to gather flowers for her from her former aquatic home; she revisited during spring.[29]
The river ecosystem of the Withywindle was diverse, as it had been virtually undisturbed by humans (or hobbits) for thousands of years. Animal life included a variety of birds (notably swans, kingfishers, willow-wrens, coots, dabchicks, and herons); mammals ('water-rats', badgers and otters); insects (bumblebees, butterflies, moths and flies) and fish. Willows were ubiquitous, but other plants included alders, briar-roses, forget-me-nots, buttercups (possibly Ranunculus arvensis), grass, reeds and water-lilies.[30]
The valley of the Withywindle within the Old Forest was known as the Dingle.[31] It lay within the kingdom of Arnor, which claimed the royal prerogative of swan upping in the river.[32] However there is no evidence that the prerogative was ever exercised.
The Withywindle figures primarily in The Fellowship of the Ring and the first two poems of The Adventures of Tom Bombadil. In The Fellowship of the Ring Frodo Baggins and his companions tried to avoid the river when attempting to traverse the Old Forest, having been warned against it by Merry. However they found that the forest appeared to channel them to the river. At first it appeared to be serene, but they had been lured into the clutches of Old Man Willow. Only the arrival of Bombadil enabled them to escape; then they followed Bombadil and the Withywindle upstream to the other side of the forest.
Tom Shippey identified the Withywindle with the River Cherwell near Tolkien's home in Oxford.[33]

Z[edit]

Zigilnâd
See Silverlode

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Robert Foster (1978), The Complete Guide to Middle-earth, Unwin Paperbacks p. 23;
  2. ^ Hooker, Mark T. (2014). The Tolkienaeum. Llyfrawr. pp. 181–182.
  3. ^ Wayne G. Hammond & Christina Scull (1995), J. R. R. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator, HarperCollins, figure 160 p.165; ISBN 0-261-10322-9
  4. ^ Barbara Strachey (1981), Journeys of Frodo, Unwin Paperbacks, map 33, ISBN 0 04 912011 5.
  5. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1967), Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings, published in Wayne G. Hammond & Christina Scull (2005), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, HarperCollins, p.768, ISBN 0 00 720308 X.
  6. ^ A Tolkien Compass, ed. Jared Lobdell, pp. 183-84 (Chicago, Open Court Press, 1975)
  7. ^ Unfinished Tales, ed. Christopher Tolkien, p. 319) (mass market paperback ed. 1975)
  8. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1994), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The War of the Jewels, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, pp. 191, 336, ISBN 0-395-71041-3
  9. ^ "Flora of Middle Earth:Plants of J.R.R. Tolkien's Legendarium; Walter S. Judd & Graham A. Judd". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  10. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1954), The Fellowship of the Ring, 2nd edition (1966), George Allen & Unwin, book 1 ch. 2 p. 62; ISBN 0 04 23045 6
  11. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1980), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Unfinished Tales, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, History of Galadriel and Celeborn, Appendix D "The Port of Lond Daer", ISBN 0-395-29917-9
  12. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1977), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Silmarillion, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "History of Galadriel and Celeborn", ISBN 0-395-25730-1
  13. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Iron". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
  14. ^ "Isen". The Encyclopedia of Arda. Mark Fisher. 25 February 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
  15. ^ Tolkien's map of Helm's Deep shows the Deeping-stream flowing away west towards the Isen: Wayne G. Hammond & Christina Scull (1995), J. R. R. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator, HarperCollins, figure 160 p.165; ISBN 0-261-10322-9
  16. ^ The Return of the King, "The Grey Havens", p. 310.
  17. ^ The History of Middle-earth, vol. XII, "Of Dwarves and Men", p. 313.
  18. ^ Unfinished Tales, note 46 to "Cirion and Eorl".
  19. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1994), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The War of the Jewels, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-71041-3
  20. ^ The Fellowship of the Ring, "Flight to the Ford".
  21. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1955), The Return of the King, 2nd edition (1966), appendix A part I(iv) p. 335, part II p. 350, appendix B (Third Age) p. 369, and the map of Gondor; ISBN 0 04 823047 2
  22. ^ Tolkien, Christopher (1988, ed.), The Return of the Shadow (being volume 6 of The History of Middle-earth), Unwin Hyman, ch.XI p.205 footnote, ISBN 0-04-440162-0.
  23. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1962), The Adventures of Tom Bombadil, Unwin Paperbacks (1975), Preface, p. 80 footnote 1; ISBN 0 04 823125 8; in this preface Tolkien used the spelling Kiril instead of Ciril, and Sernui instead of Serni.
  24. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1989), The Treason of Isengard (volume 7 of The History of Middle-earth), Unwin Hyman, ch. VIII p.175 note 22
  25. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1996), The Peoples of Middle-earth (volume 12 of The History of Middle-earth), Houghton Mifflin, part 1 ch. IX (iv) 'Durin's Folk p. 279; ISBN 0-395-82760-4
  26. ^ Barbara Strachey (1981), Journeys of Frodo, Unwin Paperbacks, map 1; ISBN 0 04 912011 5.
  27. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1954), The Fellowship of the Ring, George Allen & Unwin, 2nd edition (1966), book 1 ch.3 p.82; ISBN 0 04 823045 6.
  28. ^ J. R. R. Tolkien (1967), Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings, published in Hammond, Wayne G. & Christina Scull (2005), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, London: HarperCollins, p.779, ISBN 0 00 720308 X
  29. ^ Tolkien, J.R.R. (1954), The Fellowship of the Ring, 2nd edition (1966), George Allen & Unwin, ch. VII p.137, ISBN 0 04 823045 6
  30. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1962), The Adventures of Tom Bombadil, Unwin Paperbacks, poems 1 & 2; ISBN 0 04 823125 8
  31. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1962), The Adventures of Tom Bombadil, Unwin Paperbacks, preface, p.80; ISBN 0 04 823125 8
  32. ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1962), 'Bombadil Goes Boating', in The Adventures of Tom Bombadil, Unwin Paperbacks edition, George Allen & Unwin, poem II verse 18 ("...If one day the King returns"), p.93; ISBN 0 04 823125 8
  33. ^ Shippey, T. A. (2000), J. R. R. Tolkien: Author of the Century, Harper Collins, p.63, ISBN 0 261 10400 4

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