Chhetri

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Chhetri
Regions with significant populations
Nepal 16.6 per cent of total population (2011 census)
India Population in Sikkim, West Bengal and Assam (migrated towards the east from western part of Nepal after the mid 18th century AD. After Nepal and Limbuwan treaty).[1][2]
Languages
Nepali
Religion
Almost all are Hindu
Related ethnic groups
Kumaoni people; Pahari Rajputs
Selected ethnic groups of Nepal; Chhetri are members of the wider Pahari community (yellow).

Chhetri or Chhettri (Nepali: छेत्री), synonymous with Kshetri (Nepali: क्षेत्री) and Khatri (Nepali: खत्री) are all derivatives of Kshatriya (Sanskrit: क्षत्रिय), the royal, the warrior and ruler caste group or varna of Hinduism.[3][4] Chhetris speak Nepali,[5] the national language, and are part of the dominant Khasa culture and the wider Pahari Khas-Nepali population.[6] Chhetri refers to Kshatriyas from the hills of Nepal but also from Darjeeling, Sikkim, Assam and few are in Bhutan.[7] It is an Indo-European group or Indo-Aryan.[8]

They formed Nepal's largest caste group, being 16.6 percent of the population in 2011.[9] Chhetris are overwhelmingly Hindu (99.48% according to the 2001 Census). Those Chhetri who follow Hinduism also follow Buddhism, but the ancient religion of khas people (chhetri) is Masto i.e. they are nature worshiper, which can still be found in western Nepal of Karnali Districts. In Nepal's hill districts their proportion of the population rises to 41% compared to 31% Brahmin and 27% other castes. This greatly exceeds the Kshatriya portion in most regions with predominantly Hindu populations. Other variant of the last name are: Khatri, Chetry, Chhettri.[10][11]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Nepal

Before the Shah dynasty (1768–2008) united Nepal excluding the eastern region of Nepal from Arun onwards Limbuwan was the only federal state with whom Prithivi Narayan Shah signed treaty and continued as a federal state. The Limbuwan and Nepal treaty was renewed often till Mahendra Shah imposed 'Bhumisudhar Ain' or kind of Land reform Act. kings of various ethnic and caste groups ruled about 50 small kingdoms. The ancient name of this Himalayan region was Khas-des. Khas peoples (Nepali: खस) were the most populous and are mentioned in the histories of India and China. The Khas were Indo-European-speaking Aryan mountain dwellers, spreading from west to east across the hills of the Central Himalaya. They established many independent dynasties in early medieval times. The Khas people had an empire, the Kaśa Kingdom which included Kashmir, part of Tibet, and Western Nepal (Karnali Zone).It is also believed that during the rule of Shah dynasty "Lahad Singh" and "Pahad Singh" were invited for making strategical war against kasthamandap and kritipur.Later they were renowned as "Deuwa" and then "Deuja". Their bravery let the king defeat Kasthamandap and Kritipur. Since then "Deuja" and "Shah" have had a smooth relationship.[12][13][14]

Anthropologists believe that within the context of Indo-Aryan migration, the majority of Chhetris derive from unions between Khas and indigenous groups, as the Khas progressively encroached on indigenous homelands. Many Chhetris exhibit traits of mixed racial heritage, more so than Brahmins (called Bahun in the Nepalese hills).[15][page needed][16] There are several recognized ways to enter the Chhetri caste apart from Jharra(pure)Chettri or Khas :

  1. Having nothing but ancestors ultimately tracable to Kshatriyas.
  2. Being the scion of a Brahman father and any other "clean" caste including Magar or other Tibeto-Burman "hill tribes".
  3. The child of a Chhetri father and a woman from these lower but "clean" castes is still Chhetri.[17][18]
  4. An arbitrary community can start following Chhetri caste rules (especially in diet), hiring Bahuns to conduct certain rituals and even to write dubious genealogy. Over generations, these claims of Chhetri affinity become plausible to broader audiences.[19]

Despite racial admixture, Chhetris remain strongly indo-Nepalese in culture and language.

In the early modern history of Nepal, Chhetris played a key role in the unification of the country, providing the core of the Gorkhali army of the mid-18th century. During the monarchy, Chhetris continued to dominate the ranks of the Nepalese Army, police, Nepalese government administration, and one regiment of the Indian Army.[15][page needed] Under the pre-democratic constitution and institutions of the state, Chhetri culture and language also dominated various ethnic groups to the disadvantage and exclusion of many minorities and indigenous peoples. The desire for increased self-determination among these minorities and indigenous peoples was a central issue in the Nepalese Civil War and subsequent democratic movement.Till the date chhetri, bahun, dasnami and dalit had allied to seek the brotherhood and protested against the federal state system and go along with the late King Mahendra's administrative structure consisting of 14 zones and 75 districts however, the 5 development region introduced by late King Birendra is the mandate to be followed in the future too .[5][6][20]

Society[edit]

The most prominent features of Nepalese Chhetri society have been the ruling Shah dynasty (1768–2008), the Kajis (Thapa, Bista, Khadka, Pandey and Basnet), the Rana Prime Ministers (1846–1953) that marginalized the monarchy, and the Chhetri presence in the armed forces, police, and government of Nepal. The King of Nepal was a member of the chhetri caste i.e. Thakuri subcaste. In traditional and administrative professions, Chhetris were given favorable treatment by the royal government.[6][15][page needed][16][20][21][22]

Chhetris comprise many subgroups, including Khasa (clans from Khas) and Thakuri (aristocratic clans). The Khasa subgroups are widespread in Karnali. Members of certain Khasa subgroups are called pawai ("peripheral"), or matwali ("bacchanal") because of their use of alcohol. These populations are descendants of Khas people who did not convert to Hinduism, and who today do not don the janai (sacred thread).[15][page needed]

Chhetris do not practice cross-cousin marriage, which distinguishes them from the Thakuri who marry maternal cross-cousins. Though marriage among Chhetris is usually monogamous, some practice polygamy. Girls are married at an early age, and remarriage by widows is prohibited by social norms. Chhetris practice cremation of the dead.[15][page needed]

Religion[edit]

Further information: Religion in Nepal and Hinduism in Nepal

Khas religion began with shamanism and nature worship. The ancient religion of Khas people is Masto. When the Shakya Prince Siddartha Gautama achieved Nirvana and started preaching Buddhism in the 5th century BCE, Khas largely converted to Buddhism. The inhabitants of Khas later largely adopted Hinduism, however they revere and worship Buddha along with Hindu deities, and continue some shamanistic practices.[23] The khas people started following Hinduism in around 12th century when Indian Hindus converted them into Hinduism but today also they still follow Buddhist gods along with Hindu. But their ancient Masto religion is now in extinct.

The religion followed by most Chhetri today is very much patterned after Hinduism. Like the Brahmin Bahuns, their caste is among the "twice-born", so called because males are symbolically reborn at age thirteen, when they begin to wear the janai. Likewise, they share the same festivals as the Bahuns; the life cycle rites of birth, initiation, marriage, and death are celebrated with Brahmanic rites. This is especially true of the aristocratic Thakuri subcaste and members of Khas subcastes whose ancestors converted to Hinduism or who claim to be of pure Kshatriya blood.[15][page needed]

Hindu Chhetris, like the Brahmin, wear a sacred thread called a janai, which signifies their "twice-born" status. They also abstain from alcohol. Among Chhetris, the menstruation period is considered highly polluting.[15][page needed]

Matwali Khasa religion[edit]

Many Khasa subgroups, collectively called Matwali ("alcohol drinking") Chhetris, retain faith in their traditional shamanistic and oracular religion. Their priests are called dhami, and all adherents are permitted to drink alcohol. However the Matwali do not wear the sacred thread typical of other Chhetris.[15][page needed]

Principal Matwali deities are referred to collectively as masto, and also have individual names, such as Babiro or Tharpo. Each masto has a geographical domain in the Khas region. Other indigenous Khasa deities include the Mali-ka goddesses, associated in Hinduism with Bhagavathi, whom the Matwali worship on certain full moon days on high ridges. Matwali and other Chhetris also have a tradition of worshiping their kul-deuta or kul-devata (ancestral deity) at annual lineage gatherings.[15][page needed]. The matwali (Alcohol drinking) Chhetris share their caste system highly with Magar people of Nepal. The caste of Matwali Chhetri are Thapa, Budha, Roka(Rokaya), Khadka, Gharti(G.C), Budhathoki, Rana, Pandey, and so on.

Relation between Magars and Chhetris[edit]

King Prithivi Narayan Shah always loved him to call the King of Magrat i.e. Magar King. Although he was a Chhetri (Thakuri sub caste). From the time of unification of Nepal Magar and Chhetri always played a key role. Both of these caste including Gurung are the real Gurkha. It is believed that in past histories of Nepal Magar and Chhetri allow marriage between each other. Today also marriage between these caste are done but now different politicians have changed the mind of people and made them to talk about caste (Jaat vaat). Both of these cast belongs to Western Nepal. If there is majority of Magar you will surely find small amount of Chhetri people too and if there is majority of Chhetri you will surely find small amount of Magar people. They fought together for protecting country from British, most of them are Hindus, most of them shares their caste system, they live together in every corners of Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and Darjeeling. Magar and Chhetri of Nepal share their caste system highly with each other. For example the caste that both Magars and Chhetris have are Rana, Thapa, Khadka, Rokaya(Roka), Budha(Buda), Budhathoki, Gharti, and so on.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Folklore of Nepal. p. 5. 
  2. ^ Indian Nepalis
  3. ^ Bista, Dor Bahadur (1980). People of Nepal (4 ed.). Ratna Pustak Bhandar. pp. 2–4. 
  4. ^ "The Caste System". Nepal: A country study (Savada, Andrea Matles, ed.). Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress of the USA (1991).  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  5. ^ a b Stidsen, Sille (2006). The Indigenous World. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA). pp. 374–380. ISBN 87-91563-18-6. 
  6. ^ a b c "Social Classes and Stratification". Nepal: A country study (Savada, Andrea Matles, ed.). Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress of the USA (1991).  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  7. ^ "Ethnic Groups". Nepal: A country study (Savada, Andrea Matles, ed.). Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress of the USA (1991).  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  8. ^ Social and Gender Analysis in Natural Resource Management: Learning Studies ..edited by Ronnie Vernooy
  9. ^  This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "Nepal" (retrieved on 2011-04-30).
  10. ^ Dahal, Dilli Ram (2002-12-30). "Chapter 3. Social composition of the Population: Caste/Ethnicity and Religion in Nepal" (PDF). Government of Nepal, Central Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-19. Retrieved 2011-04-02. 
  11. ^ "Nepal in Figures 2008" (PDF). Government of Nepal, Central Bureau of Statistics. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2011-04-03. 
  12. ^ "The Three Kingdoms". Nepal: A country study (Savada, Andrea Matles, ed.). Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress of the USA (1991).  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  13. ^ "The Making of Modern Nepal". Nepal: A country study (Savada, Andrea Matles, ed.). Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress of the USA (1991).  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  14. ^ Adhikary, Surya Mani (1997). The Khaśa kingdom: A Trans-Himalayan Empire of the Middle Age. Nirala 2. Nirala Publications. ISBN 81-85693-50-1. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i Gurung, Harka B. (1996). Faces of Nepal. Himal Books. pp. 1–33, passim. 
  16. ^ a b Burbank, Jon (2002). Nepal. Cultures of the World (2 ed.). Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 0-7614-1476-2. 
  17. ^ John Whelpton (2005). A History of Nepal. Cambridge University Press. p. 11. 
  18. ^ D. B. Bista (1991). "The Caste System in Nepal". Fatalism and Development. Orient Longman. 
  19. ^ Prayag Raj Sharma (1977). "Caste, social mobility and sanskritization: a study of Nepal's old legal code". Kailash - journal of himalayan studies 5 (4). 
  20. ^ a b "Recruitment, Training, and Morale". Nepal: A country study (Savada, Andrea Matles, ed.). Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress of the USA (1991).  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  21. ^ Bajracharya, Bhadra Ratha; Sharma, Shri Ram; Bakshi, Shiri Ram (1993). Cultural History of Nepal. Anmol Publications. pp. 286–8. ISBN 81-7041-840-2. 
  22. ^ "Society". Nepal: A country study (Savada, Andrea Matles, ed.). Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress of the USA (1991).  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  23. ^ "Introduction". Nepal: A country study (Savada, Andrea Matles, ed.). Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress of the USA (1991).  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.