Coordinates: 27°42′00″N 83°27′58″E / 27.70°N 83.466°E / 27.70; 83.466
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Clockwise from top: Butwal,Siddhababa Temple,Siddhartha Rajmarga
Butwal is located in Lumbini Province
Location of Butwal in province
Butwal is located in Nepal
Butwal (Nepal)
Coordinates: 27°42′00″N 83°27′58″E / 27.70°N 83.466°E / 27.70; 83.466
Country Nepal
 • MayorKhel Raj Pandey (Congress)
 • Deputy MayorSabitra Devi Aryal (CPN(UML))
 • Total101.61 km2 (39.23 sq mi)
150 m (490 ft)
 • Total195,054[1]
 • Rank12th (Nepal)
2nd (Lumbini Province)
 • Density1,920/km2 (5,000/sq mi)
 • Ethnicities
Magar Thakuri Newar Tharu Kami Gurung Damai Chhetri Bahun
 2021 Nepal census[1]
Time zoneUTC+5:45 (NST)
Post code
Area code071

Butwal (Nepali: बुटवल), officially Butwal Sub-Metropolitan City (Nepali: बुटवल उपमहानगरपालिका), is a sub-metropolitan city and economic hub in Lumbini Province in West Nepal. Butwal has a city population of 195,054 as per the 2021 AD Nepal census.[2]

The city is one of the tri-cities of rapidly growing Butwal-Tilottama-Bhairahawa urban agglomeration primarily based on the Siddhartha Highway in West Nepal with a total urban agglomerated population of 421,018.[1] It is one of the fastest-growing cities in Nepal for health, education, construction, communication, trade, and banking sectors. It has highway connections to the Indian border at Sunauli and to the hilly towns in Tansen and Pokhara valley, and holds the title of being "The Best City in Nepal" five times in a row.

Geographically, Butwal is at the intersection of Nepal's two different National Highways, Mahendra Highway and Siddhartha Highway. It connects western Nepal with the capital Kathmandu through the highway and air links (via Gautam Buddha International Airport at Siddharthanagar). The city stands beside the bank of Tinau River, and at the northern edge of the Terai plain below the Siwalik Hills. Its name, Butwal was derived from Batauli Bazaar , the town's oldest residential area which is located on the western bank of the Tinau River.[3]

Butwal was officially declared as a sub-metropolitan city on 2 December 2014 AD by combining two neighboring VDCs Motipur and Semlar. The city is currently headed by Nepali Congress leader Khel Raj Pandey.[4]



Fossils of ancient hominoids Ramapithecus were found near the Tinau (Tilottama) River, also known as paari Butwal, as early as 1932, including a 10.1-million-year-old tooth.[5]

Medieval history[edit]

In medieval time Butwal was known as Khasauli as it was believed to be established by Khas king. Later after the collapse of the Khasa empire it was ruled by the Sen kings of Palpa when it developed as a trading point between hilly people and plain people. In the 17th century Palpa with Butwal was annexed by Gorkha Empire. Butwal was also a place where a major battle of the Anglo-Nepalese war was fought i.e. Battle of Jitgadi Fort where the Gorkha army led by Ujir Singh Thapa beat the British forces.

Modern history[edit]

As recently as 1950, Butwal was a minor village on the western bank of Tilottama River (also known as Tinau)

The area was a loose settlement that acted as a trading post between the hilly districts of the Lumbini zone and the Indian plains. Thus, historically Butwal connected Nepali Pahari people with their Indian neighbors. As the British East India Company annexed Awadh from its hereditary rulers while the Shah Dynasty attempted to annex the Terai, Butwal became one of the bones of contention leading to the Gurkha War 1814–16 AD.[6][7]

When King Tribhuvan fled to India in 1950 during the revolt against the Rana dynasty he traveled through Butwal. Then it was little more than a village on the western bank of Tilottama River (also known as Tinau).

Butwal is a relatively newly urbanized area, emerging and growing rapidly only since 1960 AD. With the completion of the Siddhartha Highway (H10) in 1968 AD, starting from the border at Sunauli through Butwal to Pokhara and then in1990s Mahendra Highway(H01) across the full east–west expanse of Nepal's Terai. Butwal has made tremendous progress in the country.


The population of Butwal is 91,733 (census 2015 AD), according to the present stage the population is rapidly increasing with around 150,000 and above and consists of people of mixed groups and castes; these include Pahari immigrants from nearby hill districts especially Palpa, Arghakhanchi, Parbat, Gulmi, Syangja and also local people from Terai origin.l[8]

The population distribution in different wards in 2011 was as follows:[9]

Ward No. Households Population Male Female
1 205 980 489 491
2 189 1053 520 522
3 240 1337 664 673
4 1491 6487 3353 3134
5 3039 10842 5476 5366
6 2,368 9,603 4,995 4,608
7 669 3202 1725 1477
8 1,598 6,787 3,470 3,317
9 2631 10597 5019 5578
10 3175 11942 5856 6086
11 2445 9170 4723 4447
12 1114 24361 2092 22269
13 7258 28193 13834 14359
14 1566 6542 3101 3441
15 1674 7366 3491 3875
16 778 3566 1640 1926
17 **** **** **** ****
18 **** **** **** ****
19 **** **** **** ****
20 **** **** **** ****
21 **** **** **** ****
22 **** **** **** ****
Total 29662 118462 58808 59654
Religion in Butwal (2011)
Religion Percent


Caste and Ethnic groups[edit]

Caste and Ethnic groups in Butwal

  Hill Brahman (30%)
  Magar (19%)
  Chhetri (14%)
  Newar (8%)
  Tharu (7%)
  Kami (5%)
  others (18%)

The largest single caste and ethnic groups in butwal is Hill Brahman, who makes 30% of the population, Magar with 19% comes to second place, Other ethnic groups in pokhara includes the Chhetri (14%),Newar (8%), Tharu (7%), and others various ethnic groups makes(23%) of the population.[10]

Broad Caste and Ethnicity category (2011 Census)
Broad Ethnic Category Sub Category Linguistic Family Population Percentage[11]
Khas Aryan (Pahari Caste Groups) Khas Brahmin, Chhetri, Kami, Thakuri, Damai Sarki,Sanyasi/Dasnami Indo-Aryan 53.9%
Janajati (Pahari Tribal Groups) Magar,Tamang,Gurung, Sherpa,Rai,Limbu etc. Sino-Tibetan 24.1%
Newar (Kathmandu Valley Caste Groups) Newari Brahmin, Shrestha, Tamrakar, Newar Buddhist, Maharjan, Rajkarnikar etc. Indo-Aryan And Sino-Tibetan 7.6%
Adibasi (Terai Indigenous Groups) Tharu, Rajbanshi, Tajpuriya etc. Indo-Aryan And Sino-Tibetan 6.6%
Madeshi (Terai Caste Groups) Yadav, Brahmins, Chamar, Kushwaha, Musahar, Kurmi, Dhanuk etc. Indo-Aryan 2.4%
Muslim - Indo-Aryan 2.2%
Others - - 1.5%


Languages in Butwal

  Nepali (73%)
  Magar (8%)
  Tharu (5%)
  Newari (5%)
  Others (9%)

At the time of the 2011 Census of Nepal, 73% of the population in the district spoke Nepali, 8% Magar, 5% Tharu,5% Newari, and 9% spoke other languages as their first language. [10]


Butwal is mostly a commercial and trading city, an upcoming link city for the nearby tourist spots. The GDP of Butwal was about US$1 billion in 2018, making it one of the major cities in Nepal.[12] The economy of Butwal centers around trade, services, and industries. The old trading spots are Traffic Chowk, BP Chowk, Amarpath, Raj Margh Chaurah, and Nepalgunj Road. Besides modern shopping, a traditional form of the market called Haat Bazar similar to greengrocer runs twice a week on Wednesdays and Saturdays. It has the second largest vegetable market in the country called Butwal Sabji Mandi in local terms. All kinds of traders, farmers, and entrepreneurs sell goods and vegetables directly to retail & wholesale customers in a busy market setup.

Service aspects of the economy are mainly centered on banking, education, transportation, and health sectors. Thus, increasing numbers of people are involved in these sectors for their jobs.

Butwal is also a connecting city between nearby tourist towns of Tansen, Kapilvastu, and Lumbini. It is the gateway to nearby cities of Sunwal, Pokhara, and Bharatpur. It is also a busy land route to enter Nepal from India for tourists and others. Thus, Butwal is witnessing huge investments in the hospitality sector as well. To boost up tourism and MICE opportunities, the government plans to set up an international conference center at Ramnagar in Butwal. All these developments hint towards a large economic potential for the development of the region.

The private commerce and trade in Butwal are united under the umbrella of the Butwal Chamber of Commerce & Industry (BuCCI). Audhyogig Byapar Mela-Butwal is an industrial exhibition held in Butwal. This exhibition is organized annually in the month of Poush (generally December–January) and is one of the largest of its kind in Nepal.


Tinau International Hospital in Sukkhanagar, Butwal

Butwal is home to Lumbini Provincial Hospital, one of the oldest hospitals in this region, which is considered a crucial resource for healthcare to poor citizens who cannot afford private hospitals.[13] Originally established by Chandra Sumsher, the present hospital came in operation in 2020 BS (1963-1964) with 50 beds.

In 2020, the Tinau International Hospital was inaugurated in the heart of Butwal in Sukkhanagar.[14] The hospital is led by orthopaedic surgeon Dr. Rajendra Sanjel Chhetri, Chairman of Nepal Orthopedic Association Lumbini, and is known for its high quality care and services.[15] Patients from far-western regions and hilly regions to the north including Palpa, Gulmi, Arghakhanchi come to seek specialized care at different hospitals in the city.


The Mahendra Rajmarg (East-West-Highway) is an important thoroughfare in Butwal

This city dominates any other city in terms of the number of bus services in Nepal. Until 2003, most of the fleet was older large buses; since then operators have added newer minibuses popularly called micro. Older jeeps are used to take people to nearby hilly regions. Rickshaws are used for short-distance urban transport. Motorcycles are a common means of personal transportation around town. The number registered has increased from 1,200 in 1999 to 80,000 in 2008.[citation needed]

Movement of Transport Vehicles on Butwal Road

Nearly 100 buses depart everyday to Kathmandu from Butwal Bus Terminal. Besides the capital Kathmandu, the bus services are also frequently available to other major cities of Pokhara, Dharan, Kakarbhitta, Janakpur, Birgunj, Hetauda, Bharatpur, Tansen, Siddharthanagar, Dang, Nepalgunj, Dhangadi, and Mahendranagar.


Butwal is set to be an educational hub in the Rupandehi district. The literacy rate in the city is considered to be high. It has held the record for Nepal Top students in SLC as well as the HSEB examination numerous time

Places of interest[edit]

  • Devdaha - A municipality in Rupandehi District of Nepal, the ancient capital of Koliya Kingdom, located 7 km east of Lumbini and east of Butwal and shares a border with Nawalparasi district on the east side. It is identified as the maternal home of Queen Mayadevi, Prajapati Gautami and Princess Yasodhara.[citation needed] Shitalnagar Khairani, Bhawanipur, Bairimai, Kan yamai, Khayardanda are some sites for visitors.
  • Gajedi Taal - A lake located about 21 km west of Butwal. Lausha village of Gajedi VDC. A few hillocks and landscapes make it more artistic and adventurous. It is well known as a spot for picnics, gatherings, and boating in the lake.
  • Aap Khola (Mango River) - people go swimming and bring water during droughts. The Manakamana Temple is nearby.
  • Butwal Hill Park (Deepnagar) - is one of the few notable areas in Butwal. People go there for hiking, morning walks, enjoying and having fun with friends & families. A wide view of Butwal City can be viewed from the top of this park.
  • Jitgadi - A fortress during Angol Nepal war, Narayan temple built by (1864 B.S.) Hanuman temple and Shivalaya of Hanumagngadhi, Jalabinayak M9ehadev temple, Narayan Temple, Siddababa temple, Nuwakot, etc. are centers of attraction in Butwal.[16]
  • Murgiya Jharbaira (Bolbom Dham) - is about 13 km west from Butwal city centre. The Temple of Lord Shiva (Parroha Parmeshower Bolbam Dham) is situated here and is a holy site for Hindu Followers.
  • Manimukunda Sen Park (Phulbari) - The winter palace of Palpali Sen clan. There are ruins and antiquities of the palace of Manimukunda Sen, an ancient Palpali king, containing 6 large rooms as well as a royal residence, administrative, and grandeur of Butwal. Siddharthanagar and other neighboring villages of Rupandehi district can be seen from here at night. His Majesty's Government, the archaeological department has attempted to maintain it since 1991. Now, Butwal municipality has formed a council for the conservation of Manimukunda Sen Park to conduct the Phulbari Development Programme and attempt to make it a tourist resort.
  • Sainamaina - Located about 12 km. west from Butwal and to North from Banakatti, Sainamaina is an open museum. Among the different Gramas villages of Shakya King, it was in the samgrama site. An Indian queen (Begum Hazrat Mahal of Awadh) came to this area with her soldiers and porters (‘Sena’ and Mena’) because of the British disturbance in her kingdom and finally, this area came to be known as Saina Maina. It is a treasure trove of ancient ruins and antiquities: statues of dancing saints, ruins of palace, well etc.[17]
    Siddha Baba Temple
  • Siddha Baba Temple - Lies on the outskirts of Butwal Sub-Metro, in Palpa District. The area near this temple is prone to landslides. The temple is overcrowed by devotees during the festival of Shiva Ratri, Nepali New Year (Bikram Sambat-B.S), and weekends. (See photo)
  • The Statue of Buddha (Jogidanda) - It was very significant ruins of having the values of classical art are scattered here and there.[clarification needed] This archaeological site is occupied by homeless and landless people. Some of the antiquities of this site are seen around the Lumbini museum.
  • Muktidham, Nayagaon - is a sacred temple site for devotees located in Nayagaon, approximately 10 km from the city center.
  • Global Peace Park - This is a newly built site in Butwal near Tamnagar. A place for outings during the summer and peaceful surroundings.
  • Banbatika Forest Resort - This is a kind of forest park opened for locals which lie in the Tilottama Municipality adjacent to Butwal Sub-Metropolitan. Usually known for picnic spots and a small zoo for visitors and Research Centre.[18]
  • Lumbini - The Birthplace of Gautama Buddha. The Mecca for Buddhist followers in Nepal & all over the world. Lumbini is situated 40 km south-west of Butwal and is known as the birthplace of Lord Gautam Buddha.[19]
  • Padma Chaitya Bihar a century old Buddhist monastery in the right bank of Tinau River.

Notable people[edit]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "Archived copy" (PDF). cbs.gov.np. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Nepal: Municipal Division (Districts and Local Units) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  3. ^ https://butwalmun.gov.np/
  4. ^ Today, N. L. (21 May 2022). "NC's Khel Raj Pandey elected Butwal mayor". Nepal Live Today. Retrieved 5 July 2022.
  5. ^ Barry, J.C. (July 1984), "A Review of the Siwalik hominoids", in Else, James G.; Lee, Phyllis C. (eds.), Primate Evolution., vol. 1, Nairobi, Kenya: Selected Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Primatological Society, pp. 93–106, ISBN 9780521324502, retrieved 13 April 2011
  6. ^ Handa, O.C. (2002). History of Uttaranchal. New Delhi: Indus Publishing Co. pp. 170ff.
  7. ^ Saugat, Om, ed. (2003). "Chapter 10: Relations with Nepal and Burma". Encyclopedic History of Indian Freedom Movement. New Delhi: saugat. pp. 280–282. ISBN 9788126109388. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
  8. ^ "Population of Cities in Nepal (2021)". Archived from the original on 28 July 2019. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  9. ^ Butwal, Municipality. "Butwal Nagarpalika". www.ajakonepal.com. Archived from the original on 5 October 2022. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  10. ^ a b c "NepalMap profile: Butwal Sub-Metropolitan City". NepalMap. Archived from the original on 15 July 2022. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  11. ^ "NepalMap profile: Butwal Sub-Metropolitan City". Archived from the original on 15 July 2022. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  12. ^ "Butwal City (Nepal )". en.shaanxi.gov.cn. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  13. ^ "Lumbini Zonal Hospital". Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  14. ^ "Shree Tinau International Hospital". stih.com.np. Retrieved 5 July 2022.
  15. ^ "नेपाल अर्थोपेडिक एशोसिएशनको २८ औँ सम्मेलन रुपन्देहीमा सुरु". SWASTHYASAMACHAR.COM. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  16. ^ Karki, Kapil (12 January 2022). "Best Places To Visit in Butwal, Nepal You Shouldn't Miss in 2022". Source Nepal. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  17. ^ "A link to Indian freedom movement in Nepal". The Hindu. 8 April 2014. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  18. ^ "Index of /". shankarnagarbanbihar.org.np. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  19. ^ "Lumbini, the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha".