Chhetri

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Chhetri/Kshetri
क्षेत्री
Nepal ethnic groups.png
Selected ethnic groups of Nepal; Chhetri are members of the wider Pahari community (yellow).
Regions with significant populations
   Nepal 4,398,053
(16.6% of Nepal; 2011)[1]
Languages
Nepali (Khas-Kura) as mother tongue[2]
Religion
Almost all are Hindu[3]
Related ethnic groups
Bahun, Thakuri, Other Indo-Aryan peoples

Chhetri (Kshetri, Kshettri, Kshetry or Chhettri), (Nepali: क्षेत्री; IAST: Kṣetrī) historically called Kshettriya or Kshatriya or Pahari Rajput , are Nepali speakers of Khas community, an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic community consisting of Brahmins (Bahun), Thakuris, Kami, Damai, Sarki, Badi, and Gandarbhas.[4][5] Chhetri was a caste of administrators, governor and military elites in medieval Khas Kingdom and Gorkha Kingdom (later unified Kingdom of Nepal).[6] The nobility of Gorkha Kingdom were mainly based from Chhetri families and they had a strong presence in civil administration affairs.[7] The bulk of Prime Ministers of Nepal before democratization of Nepal belonged to this caste as a result of old Gorkhali aristocracy. Gorkha-based aristocratic Chhetri families were Pande dynasty, Basnyat dynasty, Thapa dynasty and Kunwars (Rana dynasty & other Kunwars).

Khas Chhetri (referred as Khas Rajputs) were traditionally considered a division of the Khas people with Khas Brahmin (commonly called Khas Bahun).[8] They make up 16.6% of Nepal's population according to the 2011 Nepal census, making them the most populous caste or ethnic community in Nepal.[1] Chhetris speak an Indo-Aryan Nepali language (Khas-Kura) as mother tongue.[2][4]

Major Indo-Aryan languages of South Asia; Chhetri are native speaker of the Northern Aryan language Nepali (Purple)

Etymology[edit]

Chhetri is considered a direct derivative of the Sanskrit word Kshatriya.[9][10]

Religion[edit]

According to the 1854 Legal Code (Muluki Ain) of Nepal, Chhetris are the social group among the sacred thread bearers (Tagadhari) and twice-born people of the Hindu tradition.[11][12] Almost all Chhetris are Hindu.[3] The 2011 Nepal census recorded Chhetris as the largest Hindu adherents in the nation with 43,65,113 people which is 99.3% of total Chhetri population.[1] Those Chhetri who follow Hinduism may also follow Buddhism. The ancient religion of the Chhetri is Masto which uses nature worship and can still be seen in western Nepal's Karnali district and in India's Gorkhaland. In Nepal's hill districts the Chhetri population rises to 41% compared to 31% Brahmin and 27% other castes. This greatly exceeds the Kshatriya portion in most regions with predominantly Hindu populations.[13][14]

History[edit]

Kalu Pande wearing Khukuri, a Pande Chhetri aristocrat; Kaji (Prime Minister and Army Chief) of Gorkha Kingdom

They are thought to be connected to the Khasas mentioned in the ancient Indian literature and the medieval Khasa kingdom.[15]

In the early modern history of Nepal, Chhetris played a key role in the Unification of Nepal, providing the core of the Gorkhali army of the mid-18th century.[16] Bir Bhadra Thapa was a Thapa of Chhetri group[17] and leading Bharadar during Unification of Nepal.[18] His grandson Bhimsen Thapa became Mukhtiyar (Prime Minister) of Nepal.[18] Swarup Singh Karki, a leading politician and military officer, belonged to Chhetri family.[19] Abhiman Singh Basnyat of Basnyat dynasty and Damodar Pande of Pande dynasty were both members of Chhetri caste.[20] Jung Bahadur Rana, founder of Rana dynasty also belonged to the Chhetri community.[21]

Bhimsen Thapa, a leading Chhetri Mukhtiyar (Prime Minister)

During the monarchy, Chhetris continued to dominate the ranks of the Nepalese government, Nepalese Army, Nepalese Police and administration.[16] The governorship and military control of Chhetris was described by Charles Bruce Granville as follows:

The entire government of the country is in the hands of the Kshettriya class, to which the Maharaj Adhiraj[note 1] and the Maharajah Sir Chandra Sham Sher both belong. So much is this the case, that I very much doubt (even in class regiments) whether a representative of one of the pure Mongolian tribes can rise to the rank of colonel, or is given any really responsible civil billet; not because they have not the necessary ability, but because there are not enough places for the ruling class itself, while it is also considered politically wise not to encourage them beyond a certain point The Kshettriya class are not only the governing class, but also supply the greater number of soldiers in Nepal, although other of the military clans are fully enlisted, and are even formed into class regiments, that is, regiments enlisted entirely from men of one tribe.

— Twenty Years in the Himalaya[23]

Chhetri noble families[edit]

The most prominent feature of Nepalese Chhetri society has been the ruling Shah dynasty (1768–2008)[note 2], the Rana Prime Ministers (1846–1953), Pande family, Thapa family, Basnyat family,[7] Malla Kings of Khas kingdom, Thapa Kings of Jumla, Khadka Kings of Gorkha, Basnyat Kings of Khaptad, etc. that marginalized the monarchy, and the Chhetri presence in the armed forces, police, and Government of Nepal. In traditional and administrative professions, Chhetris were given favorable treatment by the royal government.[24][25]

Chhetri and premiership[edit]

The nobility of Gorkha were mainly from Chhetri families and they had a strong presence in civil administration affairs.[7] All of the Prime Minister of Nepal between 1768 to 1950 were Chhetris with the exception of Ranga Nath Poudyal, being a Brahmin.[26] These number varied after the democratization of Nepal. Between 1951 to 1997, out of the 16 Prime Ministers of Nepal, 5 of them were Chhetris.[27]

Military achievements[edit]

Bir Shamsher JBR, a Rana Kshetri Maharaja, and Prime Minister and C-in-C of Nepal

Chhetri had dominated high military positions and monopolized the military force at the times of Chhetri autocratic administrators like PM Bhimsen Thapa and PM Jung Bahadur Rana. There were 12 Basnyats, 16 Pandes, 6 Thapas and 3 Kunwar officers totalling to 51 Chhetri officers in the year 1841  A.D.[21] The most prominent officers at Shah administration were the Kazis which had control over civil and military functions like a Minister and Military officer combined. Rana Jang Pande, the leader of Pande faction, was the Prime Minister of Nepal in 1841  A.D.[28] which might have caused large Pande officers at 1841. After the rise Rana dynasty(Kunwars), the number changed to 10 Basnyats, 1 Pandes, 3 Thapas and 26 Kunwar officers totaling to 61 Chhetri officers in the year 1854  A.D.[21]

Chhetris dominated the position of the senior officers of the Nepali Army comprising 74.4% of total senior officers in 1967. Similarly, Chhetris composed of 38.1%, 54.3% and 55.3% of the senior officers in the year 2003, 2004 and 2007 respectively.[29]

Clans[edit]

Clans of the Chhetri include:[30]

Present day[edit]

A 21st century Thapa Chhetri family

Chhetri together with Bahun and thakuri falls under Khas Arya, who are denied quota and reservations in civil services and other sectors due to their history of socio-political dominance in Nepal.[31] There are no quotas for the Khas community who fall under Bahun-Chhetri-thakuri hierarchy.[32] As per the explanation of legal provisions of Constitution of Nepal, Khas Arya comprises the Brahmin, Kshetri, Thakur and Sanyasi (Dashnami) communities.[33] But they are allowed reservation in federal parliament and provincial legislature.[34] The European Union has been accused of direct interference, creating ethnic strife and negative discrimination towards Khas Arya due to their recommendation to remove the reservation for Khas Aryas.[35][34]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Shah monarchs were placed among Thakuri caste instead of Chhetri.[22]
  2. ^ Shah monarchs were placed among Thakuri caste instead of Chhetri.[22]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Nepal Census 2011" (PDF). 
  2. ^ a b Dhungel 1998, p. 5.
  3. ^ a b Dhungel 1998, p. 8.
  4. ^ a b Lawoti 2005, p. 91.
  5. ^ Bista, Dor Bahadur (1980). People of Nepal (4 ed.). Ratna Pustak Bhandar. pp. 2–4. 
  6. ^ Pradhan 2012, pp. 20-21.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Pahari 1995, p. 632.
  8. ^ Hitchcock 1978, pp. 116-119.
  9. ^ Burghart 1984, p. 119.
  10. ^ Gurung 1996, p. 33.
  11. ^ Sherchan 2001, p. 14.
  12. ^ Gurung, H. (2005). Social exclusion and Maoist insurgency. Paper presented at National Dialogue Conference on ILO Convention 169 on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples, Kathmandu, 19–20 January 2005.
  13. ^ Dahal, Dilli Ram (2002-12-30). "Chapter 3. Social composition of the Population: Caste/Ethnicity and Religion in Nepal" (PDF). Government of Nepal, Central Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-19. Retrieved 2011-04-02. 
  14. ^ "Nepal in Figures 2008" (PDF). Government of Nepal, Central Bureau of Statistics. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2011-04-03. 
  15. ^ Kumar Pradhan (1984). A History of Nepali Literature. Sahitya Akademi. p. 5. 
  16. ^ a b Gurung, Harka B. (1996). Faces of Nepal. Himal Books. pp. 1–33, passim. 
  17. ^ a b c d Regmi 1995, p. 44.
  18. ^ a b Pradhan 2012, p. 22.
  19. ^ a b Singh 1997, p. 142.
  20. ^ a b c Regmi 1975, p. 73.
  21. ^ a b c d e Adhikari 2015, p. 120.
  22. ^ a b Pahari 1995, p. 631.
  23. ^ Granville, Charles Bruce (1910). Twenty Years in the Himalaya. Create Space Publishing Platform. ISBN 9781515043379. 
  24. ^ Burbank, Jon (2002). Nepal. Cultures of the World (2 ed.). Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 0-7614-1476-2. 
  25. ^ Bajracharya, Bhadra Ratha; Sharma, Shri Ram; Bakshi, Shiri Ram (1993). Cultural History of Nepal. Anmol Publications. pp. 286–8. ISBN 81-7041-840-2. 
  26. ^ Raj 1996, p. 5.
  27. ^ Gurung 1998, p. 129.
  28. ^ Joshi & Rose 1966, p. 27.
  29. ^ Adhikari 2015, p. 123.
  30. ^ Subba, Tanka Bahadur (1989). Dynamics of a hill society: Nepalis in Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas. Mittal Publications. ISBN 9788173041143. Some of the Chhetri clans are Adhikari, Baniya, Basnet, Bist, Bohra, Bura or Burathoki, Gharti, Karki, Khadka, Dhami, Khatri, Khulal, Mahat, Raut, Rana, Roka, Thapa, etc. 
  31. ^ "Khas Arya quota provision in civil services opposed". thehimalayantimes.com. 10 November 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2018. 
  32. ^ Aryal, Trailokya Raj (24 May 2017). "The Bahun narrative". Myrepublica. Retrieved 25 January 2018. 
  33. ^ "Nepal-India Relations: Need for Urgent Paradigm Shift - Mainstream Weekly". www.mainstreamweekly.net. Retrieved 8 June 2018. 
  34. ^ a b "Next Door Nepal: The nationalist's hour". indianexpress.com. 26 March 2018. Retrieved 8 June 2018. 
  35. ^ Rai, Om Astha. "Hail to the chiefs". www.nepalitimes.com. Retrieved 8 June 2018. 
  36. ^ Pradhan 2012, p. 12.
  37. ^ Shaha 1990, p. 201.
  38. ^ Yadav, P. (2016). Social Transformation in Post-conflict Nepal: A Gender Perspective. Taylor & Francis. p. 39. ISBN 9781317353904. 
  39. ^ Choudhuri, Poynder & Stevens 1984, p. 147.
  40. ^ a b c Institute of Constitutional and Parliamentary Studies (1980), Journal of Constitutional and Parliamentary Studies, 14, Institute of Constitutional and Parliamentary Studies 

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]