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Chelyabinsk Opera Theater and vicinity
Chelyabinsk Opera Theater and vicinity
Flag of Chelyabinsk
Coat of arms of Chelyabinsk
Coat of arms
Location of Chelyabinsk
Chelyabinsk is located in Russia
Location of Chelyabinsk
Chelyabinsk is located in Chelyabinsk Oblast
Chelyabinsk (Chelyabinsk Oblast)
Coordinates: 55°09′17″N 61°22′33″E / 55.15472°N 61.37583°E / 55.15472; 61.37583Coordinates: 55°09′17″N 61°22′33″E / 55.15472°N 61.37583°E / 55.15472; 61.37583
Federal subjectChelyabinsk Oblast
City status since1787[2]
 • BodyCouncil
 • HeadVladimir Elistratov (acting)
 • Total530 km2 (200 sq mi)
220 m (720 ft)
 • Total1,130,132
 • Estimate 
1,202,371 (+6.4%)
 • Rank9th in 2010
 • Density2,100/km2 (5,500/sq mi)
 • Subordinated toCity of Chelyabinsk[1]
 • Capital ofChelyabinsk Oblast[1], City of Chelyabinsk[1]
 • Urban okrugChelyabinsky Urban Okrug[1]
 • Capital ofChelyabinsky Urban Okrug[1]
Time zoneUTC+5 (MSK+2 Edit this on Wikidata[6])
Postal code(s)[7]
Dialing code(s)+7 351[8]
OKTMO ID75701000001
City DaySeptember 13
Twin townsColumbia, Omsk, Nottinghamshire, Kazan, Ramla, Ufa, ÜrümqiEdit this on Wikidata

Chelyabinsk (Russian: Челя́бинск, IPA: [tɕɪˈlʲæbʲɪnsk] (About this soundlisten)) is a city and the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located in the northeast of the oblast, 210 kilometers (130 mi) south of Yekaterinburg, just to the east of the Ural Mountains, on the Miass River, on the border of Europe and Asia.[9][10][11] Population: 1,130,132 (2010 Census);[4] 1,077,174 (2002 Census);[12] 1,141,777 (1989 Census).[13]


Ancient Vedic Civilization

Archaeologists have discovered ruins of the ancient town of Arkaim, situated in the vicinity of the city of Chelyabinsk. Pravda, a leading Russian newspaper, reported the discovery indicates the presence of an advanced civilization of Indo-Vedic origin, which was at least 4,000 years old in Arkaim.[14]

The site is known by the Russian archaeologists for at least 70 years as Sintashta-Petrovka cultural area of ancient Aryans, but it was often ignored in the Anglo-American historical scholarship. Sintashta-Petrovka cultural area runs along the eastern Urals of the Eurasian steppe for about 400 km south of Chelyabinsk and to the east for about 200 km. There are 23 sites recognized as belonging to this group. The Sintashta burials, and those found at other Arkaim sites vary significantly in detail. These burials provide archaeological evidence of the burial rituals set down in the Rig Veda and Avesta and, thus, these are called Indo-Iranian.[15]

The sites have been called “towns” and, most of them have been discovered through aerial photography; they are laid out in round, square, or oval shapes. While only two of these “towns,” Arkaim and Sintashta, have been mainly excavated, they are characterized as being fortified, having connecting houses, and having extensive evidence for metallurgy.[16] The excavation of the burial sites at Sintashta has provided archaeological evidence for numerous aspects of the burial rituals set down in the texts of Rig Veda and Avesta.[17]

The people of the Sintashta culture are thought to have spoken Proto-Indo-Iranian, the ancestor of the Indo-Iranian language family. This identification is based primarily on similarities between sections of the Rig Veda, an Indian religious text which includes ancient Indo-Iranian hymns recorded in Vedic Sanskrit, with the funerary rituals of the Sintashta culture as revealed by archaeology.[18]

Modern Russian History

The fortress of Chelyaba, from which the city takes its name, was founded at the location of the Bashkir village of Chelyaby (Bashkir: Силәбе, Siläbe) by colonel Alexey (Kutlu-Muhammed) Tevkelev in 1736[2] to protect the surrounding trade routes from possible attacks by Bashkir outlaws. During Pugachev's Rebellion, the fortress withstood a siege by the rebel forces in 1774, but was eventually captured for several months in 1775. In 1782, as a part of Ufa Viceroyalty that was later reformed into Orenburg Governorate, Chelyabinsk became a seat of its uyezd and finally was granted town status and its current name in 1787.

Kuznetsov's tea-packing factory (1898)
Valeyev's trading house (1911)

Until the late 19th century, Chelyabinsk was a small provincial town. In 1892, the Samara-Zlatoust Railway was completed, which connected it with Moscow and the rest of European Russia. Also, in 1892, construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway from Chelyabinsk started, and in 1896, the city was linked to Ekaterinburg. Chelyabinsk became the hub for relocation to Siberia. For fifteen years, more than fifteen million people - a tenth of Russia - passed through Chelyabinsk. Some of them remained in Chelyabinsk, which contributed to its rapid growth. In addition, in Chelyabinsk, was organized custom office set "customs fracture" the bounding duty-free grain and tea to the European part of the country that led to the emergence in mills and set the tea-packing factory. Soon Chelyabinsk started turning into a major trade center. Its population reached 20,000 inhabitants by 1897, 45,000 by 1913, and 70,000 by 1917. For rapid growth at the turn of the 20th century, similar to American cities, Chelyabinsk called "Behind the Urals Chicago".[19]

During the first Five-year plans of the 1930s, Chelyabinsk experienced rapid industrial growth. Several establishments, including the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant and the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant, were built at this time. During World War II, Joseph Stalin decided to move a large part of Soviet factory production to places out of the way of the advancing German armies in late 1941. This brought new industries and thousands of workers to Chelyabinsk. Facilities for the production of T-34 tanks and Katyusha rocket launchers existed in Chelyabinsk. During World War II, it produced 18,000 tanks and 48,500 tank diesel engines as well as over 17 million units of ammunition. In the press of the time, Chelyabinsk was informally called Tankograd or Tank City. The S.M. Kirov Factory no. 185 was moved here from Leningrad to produce heavy tanks; it was transferred to Omsk after 1962.

2013 meteor

Shortly after dawn on February 15, 2013, a superbolide meteor descended at over 55,000 kilometers per hour (34,000 mph) over the Ural Mountains, exploding at an altitude of 25–30 kilometers (16–19 mi).[20][dubious ]

The meteor created a momentary flash as bright as the sun and generated a shock wave that injured over a thousand people. Fragments fell in and around Chelyabinsk. Interior Ministry spokesman Vadim Kolesnikov said 1,100 people had called for medical assistance following the incident, mostly for treatment of injuries from glass broken by the explosions. One woman suffered a broken spine.[21] Kolesnikov also said about 600 square meters (6,000 sq ft) of a roof at a zinc factory had collapsed. A spokeswoman for the Emergency Ministry told the Associated Press that there was a meteor shower; however, another ministry spokeswoman was quoted by the Interfax news agency as saying it was a single meteor.[22][23][24] The size has been estimated at 17 meters (56 ft) diameter with a mass of 10,000[25][26] or 11,000[27] metric tons. The power of the explosion was about 500 kilotons of TNT (about 1.8 PJ), which is 20–30 times more energy than was released from the atomic bomb exploded in Hiroshima. The city managed to avoid large casualties and destruction due to the high altitude of the explosion.

Administrative and municipal status

The building of the Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast

Chelyabinsk is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the City of Chelyabinsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Chelyabinsk is incorporated as Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug.[1] In June 2014, Chelyabinsk's seven city districts were granted civil status.[28]


Chelyabinsk is located east of the Ural Mountains, 199 km south of Yekaterinburg. Its elevation is 200–250 meters.

The city is bisected by the river Miass which is regarded as the border between the Urals and Siberia. This is reflected in the geology of the place, with low granite hills of the Urals on the western side and lower sedimentary rock of the West Siberian Plain on the eastern side.

The "Leningrad bridge" connects the two sides, so it is called the "bridge of the Urals to Siberia". Chelyabinsk itself is also known as "The Gateway to Siberia".[29]

Like Rome, Constantinople, and Moscow, Chelyabinsk is said to be located on seven hills.[30]


The city has a warm summer humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfb) farther north than found on Canadian prairies. The average temperature in January is well below the freezing point (-14°C/6.6 °F). Still, July has a relatively cool average (19°C/66.7 °F), and the annual average is a few degrees above zero Celsius (3°C/37.8 °F), indicating still some moderation. The range of extremes allegedly reaches 70°C/158 °F, claimed to be typical of a mid-latitude climate on a large continent such as Eurasia.[31]

The highest precipitation is concentrated in the summer, reducing in the winter. July, a month with higher precipitation is 87mm/3.44'' and January, driest month is 15mm/0.6''. Altogether they are 16.9" of annual rainfall and therefore approaching with a semi-arid climate. It is 119 rainy days a year, but the first month of the year records only one-tenth of a day.[31]

Climate data for Chelyabinsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 4.9
Average high °C (°F) −10.5
Daily mean °C (°F) −14.9
Average low °C (°F) −19.0
Record low °C (°F) −49.9
Average precipitation mm (inches) 17
Average rainy days 0.1 0.3 4 10 15 19 17 16 16 10 6 1 114
Average snowy days 18 16 15 6 1 0.3 0 0 1 6 15 19 97
Average relative humidity (%) 85 77 76 66 61 64 69 71 73 73 82 83 73
Source #1:[32][dead link]
Source #2: World Meteorological Organization (precipitation days only)[33]


Chelyabinsk skyline with the river Miass in the center.


The architecture of Chelyabinsk has been shaped through its history by the change of historical eras in the development of Russia. Before the revolution of 1917, the city was a trading center, with numerous merchant buildings in the eclectic and modern styles with elements of Russian Revival architecture, some of which are preserved on Kirovka St., a street reserved for pedestrians.

Residential building on Revolution square (1938)

Industrialization started in the late 1920s. The construction of large plants was accompanied by the construction of a brand new residential and public buildings in the constructivist style. Entire constructivist neighborhoods can be seen in the area of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant (CTZ, ChTZ).[34]

In the late 1930s, a new era began in the city, came associated with the construction of monumental buildings in Stalinist style. The city center and central avenue are constructed in substantially this style.[35]

The next 60 years saw intensive construction of housing tower blocks as the city's population rose to about one million; note on the map the largely residential area called "Severo-Zapad" (English: North-West).

Square Aloe pole (Scarlet field)

With the market reforms of the '90s, the city began intensive construction of office buildings for business and major shopping malls in postmodern and high-tech styles.

Parks and gardens

Chelyabinsk has seventeen public parks. The largest of them is one of the best in Russia - Chelyabinsk Central Park, named after Gagarin.[36] Its territory is saved in the urban forest, where, among pine trees and granite rocks, there are several picturesque ex-quarries now flooded with water.


South Ural State University

There are over a dozen universities in Chelyabinsk. The oldest, Chelyabinsk State Agroengineering Academy, was founded in 1930. It was followed by the Chelyabinsk State Pedagogical University in 1934. The main ones are South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk State University, South Ural State University of Arts named after Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Chelyabinsk Medical Academy. After World War II, Chelyabinsk became the main center of vocational education of the entire Ural region.[37]


Chelyabinsk-City Office Center. Tallest building in Chelyabinsk.
Radisson Blu Hotel

Chelyabinsk is one of the major industrial centers of Russia. Heavy industry predominates, especially metallurgy and military machinery, notably the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Combinate (CMK, ChMK) belongs to the company "Mechel", Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant (CTZ, ChTZ), Chelyabinsk Electrode plant (CHEZ), Chelyabinsk Tube Rolling Plant (ChTPZ) included in the "Big Eight" pipe producers in Russia, produces large-diameter pipes for pipelines, and Chelyabinsk Forge-and-Press Plant (ChKPZ) manufacturer of parts for various machines. Chelyabinsk Zinc Plant, owned by the Ural Mining and Metallurgical Company, produces about 2% of the world and over 60% of Russian zinc. Chelyabinsk Mechanical Plant produces automotive and industrial cranes trademark "Chelyabinets". Chelyabinsk road machinery plant name Kolyuschenko produces road construction machinery and dump trucks Terex.[38]

Chelyabinsk Watch Factory "Molnija" produces pocket, souvenir watches and technical watches for aircraft and ships. In 1980, the clock "Molnija" were given as gifts to participants of the Moscow Olympic Games.[39]

The agro-industrial company "Makfa", Russia's largest producer of pasta, one of the five largest world producers of pasta. "Unichel" shoe firm is the largest manufacturer of footwear in Russia. The agricultural firm "Ariant" - the leader in the production of meat products in the Urals Federal District of Russia, produces alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. American multinational corporation Emerson buying up shares of local businesses "Metran" organized in Chelyabinsk engineering center, building a factory for the production of industrial devices and equipment.[40]

Sinegorye shopping mall
Tram and trolleybus in Chelyabinsk

In recent years, Chelyabinsk significant role in the economy of the early play services, banking and insurance activities, logistics centers, tourism. The city is central for offices of major regional banks as "Chelindbank" and "Chelyabinvestbank".

There are several large shopping malls. The largest of them are Gorky (English: Hills) (2007), with an area of 55,000 meters2, and Rodnik (English:Spring) (2011), 135,000 meters2. At least two more are under construction: Almaz (English: Diamond) (2015), 220,000 meters2, and Cloud (2018), 350,000 meters2.


Planned metro network

Public transport of Chelyabinsk is represented by a bus lines network (since 1925), tram (1932) and trolleybus (1942) systems, as well as private marshrutka (routed cab) services. The city has several taxi companies.

In 2014 in Chelyabinsk began to run electric buses (hybrid trolleybus and electric car).[41]

Beeline and Chelyabinsk city electric transport in 2011 signed an agreement to provide passengers free internet. Currently Wi-Fi is available in some public trams and trolleybuses in Chelyabinsk.

Chelyabinsk started the construction of a three-line subway network in 1992.[42]

The city is served by the Chelyabinsk Airport.


Traktor Arena

Several sports clubs are active in the city:

Club Sport Founded Current League League
Traktor Chelyabinsk Ice Hockey 1947 Kontinental Hockey League 1st Traktor Arena
Chelmet Chelyabinsk Ice Hockey 1948 Higher Hockey League 2nd Yunost Sports Palace
Belye Medvedi Chelyabinsk Ice Hockey 2009 Junior Hockey League Jr. 1st Traktor Arena
FC Chelyabinsk Football 1977 Russian Second Division 3rd Central Stadium
Sintur Chelyabinsk Futsal 1997 Futsal Supreme League 2nd USURT Sports Complex
Dynamo-Metar Chelyabinsk Volleyball 1972 Women's Volleyball Superleague 1st Metar-Sport Sports Palace
Dynamo Chelyabinsk Volleyball 1986 Men's Volleyball Supreme League 2nd Metar-Sport Sports Palace

In 2012, for the first time in Russia, Chelyabinsk hosted the European Judo Championship (Euro 2012). In 2014 the World Championship in Judo was held, and in 2015, the European Speed Skating Championships as well as the World Taekwondo Championships held. IIHF World U18 Championship was held in 2018 (along with Magnitogorsk).


Chelyabinsk Regional Universal Scientific Library

The city has several libraries, including Chelyabinsk Regional Universal Scientific Library, with more than 2 million books, including more than 12,000 rare books and monuments (17th to 19th centuries), is the most extensive public library in the Chelyabinsk oblast.

Chelyabinsk State Academic Drama Theater named after Nakhum Orlov

Chelyabinsk is home to several famous theaters: Chelyabinsk State Academic Drama Theatre named Nahum Orlov, Chelyabinsk State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre named Glinka, Chelyabinsk State Chamber Theater Drama, Chelyabinsk State Puppet Theater, Chelyabinsk State Youth Theatre, Theater "Mannequin", Chelyabinsk New Arts Theatre, Chelyabinsk Contemporary Dance Theatre.

Concert Hall of the Glinka State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre
Chelyabinsk regional museum

There are nine museums in Chelyabinsk. Chelyabinsk regional museum was founded in 1913 and holds about 300 thousand exhibits. There are expositions of the ancient settlement Arkaim age 3rd to 2nd millennium BC relating to the "Land of Cities", the largest fragment of the Chelyabinsk meteor, weighing 570 kg, famous decorated edged weapons of the 19th and 20th centuries, made by Zlatoust arms factory, exhibits Kasli artistic cast iron and much more. Chelyabinsk Region Picture Gallery has more than 11,000 works. Meeting up collections of art in Europe and the East (International Art), the national art of the Middle Ages, modern and contemporary, modern art. The peculiarity of the meeting are collections of icons (16th to 20th centuries), early printed books and manuscripts. The museum of railway equipment of the South Ural railway presented more than 30 exhibits of vehicles used on the rail after it in Chelyabinsk in 1892.

Museum of military equipment in the Victory Garden
Sika deer in the Chelyabinsk Zoo
Holy Trinity Church (1914)

The museum of military equipment in the garden of Victory was founded in 2007. It is 16 exhibits, including T-34, IS-3 tanks and multiple rocket launchers "Katyusha" produced in Chelyabinsk during the World War II.

In addition, the city has the Chelyabinsk regional geological museum, museum of military glory of labor and the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant, Museum of postal service Chelyabinsk region, entertaining science museum "Eksperimentus".

Chelyabinsk Zoo is located in the central region of Chelyabinsk. It has an area of 30 hectares with more than 110 species, of which more than 80 listed in the Red Book.The zoo participates in international programs for the conservation of endangered species, including Amur (Siberian) tigers, Far Eastern leopards and Polar bears. The zoo regular sightseeing tours, lectures, exhibitions and celebrations.

City also has a circus, a State Philarmonic Concert Hall n.a. Prokofiev and "Rodina" Concert Hall of organ and chamber music with organ made by the known German company "Hermann Eule". The instrument consists of 2504 pipes, 37 registers, three manuals and a pedal keyboard. Its sound is a rare gentleness and generosity sound basic votes.

In the city of Chelyabinsk, there are several churches built in the 19th to 21st centuries.

Notable people

Ice hockey players

Twin towns and sister cities

Chelyabinsk is twinned with:

Diplomatic and consular missions and visa centers

See also



  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Resolution #161
  2. ^ a b c "Chelyabinsk - Russia". Retrieved September 21, 2017.
  3. ^ "Челябинск сегодня – Визитная Карточка". Администрация г. Челябинска. Archived from the original on January 26, 2012.
  4. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  5. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  6. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  7. ^ "Information about central postal office" (in Russian). Archived from the original on March 3, 2016.
  8. ^ "Russian Federation Cities dialing codes" (ZIP 34.4KB) (in Russian).[permanent dead link]
  9. ^ "Investing in Chelyabinsk city". Invest in Russia. Retrieved February 14, 2013.
  10. ^ "Murzina" (PDF).
  11. ^ "Invest in Ural". Invest in Ural. Archived from the original on February 24, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2013.
  12. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  13. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  14. ^ "Ancient Aryan civilization achieved incredible technological progress 40 centuries ago". Pravda.
  15. ^ Basu, Dipak (2017). India as an Organization: Volume One. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 23. ISBN 978-3-319-53372-8.
  16. ^ Basu, Dipak (2017). India as an Organization: Volume One. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 23. ISBN 978-3-319-53372-8.
  17. ^ Basu, Dipak (2017). India as an Organization: Volume One. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 23. ISBN 978-3-319-53372-8.
  18. ^ Anthony 2007, pp. 408–411.
  19. ^ "Челябинск: Ворота в Сибирь и Зауральский Чикаго". Портал Челябинская область.
  20. ^ Campbell-Brown, Margaret. "What Do We Know about the Russian Meteor? Meteor researcher Margaret Campbell-Brown recaps the latest research into the cause of this morning's fireball over Chelyabinsk". Scientific American (Interview). Interviewed by John Matson. Retrieved December 24, 2017. [Interviewer:] Where was most of the energy released as this object made its way through the atmosphere? [Subject:]In this case the final destination, which seems to have been the largest deposit of energy, was somewhere around 15 to 20 kilometers altitude. The actual fireball probably started significantly higher than that, maybe 50 kilometers, but most of the energy was apparently deposited during that last explosion lower in the atmosphere.
  21. ^ "Meteorite hits Russian Urals: Fireball explosion wreaks havoc, up to 1,200 injured (PHOTOS, VIDEO)". RT. February 15, 2013.
  22. ^ Plait, Phil (February 15, 2013). "Breaking: Huge Meteor Blazes Across Sky Over Russia; Sonic Boom Shatters Windows [UPDATED]". Slate. Retrieved February 15, 2013.
  23. ^ "Meteor strikes Earth in Russia's Urals". Pravda. Retrieved February 15, 2013.
  24. ^ "400 Injured by Meteorite Falls in Russian Urals". Associated Press. Retrieved February 15, 2013.
  25. ^ Agle, D. C. (February 13, 2013). "Russia Meteor not Linked to Asteroid Flyby". NASA news. NASA. Retrieved February 15, 2013.
  26. ^ Sreeja, VN (March 4, 2013). "New Asteroid '2013 EC' Similar To Russian Meteor To Pass Earth At A Distance Less Than Moon's Orbit". International Business Times. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
  27. ^ Yeomans, Don; Chodas, Paul (March 1, 2013). "Additional Details on the Large Fireball Event over Russia on Feb. 15, 2013". NASA/JPL Near-Earth Object Program Office. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
  28. ^ Law #706-ZO
  29. ^ История Челябинска - от крепости до железнодорожной станции (in Russian). Портал Челябинская область.
  30. ^ "Холмы Челябинска". Электронное периодическое издание Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
  31. ^ a b "Chelyabinsk, Russia Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  32. ^ "Weather and Climate (Погода и Климат – Климат Челябинска)" (in Russian). Retrieved December 13, 2012.
  33. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Cheljabinsk". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
  34. ^ Конструктивизм в архитектуре Челябинска (in Russian).
  35. ^ "Сталинский ампир".
  36. ^ "Парк Гагарина в Челябинске попал в топ-5 лучших в России".
  37. ^ "На Урале".
  38. ^ "В Челябинске начали производство 100-тонных самосвалов".
  39. ^ "Часовой завод "Молния"". Archived from the original on July 11, 2014.
  40. ^ "Вице-президент Emerson Process Management в Восточной Европе: "В Челябинске есть свой маленький центр «Сколково"".
  41. ^ "В Челябинске начал курсировать электробус".
  42. ^ "Chelyabinsk". Archived from the original on May 17, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2014.
  43. ^ "Sister cities". Archived from the original on September 8, 2013. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
  44. ^ "Филиалы - Visa Management Service". Retrieved September 21, 2017.
  45. ^ "La rete consolare". Retrieved September 21, 2017.


  • Законодательное Собрание Челябинской области. Постановление №161 от 25 мая 2006 г. «Об утверждении перечня муниципальных образований (административно-территориальных единиц) Челябинской области и населённых пунктов, входящих в их состав», в ред. Постановления №2255 от 23 октября 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в перечень муниципальных образований (административно-территориальных единиц) Челябинской области и населённых пунктов, входящих в их состав». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Южноуральская панорама", №111–112, 14 июня 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Resolution #161 of November 25, 2006 On Adoption of the Registry of the Municipal Formations (Administrative-Territorial Units) of Chelyabinsk Oblast and of the Inhabited Localities They Comprise, as amended by the Resolution #2255 of October 23, 2014 On Amending the Registry of the Municipal Formations (Administrative-Territorial Units) of Chelyabinsk Oblast and of the Inhabited Localities They Comprise. Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Челябинской области. Закон №706-ЗО от 10 июня 2014 г. «О статусе и границах Челябинского городского округа и внутригородских районов в его составе». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Южноуральская панорама", №87 (спецвыпуск №24), 14 июня 2014 г. (Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Law #706-ZO of June 10, 2014 On the Status and Borders of Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug and the City Districts It Comprises. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Anne Garrels, Putin Country: A Journey Into The Real Russia (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2016).
  • Lennart Samuelson, Tankograd: The Formation of a Soviet Company Town: Cheliabinsk, 1900s–1950s (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).

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