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Butwal Sub-metropolitian

बुटवल उप-महानगरपालीका
City at a Glance
City at a Glance
Nickname(s): Batauli Bazaar
Butwal is located in Nepal
Location of Butwal in Nepal
Coordinates: 27°42′N 83°27′E / 27.700°N 83.450°E / 27.700; 83.450Coordinates: 27°42′N 83°27′E / 27.700°N 83.450°E / 27.700; 83.450
Country    Nepal
Zone Lumbini Zone
District Rupandehi District
Sub-Metropolitian Butwal
 • Type बुटवल उप-महानगरपालीका
 • Total 1,470 km2 (570 sq mi)
Population 118,462
 • Total 118,462
Time zone Nepal Standard Time (UTC+5:45)
Post code 32907
Area code(s) +071
Website www.butwalmun.org.np

Butwal (Nepali: बुटवल) is one of the major cities in Nepal. It lies in Western Development Region, Lumbini Zone in Rupandehi District. It acts as an administrative headquarter for Lumbini Zone. It is situated at the bank of Tilottama River Tinau River. It is located 265 km west of Kathmandu 161 km south of Pokhara and 22 km north of Siddharthanagar Bhairawaha, at the northern edge of the Terai plain below the Siwalik Hills. Its name is derived from Batauli Bazaar in the town's oldest district; also known as BTL informally.

Geographically, Butwal is the mid section (Cross Roads) of the Nepal's National Highway (Mahendra Highway & Siddhartha Highway). It connects western Nepal to the capital Kathmandu through highway and air links. It has become one of the fastest growing cities in Nepal in terms of mainly education, infrastructure, highway, marketing, health & safety, communication, trade and banking sectors. It has highway connections to the Indian Border at Sunauli and to hilly towns Tansen and Pokhara valley. And holds the title of being "The Best City in Nepal" twice.

Butwal was officially declared as a sub-metropolitian city on 2 December 2014 by combining two neighbouring VDCs Motipur and Semlar.


Fossils of ancient hominoids Ramapithecus were found near the Tinau (Tilottama) River as early as 1932, including a 10.1 million year old tooth.[2]

Historically Butwal connected Nepali people with their Indian neighbors. As the British East India Company annexed Awadh from its hereditary rulers while the Shah Dynasty attempted to annex the Terai, Butwal became one of bones of contention leading to the Gurkha War 1814-16.[3][4]

When King Tribhuvan fled to India in 1950 during the revolt against the Rana dynasty he travelled through Butwal. Then it was little more than a village on the western bank of Tilottama River (also known as Tinau). With completion in 1968 of Siddhartha Highway from the border at Sunauli through Butwal to Pokhara and then in the 1990s Mahendra Highway across the full east-west expanse of Nepal's Terai, Butwal has developed rapidly.


The population in Butwal 118,462 (census 2011) consists of mixed races; these includesPahari immigrants from nearby hill districts especially (Palpa), (Arghakhanchi) (Gulmi)and (Syangja) and people of Terai origin. There are also students who choose to live in Butwal temporarily. Butwal is also popular with ex-Gurkha soldiers commonly called Lahure (Nepali: लाहुरे) population due to historic reasons.

The population distribution in different wards are as follows:[5]

Ward No. Households Population Male Female
1 205 980 489 491
2 189 1053 520 522
3 240 1337 664 673
4 1491 6487 3353 3134
5 3039 10842 5476 5366
6 2368 9603 4995 4608
7 669 3202 1725 1477
8 1598 6787 3470 3317
9 2631 10597 5019 5578
10 3175 11942 5856 6086
11 2445 9170 4723 4447
12 1114 4361 2092 22269
13 7258 28193 13834 14359
14 1566 6542 3101 3441
15 1674 7366 3491 3875
16 **** **** **** ****
17 **** **** **** ****
18 **** **** **** ****
19 **** **** **** ****
20 **** **** **** ****
21 **** **** **** ****
22 **** **** **** ****
Total 29662 118462 58808 59654

Culture and religion[edit]

Hindus in the majority celebrate Holi, Teej, Maha Shivratri, Dashain, Tihar and Bhai Tika. Many Paharis go to their native villages during the month from Dashain through Tihar and the town becomes nearly deserted.

There are also Buddhist and Muslims. There is a very good and harmonious relationship among different religious and ethnic community which can be seen during festivals.


Nepali and English is the common language spoken in Butwal. Gurung, Magar and Tharu people speak native language in their community. Magar language is dominant in the hilly areas surrounding Butwal.

English is not popular; however, most of the young generations and mid aged population can communicate well in English.


The economy of Butwal centers around education, entertainment and industries. Presently, the main trading centre is located near Traffic Chowk, Puspalal Park, Milan Chowk and Raj Margh Chaurah. Numerous shops sell Chinese and Indian goods in this area. In recent times, the shopping district is expanding towards southern Butwal due to building up of new community and housing zones in the southern region. Besides mordern shopping, a traditional form of market called Haat Bazar runs twice a week on wednesday and saturdays. Butwal is regarded as an important city for trade and marketing and has the second largest horticulture market Butwal Sabji Mandi after Kathmandu. Usually, farmers directly sell to the household customers in this market.

Butwal also has small and medium scale manufacturers involved in woodwork, iron-sheet, metal-ware and aluminium sheet. There are Rice huller|rice mills which serves for the local farmers. Siddhababa Rice mill, Aryal Rice Mill (Jharbaira-Murgiya) and Sita rice mill are some of the oldest and well known among the local farmers.

Butwal is also trading hub for marbles, tiles sanitary and hard wares in Nepal; it can be found in cheaper rates in comparison to other parts of Nepal. Some of the trading companies like Usha Marbles, Narshang Hardware, Basyal Trade Center, etc. are the leading retailers for marble.

The educational facilities attracts thousands of students each year. Some of these students get involved in fixed jobs while others get involved in part time jobs.

Additionally, remittance by expatriate Nepalese and Gurkha Soldiers employed in the Indian and British Army adds to the economy of Butwal.

Butwal has also become a banking centre of the region. Various banks like Sewa Bikas Bank Ltd. and many other banks have been established with head office in Butwal, while other several banks have their branches in Butwal.

The trade in Butwal is managed by Butwal chamber of commerce & industry (BuCCI) which is primarily involved in safeguarding the rights of private business.

Audhyogig Byapar Mela-Butwal is a festival held in Butwal where exhibition industries from nation wide come and showcase their products. This festival is organized annually in the month of Poush (generally December–January).

Also see List of shops and business enterprises in Butwal.


Buses are the dominant form of transportation. Private operators offer service to various destinations. Until 2003 most of the fleet was older large buses; since then operators have added newer minibuses popularly called micro. Older jeeps are used to take people to nearby hilly regions. Rickshaws are used for short-distance urban transport, however taxicabs are gaining popularity with increasing affluence. Motorcycles are a common means of personal transportation around town. The number registered has increased from 1,200 in 1999 to 80,000 in 2008.

Nearly 100 buses depart to Kathmandu from Butwal bus station. Long distance buses are also available to other major cities like Pokhara, Mahendranagar in west and Kakarbhitta in east.


Butwal has been a major city for distribution of information. Besides availability of national newspapers like Gorkhapatra and Kantipur, many local newspapers and magazine are also published. There are daily newspaper like Janasangarsha, Lumbini, etc. However, there are no English newspaper in this region.

Butwal is one of the few cities which installed FM radio stations before any cities in Nepal. The first FM station to be established was Lumbini FM. Since then other FM stations like khashauli FM 91.8, Radio republic 88.2, Radio chimikii. Radio Jagaran -93.6 MHz, Butwal FM -94.4 MHz, Radio Namaste 92.8 MHz, Radio Samabesi, 105 MHz, Tinau FM 98.2, Radio mukti, Radio Kantipur, Image FM, Radio Nepal, Nepal FM network, Udyalo 90 Network etc has been established. The common content of these radio stations are local and national news, music and religious programs

There are local televisions in Butwal which runs in collaboration with cable networks. Lumbini TV, Rupandehi TV, BBN, Buddha Television etc are some of the examples. These television channels broadcast local events and news.

Number of internet websites are also run by the local people.


In Butwal there are several bank and financial institution. Nepal Bank Ltd and Rastriya Banijya Bank are the oldest bank of Butwal. Most of the national bank has its branch office in Butwal. Standard chartered Bank, Lumbini bank ltd, NIBL, Tinau Development Bank, Mission Development Bank Ltd., Sewa Bikas Bank, Ekata Dev Bank, Pashchimanchal Development Bank etc has either headoffice or a branch office in Butwal and the leading bank of Rupandehi District which was established in Butwal its self Shine Resunga Development Bank Ltd.

Besides bank, local cooperative are also functioning which has been established as per rules and regulation of Nepal government to help the local community.


Butwal is a major center of education in Nepal [After Kathmandu ]. There are three regional campus affiliated with Tribhuvan University which are run by government.

  • Butwal Bahumukhi Campus for B.sc.CSIT ,B.sc ,B.ed ICT,BBS,B.ed,B.A, LLB, M.ED e.t.c
  • Lumbini Banijya Campus
  • Siddhartha Gautam Buddha Campus

There are also private colleges which provides education in various fields that government campus cannot. The list is as follows:

  • Sanjeevani College of Medical Sciences,[6] Kalika Nagar
  • Galaxy English Boarding High School, Murgiya.
  • Butwal Kalika Campus, Kalikanagar-12
  • Sky International College, Bsc IT, Msc IT, BBA, MBA (Sikkim Manipal University)
  • Tinau Technical College, B.sc.CSIT (Trivuwan University)

Private colleges with two-year post-secondary programs and courses in commerce and management:

Government high schools

Private High Schools


Places of interest[edit]

The most historical and beautiful religious site of Nepal situated 13 km east of Butwal is best known for the maternal home of lord Gautam Buddha. It is a place of best natural beauty and pollution free environment. Kheirani, Bhawanipur, Bairimai, Kan yamai, Khayardanda etc are the places of interest. Aap Khola' (mango river) where people go for swimming and to obtain water during droughts. There is a view of nearby Manakamana Temple.

An historic place for the Gurung community. This hill used to be called Gurung Dada because Gurungs were buried here. It separates the city into 2 parts and gives views of both sides.

  • Jitgadhi

A fortress during Angol Nepal war, Narayan temple built by (1864 B.S.) Hanuman temple and Shivalaya of Hanumagngadhi, Jalabinayak Mehadev temple, Siddababa temple, Nuwakot etc. are famous centres of attraction in Butwal.

  • Murgiya Jharbaira

About 13 km west from Butwal city. This place is known for secondary schools, rice and oil mills, temples and natural beauty. Temple of Lord Shiva (Parroha Parmeshower Bolbam Dham) is situated near by here with is internationally famous for receiving blessings from Lord of the Lord Shiva Shankar and temple of Goddess Durga at the center of town.

The winter palace of Palpali Sen clan is very fascinating from natural and archaeological values. There are ruins and antiquities of the majestic palace of Manimukunda Sen an ancient Palpali king containing 6 large rooms as well as royal residence, administrative and fascinating scenic grandeur of Butwal, Siddharthanagar and other neighbouring villages of Rupandehi district can be vividly seen from here at night also. His Majesty's Government, archaeological department has attempted to maintain it in 1991. Now Butwal municipality has formed council for the conservation of Manimukunda Sen Park to conduct Phulbari Development Programme and attempted to make it an amusing and a tourist resort.

  • Sainamaina

Located about 12 km. west from Butwal and to North from Banakatti, Sainamaina as an open museum is very famous and fascinating resort from historical archaeological culture and natural points of view. Among the different Gramas villages of Shakya King, it was in the samgrama site. An Indian queen (Begum Hazrat Mahal of Awadh) because of the British disturbance in her kingdom came to this area with her soldiers and porters (‘Sena’ and Mena’) and finally this area came to be known as Saina Maina. It is an exquisite treasure trove of ancient ruins and antiquities: statues of dancing saints, ruins of palace, well etc.

It is located on hills at the border of Butwal Municipality.[7] Devotees believe that Siddha Baba will grant their wishes and offer pigeons at the temple. On Saturdays, the weekly holiday in Nepal, large number of devotees visit this temple and special Microbus services are offered.

  • The Statue of Buddha (Jogidanda)

It was very significant ruins of having the values of classical art are scattered here and there. This famous archaeological site is being occupied by homeless and landless people. Some of the antiquities of this site are seen thrown around the Lumbini museum.

  • Nilkanth varni (Swaminarayan) stayed for two months in king's palace (now at manimukund garden, an old wall remains) during his "Vanvicharan".


  1. ^ "Nepal Census 2011". Nepal's Village Development Committees. Digital Himalaya. Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  2. ^ Barry, J.C. (July 1984), "A Review of the Siwalik hominoids", in Else, James G.; Lee, Phyllis C., Primate Evolution., Vol. 1, Nairobi, Kenya: Selected Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Primatological Society, pp. 93–106, retrieved April 13, 2011 
  3. ^ Handa, O.C. (2002). History of Uttaranchal. New Delhi: Indus Publishing Co. pp. 170ff. 
  4. ^ Saugat, Om, ed. (2003). "Chapter 10: Relations with Nepal and Burma". Encyclopedic History of Indian Freedom Movement. New Delhi: saugat. pp. 280–282. Retrieved April 13, 2011. 
  5. ^ Butwal, Municpality. "Butwal Nagarpalika". http://www.butwalmun.org.np. Retrieved 20 October 2014. 
  6. ^ sanjeevani.edu.np
  7. ^ http://wikimapia.org/848100/Butwal-Siddha-Baba-Pilgirmage-site