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Butwal Sub-metropolitan

बुटवल उप-महानगरपालिका
City at a Glance
City at a Glance
Nickname(s): Batauli Bazaar
Butwal is located in Nepal
Location of Butwal in Nepal
Coordinates: 27°42′N 83°27′E / 27.700°N 83.450°E / 27.700; 83.450Coordinates: 27°42′N 83°27′E / 27.700°N 83.450°E / 27.700; 83.450
Country    Nepal
Zone Lumbini Zone
District Rupandehi District
Sub-Metropolitan Butwal
 • Type

हाल -बुटवल उप-महानगरपालिका कार्यालय

नेपालको संम्बिधान 2072 बमोजिम बुटवल स्य्वतं लुम्बिनी प्रदेशको राजधानी हो।
 • Total 1,470 km2 (570 sq mi)
Population 118,462
 • Total 118,462
Time zone Nepal Standard Time (UTC+5:45)
Post code 32907
Area code(s) +071
Website www.butwalmun.org.np

Butwal (Nepali: बुटवल) is a sub-metropolitan city and the urban core of a rapidly growing urban agglomerate in Nepal. It lies in Western Development Region, Lumbini Zone in Rupandehi District. It acts as the administrative headquarter for Lumbini Zone. It is situated at the bank of Tilottama River Tinau River. It is located 265 km west of Kathmandu 161 km south of Pokhara and 22 km north of Siddharthanagar Bhairawaha, at the northern edge of the Terai plain below the Siwalik Hills. Its name is derived from Batauli Bazaar in the town's oldest district.

Geographically, Butwal is the midsection (Cross Roads) of the Nepal's National Highway, Mahendra Highway and Siddhartha Highway. It connects western Nepal to the capital Kathmandu through highway and air links. It has become one of the fastest-growing cities in Nepal in terms of mainly education, infrastructure, highway, marketing, health and safety, communication, trade and banking sectors. It has highway connections to the Indian Border at Sunauli and to hilly towns Tansen and Pokhara valley and holds the title of being "The Best City in Nepal" twice.

Some of the famous areas of Butwal are:

Butwal was officially declared a sub-metropolitan city on 2 December 2014 by combining two neighbouring VDCs Motipur and Semlar.



Fossils of ancient hominoids Ramapithecus were found near the Tinau (Tilottama) River as early as 1932, including a 10.1-million-year-old tooth.[2]

Modern history[edit]

The area was a loose settlement famous as a trading post between the hill districts of Lumbini zone and the Indian plains. Thus, historically Butwal connected Nepali people with their Indian neighbors. As the British East India Company annexed Awadh from its hereditary rulers while the Shah Dynasty attempted to annex the Terai, Butwal became one of bones of contention leading to the Gurkha War 1814-16.[3][4]

When King Tribhuvan fled to India in 1950 during the revolt against the Rana dynasty he travelled through Butwal. Then it was little more than a village on the western bank of Tilottama River (also known as Tinau).

Butwal is a relatively newly urbanized area, emerging and growing rapidly only since about 1960. With completion in 1968 of Siddhartha Highway from the border at Sunauli through Butwal to Pokhara and then in the 1990s Mahendra Highway across the full east–west expanse of Nepal's Terai, Butwal has developed rapidly.


The population of Butwal is 118,462 (census 2011) and consists of people of mixed groups and castes; these includesPahari immigrants from nearby hill districts especially Palpa, Arghakhanchi, Parbat, Gulmi, Syangja and others and people of Terai origin. Butwal, as a hub of education in the region, attracts a sizeable temporary population of students who choose to study here, migrating from the nearby districts. Butwal is also popular with ex-Gurkha soldiers commonly called Lahure (Nepali: लाहुरे) population due to historic reasons.

The population distribution in different wards are as follows:[5]

Ward No. Households Population Male Female
1 205 980 489 491
2 189 1053 520 522
3 240 1337 664 673
4 1491 6487 3353 3134
5 3039 10842 5476 5366
6 2368 9603 4995 4608
7 669 3202 1725 1477
8 1598 6787 3470 3317
9 2631 10597 5019 5578
10 3175 11942 5856 6086
11 2445 9170 4723 4447
12 1114 4361 2092 22269
13 7258 28193 13834 14359
14 1566 6542 3101 3441
15 1674 7366 3491 3875
16 778 3566 1640 1926
17 **** **** **** ****
18 **** **** **** ****
19 **** **** **** ****
20 **** **** **** ****
21 **** **** **** ****
22 **** **** **** ****
Total 29662 118462 58808 59654

Hindus in the majority celebrate Holi, Teej, Maha Shivratri, Dashain, Tihar and Bhai Tika. Many Paharis go to their native villages during the month from Dashain through Tihar and the town becomes nearly deserted.

There are also Buddhist and Muslims. There is a very good and harmonious relationship among different religious and ethnic community which can be seen during festivals.

Nepali and English is the common language spoken in Butwal. Gurung, Magar and Tharu people speak native language in their community. Magar language is dominant in the hilly areas surrounding Butwal.

English is not used much; however, most of the young generations and mid aged population can communicate well in English.


Butwal is mostly a commercial and trading city, and an upcoming link city for the nearby tourist spots. The economy of Butwal centers around trade, services and industries. The old trading districts are Traffic Chowk, B P Chowk, Amarpath and Nepalgunj Road. Numerous wholesale and retail shops sell Chinese and Indian goods in these markets. Presently, the main trading centre is located near Traffic Chowk, Puspalal Park, Milan Chowk and Raj Margh Chaurah. In recent times, the shopping district is expanding towards southern Butwal due to building up of new community and housing zones in the southern region. Besides modern shopping, a traditional form of market called Haat Bazar runs twice a week on Wednesdays and Saturdays. Butwal is regarded as an important city for trade and marketing and has the second largest vegetable market Butwal Sabji Mandi after Kathmandu. Usually, farmers directly sell to the retail customers in this market in a dusty and busy market setup. Butwal also has small and medium scale manufacturers involved in woodwork, iron-sheet, metal-ware and aluminium sheet. There are agro-processing industries that help create market for the local and regional farmers.

Service based economy is centred around banking, educational and health infrastructures. Increasing number of people are involved in jobs in these sectors, and Butwal holds a reputation for some excellent institutions in the fields.

Butwal is also the urban core of an upcoming urban agglomerate comprising the nearby municipalities of Tilottama, Siddharthanagar, Devdaha and Saina Maina. Together, these make up an urban continuum and the region as a whole has an increasingly large contribution to the national economy. Siddharthanagar has the international border and customs point with India at Belhiya, while also hosting a Special Economic Zone for industries. Siddharthanagar is also soon getting an international airport to boost up connectivity to the industrial and tourism region. The Butwal-Siddhathanagar corridor is a 25 km, 6-lane Trade Road, which is also the hotspot of pouring investments in large scale industries. Semlar and Saina Maina are more of agricultural regions that are recently incorporated to urban areas, and are expected to speed up urbanization with residential, industrial and modern farming infrastructures.

Butwal is also a connecting city between nearby tourist towns of Tansen, Kapilvastu and Lumbini. It is the gateway to nearby cities of Sunwal, Pokhara and Bharatpur. It is also a busy land-route to enter Nepal from India for tourists and others. Thus, Butwal is recently witnessing huge investments in the hospitality sector as well. To boost up tourism and MICE opportunities, the government plans to set up an international conference centre at Ramnagar in Butwal. All these developments hint towards a huge economic potential for development of the region.

The private commerce and trade in Butwal is united under the umbrella of Butwal chamber of commerce & industry (BuCCI) which is primarily involved in safeguarding the rights of private businesses. Audhyogig Byapar Mela-Butwal is a commercial festival held in Butwal where exhibition industries nationwide showcase and sell their products. This festival is organized annually in the month of Poush (generally December–January), and is one of the largest of its kind in Nepal.


Buses are the dominant form of transportation. Private operators offer service to various destinations. Until 2003 most of the fleet was older large buses; since then operators have added newer minibuses popularly called micro. Older jeeps are used to take people to nearby hilly regions. Rickshaws are used for short-distance urban transport, however taxicabs are gaining popularity with increasing affluence. Motorcycles are a common means of personal transportation around town. The number registered has increased from 1,200 in 1999 to 80,000 in 2008.

Nearly 100 buses depart to Kathmandu from Butwal bus station. Long-distance buses are also available to other major cities like Pokhara, Mahendranagar in west and Kakarbhitta in east.


Butwal is regarded as the most literate city in Nepal after Kathmandu. It holds the record for Nepal Top students in SLC as well as HSEB examination numerous times.

Places of interest[edit]

The most historical and beautiful religious site of Nepal situated 13 km east of Butwal is best known for the maternal home of lord Gautam Buddha. It is a place of best natural beauty and pollution-free environment. Kheirani, Bhawanipur, Bairimai, Kan yamai, Khayardanda etc. are the places of interest. Aap Khola' (mango river) where people go for swimming and to obtain water during droughts. There is a view of nearby Manakamana Temple.

An historic place for the Gurung community. This hill used to be called Gurung Dada because Gurungs were buried here. It separates the city into 2 parts and gives views of both sides.

A fortress during Angol Nepal war, Narayan temple built by (1864 B.S.) Hanuman temple and Shivalaya of Hanumagngadhi, Jalabinayak Mehadev temple, Siddababa temple, Nuwakot etc. are famous centres of attraction in Butwal.

About 13 km west from Butwal city. This place is known for secondary schools, rice and oil mills, temples and natural beauty. Temple of Lord Shiva (Parroha Parmeshower Bolbam Dham) is situated near by here with is internationally famous for receiving blessings from Lord of the Lord Shiva Shankar and temple of Goddess Durga at the center of town.

The winter palace of Palpali Sen clan is very fascinating from natural and archaeological values. There are ruins and antiquities of the majestic palace of Manimukunda Sen an ancient Palpali king containing 6 large rooms as well as royal residence, administrative and fascinating scenic grandeur of Butwal, Siddharthanagar and other neighbouring villages of Rupandehi district can be vividly seen from here at night also. His Majesty's Government, archaeological department has attempted to maintain it in 1991. Now Butwal municipality has formed council for the conservation of Manimukunda Sen Park to conduct Phulbari Development Programme and attempted to make it an amusing and a tourist resort.

Located about 12 km. west from Butwal and to North from Banakatti, Sainamaina as an open museum is very famous and fascinating resort from historical archaeological culture and natural points of view. Among the different Gramas villages of Shakya King, it was in the samgrama site. An Indian queen (Begum Hazrat Mahal of Awadh) because of the British disturbance in her kingdom came to this area with her soldiers and porters (‘Sena’ and Mena’) and finally this area came to be known as Saina Maina. It is an exquisite treasure trove of ancient ruins and antiquities: statues of dancing saints, ruins of palace, well etc.

It is located on hills at the border of Butwal Municipality.[6] Devotees believe that Siddha Baba will grant their wishes and offer pigeons at the temple. On Saturdays, the weekly holiday in Nepal, large number of devotees visit this temple and special Microbus services are offered.

  • The Statue of Buddha (Jogidanda)

It was very significant ruins of having the values of classical art are scattered here and there. This famous archaeological site is being occupied by homeless and landless people. Some of the antiquities of this site are seen thrown around the Lumbini museum.

  • Nilkanth varni (Swaminarayan) stayed for two months in king's palace (now at manimukund garden, an old wall remains) during his "Vanvicharan".
  • Muktidham, Nayagoan

The newly established religious placed constructed on the outskirt of city at Nayagoan, gives a feeling of the Vintage Temple of Muktinath at Mustang.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Nepal Census 2011". Nepal's Village Development Committees. Digital Himalaya. Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  2. ^ Barry, J.C. (July 1984), "A Review of the Siwalik hominoids", in Else, James G.; Lee, Phyllis C., Primate Evolution., Vol. 1, Nairobi, Kenya: Selected Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Primatological Society, pp. 93–106, retrieved April 13, 2011 
  3. ^ Handa, O.C. (2002). History of Uttaranchal. New Delhi: Indus Publishing Co. pp. 170ff. 
  4. ^ Saugat, Om, ed. (2003). "Chapter 10: Relations with Nepal and Burma". Encyclopedic History of Indian Freedom Movement. New Delhi: saugat. pp. 280–282. Retrieved April 13, 2011. 
  5. ^ Butwal, Municipality. "Butwal Nagarpalika". http://www.butwalmun.org.np. Retrieved 20 October 2014.  External link in |website= (help)
  6. ^ http://wikimapia.org/848100/Butwal-Siddha-Baba-Pilgirmage-site