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Butwal at a Glance
Butwal at a Glance
Batauli Bazaar
Butwal is located in Nepal
Location of Butwal in Nepal
Coordinates: 27°42′00″N 83°27′58″E / 27.70°N 83.466°E / 27.70; 83.466Coordinates: 27°42′00″N 83°27′58″E / 27.70°N 83.466°E / 27.70; 83.466
Country   Nepal
ProvinceProvince No. 5
DistrictRupandehi District
 • MayorShiva Prasad Subedi (NCP)
 • Deputy MayorGoma Acharya (NCP)
 • Total101.61 km2 (39.23 sq mi)
 • Total118,462
 • Density80/km2 (200/sq mi)
 Nepal Census 2011[1]
Time zoneUTC+5:45 (NST)
Post code
Area code(s)071

Butwal (Nepali: बुटवल) officially Butwal Sub-Metropolitan is one of the twin cities of rapidly growing Butwal-Bhairahawa urban agglomeration in Nepal. It lies in Province No. 5, Rupandehi District and also the interim capital of province 5 of Nepal. It is also home to the administrative headquarters of Lumbini Zone. This city stands beside the bank of Tilottama River (Tinau River, and at the northern edge of the Terai plain below the Siwalik Hills. Its name, Butwal was derived from Batauli Bazaar, the town's oldest residential area which is located on the western bank of Tinau river. Butwal is a lively city comprising the Panoramic views of the combination of hills and plains.

Geographically, Butwal is at the intersection of Nepal's two different National Highways, Mahendra Highway and Siddhartha Highway. It connects western Nepal with the capital Kathmandu through highway and air links (via airport at Siddharthanagar). It is one of the fastest-growing cities in Nepal for education, infrastructure, highway, marketing, health and safety, communication, trade and banking sectors. It has highway connections to the Indian border at Sunauli and to the hilly towns in Tansen and Pokhara valley, and holds the title of being "The Best City in Nepal" five times in a row.

Notable areas within Butwal includes:

  • Charange - Residential area on the eastern suburb of city.
  • Traffic Chowk - City Center of Butwal.
  • Maitri Path - Also known as IT Market Local people called Computer Market (कम्प्युटर बजार) computer, Laptops, Mobile, Printers, CCTV etc.
  • Amar path - Usually known as a shopping line for clothing, food, furnishings, etc.
  • Golpark - Residential area below the shades of hills.
  • Milan chowk - Commercial site.
  • Raj Margh Chaurah - Central junction of Mahendra Highway and Siddhartha Highway.
  • Kalikanagar - Chief residential area of Butwal.
  • Devinagar - Residential area accompanying an ANFA Football Stadium.
  • Butwal Bus Terminal - City's main transportation hub also called Bus Park in Local terms and site for small business hotels.
  • Haat Bazaar - Weekly organized market or Greengrocer (Saturdays and Wednesdays).
  • Deepnagar - Residential area at the foothills of Siwalik range.
  • Paari Butwal - Also known as Batauli or Khasayuli. The oldest residential area of Butwal.
  • Maina Bagar - Automobiles zone for repairs, sales and service. Also called Auto Village.
  • Tamnagar - Former VDC, now a part of Butwal Sub-Metropolitan that lies on the western suburb of the city. Located 10 km from the city centre.
  • Chidiyakhola- Ward no. 03, nearby Tinau river, is known for the Sarswoti Dhara, Ramapithecus Park and Lower Sidhhababa Temple. It is surrounded by hills, and has a supply of water from Sarswoti Dhara.[citation needed]

Butwal was officially declared as sub-metropolitan city on 2 December 2014 by combining two neighbouring VDCs Motipur and Semlar.



Fossils of ancient hominoids Ramapithecus were found near the Tinau (Tilottama) River as early as 1932, including a 10.1-million-year-old tooth.[2]

Modern history[edit]

As recently as 1950, Butwal was a minor village on the western bank of Tilottama River (also known as Tinau)

The area was a loose settlement which acted as a trading post between the hilly districts of Lumbini zone and the Indian plains. Thus, historically Butwal connected Nepali people with their Indian neighbors. As the British East India Company annexed Awadh from its hereditary rulers while the Shah Dynasty attempted to annex the Terai, Butwal became one of bones of contention leading to the Gurkha War 1814-16.[3][4]

When King Tribhuvan fled to India in 1950 during the revolt against the Rana dynasty he travelled through Butwal. Then it was little more than a village on the western bank of Tilottama River (also known as Tinau).

Butwal is a relatively newly urbanized area, emerging and growing rapidly only since 1960. With the completion of Siddhartha Highway in 1968, starting from the border at Sunauli through Butwal to Pokhara and then in the 1990s Mahendra Highway across the full east–west expanse of Nepal's Terai; i.e. Mechi Zone in the east to Mahakali Zone in the West, Butwal have made a tremendous progress in the country.


The population of Butwal is 91,733 (census 2015), according to present stage the population is rapidly increasing with around 150,000 above and consists of people of mixed groups and castes; these includes Pahari immigrants from nearby hill districts especially Palpa, Arghakhanchi, Parbat, Gulmi, Syangja and also local people from Terai origin.l[5]

The population distribution in different wards in 2011 was as follows:[6]

Ward No. Households Population Male Female
1 205 980 489 491
2 189 1053 520 522
3 240 1337 664 673
4 1491 6487 3353 3134
5 3039 10842 5476 5366
6 2,368 9,603 4,995 4,608
7 669 3202 1725 1477
8 1,598 6,787 3,470 3,317
9 2631 10597 5019 5578
10 3175 11942 5856 6086
11 2445 9170 4723 4447
12 1114 24361 2092 22269
13 7258 28193 13834 14359
14 1566 6542 3101 3441
15 1674 7366 3491 3875
16 778 3566 1640 1926
17 **** **** **** ****
18 **** **** **** ****
19 **** **** **** ****
20 **** **** **** ****
21 **** **** **** ****
22 **** **** **** ****
Total 29662 118462 58808 59654

The majority of the population is Hindu. They celebrate Holi, Teej, Maha Shivratri, Dashain, Tihar and Bhai Tika. There are also Buddhists and Muslims.

Nepali, bhojpuri and maithli are the common languages spoken in butwal.


Butwal is mostly a commercial and trading city, an upcoming link city for the nearby tourist spots. The GDP of Butwal was about US$1 billion in 2018 making one of the major city in Nepal.[citation needed] The economy of Butwal centers around trade, services and industries. The old trading spots are Traffic Chowk, B P Chowk, Amarpath, Raj Margh Chaurah and Nepalgunj Road. Besides modern shopping, a traditional form of market called Haat Bazar similar to greengrocer, runs twice a week on Wednesdays and Saturdays. It has the second largest vegetable market in the country called Butwal Sabji Mandi in local terms. All kinds of traders, farmers and entrepreneurs sell goods and vegetables directly to the retail & wholesale customers in busy market setup.

Service aspects of the economy are mainly centered on banking, education, transportation and health sectors. Thus, increasing numbers of people are involved in these sectors for their jobs.

Butwal is also a connecting city between nearby tourist towns of Tansen, Kapilvastu, and Lumbini. It is the gateway to nearby cities of Sunwal, Pokhara and Bharatpur. It is also a busy land-route to enter Nepal from India for tourists and others. Thus, Butwal is witnessing huge investments in the hospitality sector as well. To boost up tourism and MICE opportunities, the government plans to set up an international conference centre at Ramnagar in Butwal. All these developments hint towards a large economic potential for development of the region.

The Mahendra Rajmarg (East-West-Highway) is an important thoroughfare in Butwal

The private commerce and trade in Butwal is united under the umbrella of Butwal Chamber of Commerce & Industry (BuCCI). Audhyogig Byapar Mela-Butwal is an industrial exhibition held in Butwal. This exhibition is organized annually in the month of Poush (generally December–January), and is one of the largest of its kind in Nepal.


This city dominates any other city in terms of number of bus services in Nepal. Until 2003, most of the fleet was older large buses; since then operators have added newer minibuses popularly called micro. Older jeeps are used to take people to nearby hilly regions. Rickshaws are used for short-distance urban transport. Motorcycles are a common means of personal transportation around town. The number registered has increased from 1,200 in 1999 to 80,000 in 2008.[citation needed]

Nearly 100 buses depart everyday to Kathmandu from Butwal Bus Terminal. Besides the capital Kathmandu, the bus services are also frequently available to other major cities of Pokhara, Dharan, Kakarbhitta, Janakpur, Birgunj, Hetauda, Bharatpur, Tansen, Siddharthanagar, Dang, Nepalgunj, Dhangadi, and Mahendranagar.


Butwal is set to be an educational hub in Rupandehi district. Literacy rate in the city is considered to be high. It has held the record for Nepal Top students in SLC as well as HSEB examination numerous times.


  • New Environment Higher Secondary School, Manigram, Rupandehi
  • New Standard Higher Secondary School, Nayagaun
  • Our Peaceland Academy
  • Oxford College, Sukhanagar
  • Prabhat Higher Secondary School, Murgiya, सैनमैना-३
  • Rammani Campus
  • Sagarmatha Higher Secondary Boarding School, Devdaha
  • Shining Star English Boarding Higher Secondary School, Deepnagar
  • Shree Nayagaun Higher Secondary School, Nayagaun
  • Shree Siddhartha Memorial Academy, Ramapur
  • Shree Siddhi Vinayak Secondary School, Butwal-15 Mainapur
  • Shree Navaratna Boarding School, Tamnagar
  • Siddhartha College
  • Siddhartha English Boarding School [2]
  • Siddhartha Gautam English School
  • Sky International College
  • Swarnim Sagarmatha College, Devdaha
  • Tilottama College, Tilottama-2
  • Tinau English Boarding School, Devinagar
  • Lumbini Technical Institute
  • oxford secondary school sukhanagar
  • lumbini shikshyalaya

Places of interest[edit]

  • Devdaha - a site 13 km east of Butwal and is known as the maternal home of lord Gautam Buddha.[citation needed] Shitalnagar Kheirani, Bhawanipur, Bairimai, Kan yamai, Khayardanda are some sites for visitors.
  • Gajedi Taal - A lake located about 21 km west of Butwal. Lausha village of Gajedi VDC. Few hillocks and landscapes makes it more artistic and adventurous. It is well known as a spot for picnic, gatherings, and boating in the lake.
  • Aap Khola (Mango River) - people go for swimming and to bring water during droughts. The Manakamana Temple is nearby.
  • Butwal Hill Park (Deepnagar) - is one of the few notable areas in Butwal. People go there for hiking, morning walks, enjoying and having fun with friends & families. Wide view of Butwal City can be viewed from the top of this park.
  • Jitgadhi - A fortress during Angol Nepal war, Narayan temple built by (1864 B.S.) Hanuman temple and Shivalaya of Hanumagngadhi, Jalabinayak M9ehadev temple, Narayan Temple, Siddababa temple, Nuwakot etc. are centerss of attraction in Butwal.[citation needed]
  • Murgiya Jharbaira (Bolbom Dham) - is about 13 km west from Butwal city centre. The Temple of Lord Shiva (Parroha Parmeshower Bolbam Dham) is situated here and is a holy site for Hindu Followers.
  • Manimukunda Sen Park (Phulbari) - The winter palace of Palpali Sen clan. There are ruins and antiquities of the palace of Manimukunda Sen, an ancient Palpali king, containing 6 large rooms as well as royal residence, administrative and grandeur of Butwal. Siddharthanagar and other neighboring villages of Rupandehi district can be seen from here at night. His Majesty's Government, archaeological department has attempted to maintain it since 1991. Now, Butwal municipality has formed council for the conservation of Manimukunda Sen Park to conduct Phulbari Development Programme and attempt to make it a tourist resort.
  • Sainamaina - Located about 12 km. west from Butwal and to North from Banakatti, Sainamaina is as an open museum. Among the different Gramas villages of Shakya King, it was in the samgrama site. An Indian queen (Begum Hazrat Mahal of Awadh) came to this area with her soldiers and porters (‘Sena’ and Mena’) because of the British disturbance in her kingdomand finally this area came to be known as Saina Maina. It is a treasure trove of ancient ruins and antiquities: statues of dancing saints, ruins of palace, well etc.[7]
  • Siddha Baba Temple - Lies on the outskirts of Butwal Sub-Metro, in Palpa District. The area near this temple is prone to landslides. The temple is overcrowed by devotees during the festival of Shiva Ratri, Nepali New Year (Bikram Sambat-B.S) and weekends. (See photo)
    Siddha Baba Temple
  • The Statue of Buddha (Jogidanda) - It was very significant ruins of having the values of classical art are scattered here and there.[clarification needed] This archaeological site is occupied by homeless and landless people. Some of the antiquities of this site are seen around the Lumbini museum.
  • Muktidham, Nayagaon - is a sacred temple site for devotees located in Nayagaon, approximately 10 km from the city center.
  • Global Peace Park - This is a newly built site in Butwal near Tamnagar. A place for outings during the summer and peaceful surroundings.
  • Banbatika Forest Resort - This is a kind of forest park opened for locals which lies in the Tilottama Municipality adjacent to Butwal Sub-Metropolitan. Usually known for picnic spots and small zoo for visitors and Research Centre. [3]
  • Lumbini - The Birthplace of Gautama Buddha. The Mecca for Buddhist followers in Nepal & all over the world. Lumbini is situated 40 km south-west of Butwal and is known as the birthplace of lord Gautam Buddha. [4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Nepal Census 2011". Nepal's Village Development Committees. Digital Himalaya. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2008.
  2. ^ Barry, J.C. (July 1984), "A Review of the Siwalik hominoids", in Else, James G.; Lee, Phyllis C. (eds.), Primate Evolution., Vol. 1, Nairobi, Kenya: Selected Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the International Primatological Society, pp. 93–106, retrieved 13 April 2011
  3. ^ Handa, O.C. (2002). History of Uttaranchal. New Delhi: Indus Publishing Co. pp. 170ff.
  4. ^ Saugat, Om, ed. (2003). "Chapter 10: Relations with Nepal and Burma". Encyclopedic History of Indian Freedom Movement. New Delhi: saugat. pp. 280–282. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
  5. ^ http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/nepal-population/cities/
  6. ^ Butwal, Municipality. "Butwal Nagarpalika". www.butwalmun.org.np. Archived from the original on 8 June 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  7. ^ "A link to Indian freedom movement in Nepal". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 8 April 2014. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 23 November 2017.CS1 maint: others (link)