|Date||15 February 2013|
|Time||09:20:29 YEKT (UTC+06:00)|
|Location||Chebarkul, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia|
|Coordinates||55°09′00″N 61°24′36″E / 55.150°N 61.410°ECoordinates: 55°09′00″N 61°24′36″E / 55.150°N 61.410°E|
|Also known as||Chelyabinsk meteorite|
|Cause||Meteor air burst|
|Non-fatal injuries||1,491 indirect injuries|
|Property damage||Over 7,200 buildings damaged, collapsed factory roof, shattered windows, $33 million (2013 USD) lost|
The Chelyabinsk meteor was a superbolide that entered Earth's atmosphere over the southern Ural region in Russia on 15 February 2013 at about 09:20 YEKT (03:20 UTC). It was caused by an approximately 18 m (59 ft) diameter, 9,100-tonne (10,000-short-ton) near-Earth asteroid that entered the atmosphere at a shallow 18.3 ± 0.4 degree angle with a speed relative to Earth of 19.16 ± 0.15 kilometres per second (69,000 km/h; 42,690 mph). The light from the meteor was briefly brighter than the Sun, visible as far as 100 km (60 mi) away. It was observed in a wide area of the region and in neighbouring republics. Some eyewitnesses also reported feeling intense heat from the fireball.
The object exploded in a meteor air burst over Chelyabinsk Oblast, at a height of about 29.7 km (18.5 mi; 97,000 ft). The explosion generated a bright flash, producing a hot cloud of dust and gas that penetrated to 26.2 km (16.3 mi; 86,000 ft), and many surviving small fragmentary meteorites. Most of the object's energy was absorbed by the atmosphere, creating a large shock wave. The asteroid had a total kinetic energy before atmospheric impact equivalent to the blast yield of 400–500 kilotons of TNT (about 1.4–1.8 PJ), estimated from infrasound and seismic measurements. This was 26 to 33 times as much energy as that released from the atomic bomb detonated at Hiroshima.
The object approached Earth undetected before its atmospheric entry, in part because its radiant (source direction) was close to the Sun. Its explosion created panic among local residents, and 1,491 people were injured seriously enough to seek medical treatment. All of the injuries were due to indirect effects rather than the meteor itself, mainly from broken glass from windows that were blown in when the shock wave arrived, minutes after the superbolide's flash. Some 7,200 buildings in six cities across the region were damaged by the explosion's shock wave, and authorities scrambled to help repair the structures in sub-freezing temperatures.
With an estimated initial mass of about 12,000–13,000 tonnes (13,000–14,000 short tons), and measuring about 20 m (66 ft) in diameter, it is the largest known natural object to have entered Earth's atmosphere since the 1908 Tunguska event, which destroyed a wide, remote, forested, and very sparsely populated area of Siberia. The Chelyabinsk meteor is also the only meteor confirmed to have resulted in many injuries. No deaths were reported.
The earlier-predicted and well-publicized close approach of a larger asteroid on the same day, the roughly 30 m (100 ft) 367943 Duende, occurred about 16 hours later; the very different orbits of the two objects showed they were unrelated to each other.
Local residents witnessed extremely bright burning objects in the sky in Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Sverdlovsk, Tyumen, and Orenburg Oblasts, the Republic of Bashkortostan, and in neighbouring regions in Kazakhstan, when the asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere over Russia. Amateur videos showed a fireball streaking across the sky and a loud boom several minutes afterwards. Some eyewitnesses claim they felt intense heat from the fireball.
The event began at 09:20:21 Yekaterinburg time (which was UTC+6 at the time), several minutes after sunrise in Chelyabinsk, and minutes before sunrise in Yekaterinburg. According to eyewitnesses, the bolide appeared brighter than the sun, as was later confirmed by NASA. An image of the object was also taken soon after it entered the atmosphere by the weather satellite Meteosat 9. Witnesses in Chelyabinsk said that the air of the city smelled like "gunpowder", "sulfur" and "burning odors" starting about 1 hour after the fireball and lasting all day.
The visible phenomenon due to the passage of an asteroid or meteoroid through the atmosphere is termed a meteor. If the object reaches the ground, then it is termed a meteorite. During the Chelyabinsk meteoroid's traversal, there was a bright object trailing smoke, then an air burst (explosion) that caused a powerful blast wave. The latter was the only cause of the damage to thousands of buildings in Chelyabinsk and its neighbouring towns. The fragments then entered dark flight (without the emission of light) and created a strewn field of numerous meteorites on the snow-covered ground (officially named Chelyabinsk meteorites).
The last time a similar phenomenon was observed in the Chelyabinsk region was the Kunashak meteor shower of 1949, after which scientists recovered about 20 meteorites weighing more than 200 kg (440 lb) in total. The Chelyabinsk meteor is thought to be the biggest natural space object to enter Earth's atmosphere since the 1908 Tunguska event, and the only one confirmed to have resulted in many injuries,[Note 1] although a small number of panic-related injuries occurred during the Great Madrid Meteor Event of 10 February 1896.
Preliminary estimates released by the Russian Federal Space Agency indicated the object was an asteroid moving at about 30 km/s (110,000 km/h; 67,000 mph) in a "low trajectory" when it entered Earth's atmosphere. According to the Russian Academy of Sciences, the meteor then pushed through the atmosphere at a velocity of 15 km/s (54,000 km/h; 34,000 mph) Video recordings show the radiant of the meteor (its apparent position of origin in the sky) above and to the left of the rising Sun.
Early analysis of CCTV and dashcam video posted online indicated that the meteor approached from the southeast, and exploded about 40 km (25 mi) south of central Chelyabinsk above Korkino at a height of 23.3 kilometres (76,000 ft), with fragments continuing in the direction of Lake Chebarkul. On 1 March 2013, NASA published a detailed synopsis of the event, stating that at peak brightness (at 09:20:33 local time), the meteor was 23.3 km (76,000 ft) high, located at 54.8°N, 61.1°E. At that time it was travelling at about 18.6 kilometres per second (67,000 km/h; 42,000 mph) – almost 60 times the speed of sound. During November 2013, results were published based on a more careful calibration of dashcam videos in the field weeks after the event during a Russian Academy of Sciences field study, which estimated the point of peak brightness at 29.7 km (97,000 ft) altitude and the final disruption of the thermal debris cloud at 27.0 km (88,600 ft), settling to 26.2 km (86,000 ft), all with a possible systematic uncertainty of ±0.7 km (2,300 ft).
The United States space agency NASA estimated the diameter of the bolide at about 17 to 20 m (56 to 66 ft) and has revised the mass several times from an initial 7,700 tonnes (7,600 long tons; 8,500 short tons), until reaching a final estimate of 10,000 tonnes (9,800 long tons; 11,000 short tons). The air burst's blast wave, when it hit the ground, produced a seismic wave which registered on seismographs at magnitude (mbLg) 4.2.
The Russian Geographical Society said the passing of the meteor over Chelyabinsk caused three blasts of different energy. The first explosion was the most powerful, and was preceded by a bright flash, which lasted about five seconds. Initial newspaper altitude estimates ranged from 30 to 70 km (98,000 to 230,000 ft), with an explosive equivalent, according to NASA, of roughly 500 kilotonnes of TNT (2,100 TJ), although there is some debate on this yield (500 kilotonnes is exactly the same energy released by the Ivy King nuclear explosion in 1952). According to a paper in 2013, all these 500 kiloton yield estimates for the meteor airburst are "uncertain by a factor of two because of a lack of calibration data at those high energies and altitudes". Because of this, some studies have suggested the explosion to have been as powerful as 57 megatonnes of TNT (240 PJ), which would mean a more powerful explosion than Tunguska and comparable to the Tsar Bomba.
The hypocentre of the explosion was to the south of Chelyabinsk, in Yemanzhelinsk and Yuzhnouralsk. Due to the height of the air burst, the atmosphere absorbed most of the explosion's energy. The explosion's blast wave first reached Chelyabinsk and environs between less than 2 minutes 23 seconds and 2 minutes 57 seconds later. The object did not release all of its kinetic energy in the form of a blast wave, as some 90 kilotonnes of TNT (380 TJ) of the total energy of the main airburst's fireball was emitted as visible light according to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and two main fragments survived the primary airburst disruption at 29.7 kilometres (97,000 ft); they flared around 24 kilometres (15 mi), with one falling apart at 18.5 kilometres (61,000 ft) and the other remaining luminous down to 13.6 kilometres (45,000 ft), with part of the meteoroid continuing on its general trajectory to punch a hole in the frozen Lake Chebarkul, an impact that was fortuitously captured on camera and released in November 2013.
The infrasound waves given off by the explosions were detected by 20 monitoring stations designed to detect nuclear weapons testing managed by the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Preparatory Commission, including the distant Antarctic station, some 15,000 kilometres (9,300 mi) away. The blast of the explosion was large enough to generate infrasound returns, after circling the globe, at distances as far as about 85,000 kilometres (53,000 mi). Multiple arrivals involving waves that travelled twice around the globe have been identified. The meteor explosion produced the largest infrasounds ever to be recorded by the CTBTO infrasound monitoring system, which began recording in 2001, so great that they reverberated around the world several times, taking more than a day to dissipate. Additional scientific analysis of US military infrasound data was aided by an agreement reached with US authorities to allow its use by civilian scientists, implemented only about a month before the Chelyabinsk meteor event.
A preliminary estimate of the explosive energy by astronomer Boris Shustov, director of the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of Astronomy, was 200 kilotonnes of TNT (840 TJ), another using empirical period-yield scaling relations and the infrasound records, by Peter Brown of the University of Western Ontario gave a value of 460–470 kilotonnes of TNT (1,900–2,000 TJ) and represents a best estimate for the yield of this airburst; there remains a potential "uncertainty [in the order of] a factor of two in this yield value". Brown and his colleagues also went on to publish a paper in November 2013 which stated that the "widely referenced technique of estimating airburst damage does not reproduce the [Chelyabinsk] observations, and that the mathematical relations found in the book The Effects of Nuclear Weapons which are based on the effects of nuclear weapons – [which is] almost always used with this technique – overestimate blast damage [when applied to meteor airbursts]". A similar overestimate of the explosive yield of the Tunguska airburst also exists; as incoming celestial objects have rapid directional motion, the object causes stronger blast wave and thermal radiation pulses at the ground surface than would be predicted by a stationary object exploding, limited to the height at which the blast was initiated-where the object's "momentum is ignored". Thus, a meteor airburst of a given energy is "much more damaging than an equivalent [energy] nuclear explosion at the same altitude". The seismic wave produced when the primary airburst's blast struck the ground yields a rather uncertain "best estimate" of 430 kilotons (momentum ignored).
Brown also states that the double smoke plume formation, as seen in photographs, is believed to have coincided near the primary airburst section of the dust trail (as also pictured following the Tagish Lake fireball), and it likely indicates where rising air quickly flowed into the center of the trail, essentially in the same manner as a moving 3D version of a mushroom cloud. Photographs of this smoke trail portion, before it split into two plumes, show this cigar-shaped region glowing incandescently for a few seconds. This region is the area in which the maximum of material ablation occurred, with the double plume persisting for a time and then appearing to rejoin or close up.
Injuries and damage
The blast created by the meteor's air burst produced extensive ground damage throughout an irregular elliptical area around a hundred kilometres wide, and a few tens of kilometres long, with the secondary effects of the blast being the main cause of the considerable number of injuries. Russian authorities stated that 1,491 people sought medical attention in Chelyabinsk Oblast within the first few days. Health officials reported 112 hospitalisations, including two in serious condition. A 52-year-old woman with a broken spine was flown to Moscow for treatment. Most of the injuries were caused by the secondary blast effects of shattered, falling or blown-in glass. The intense light from the meteor, momentarily brighter than the Sun, also produced injuries, resulting in more than 180 cases of eye pain, and 70 people subsequently reported temporary flash blindness. Twenty people reported ultraviolet burns similar to sunburn, possibly intensified by the presence of snow on the ground. Vladimir Petrov, when meeting with scientists to assess the damage, reported that he sustained so much sunburn from the meteor that the skin flaked only days later.
A fourth-grade teacher in Chelyabinsk, Yulia Karbysheva, was hailed as a hero after saving 44 children from imploding window glass cuts. Despite not knowing the origin of the intense flash of light, Karbysheva thought it prudent to take precautionary measures by ordering her students to stay away from the room's windows and to perform a duck and cover maneuver and then to leave the building. Karbysheva, who remained standing, was seriously lacerated when the blast arrived and window glass severed a tendon in one of her arms and left thigh; none of her students, whom she ordered to hide under their desks, suffered cuts. The teacher was taken to a hospital which received 112 people that day. The majority of the patients were suffering from cuts.
After the air blast, car alarms went off and mobile phone networks were overloaded with calls. Office buildings in Chelyabinsk were evacuated. Classes for all Chelyabinsk schools were cancelled, mainly due to broken windows. At least 20 children were injured when the windows of a school and kindergarten were blown in at 09:22. After the event, government officials in Chelyabinsk asked parents to take their children home from schools.
Approximately 600 m2 (6,500 sq ft) of a roof at a zinc factory collapsed during the incident. Residents in Chelyabinsk whose windows were smashed quickly sought to cover the openings with anything available, to protect themselves against temperatures of −15 °C (5 °F). Approximately 100,000 home-owners were affected, according to Chelyabinsk Oblast Governor Mikhail Yurevich. He also said that preserving the water pipes of the city's district heating was the primary goal of the authorities as they scrambled to contain further post-explosion damage.
By 5 March 2013, the number of damaged buildings was tallied at more than 7,200, which included some 6,040 apartment blocks, 293 medical facilities, 718 schools and universities, 100 cultural organizations, and 43 sport facilities, of which only about 1.5% had not yet been repaired. The oblast governor estimated the damage to buildings at more than 1 billion rubles (approximately US$33 million). Chelyabinsk authorities said that broken windows of apartment homes, but not the glazing of enclosed balconies, would be replaced at the state's expense. One of the buildings damaged in the blast was the Traktor Sport Palace, home arena of Traktor Chelyabinsk of the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL). The arena was closed for inspection, affecting various scheduled events, and possibly the postseason of the KHL.
The irregular elliptical disk shape/"spread-eagled butterfly" ground blast damage area, produced by the airburst, is a phenomenon first noticed upon studying the other larger airburst event: Tunguska.
The Chelyabinsk meteor struck without warning. Dmitry Medvedev, the Prime Minister of Russia, confirmed a meteor had struck Russia and said it proved that the "entire planet" is vulnerable to meteors and a spaceguard system is needed to protect the planet from similar objects in the future. Dmitry Rogozin, the deputy prime minister, proposed that there should be an international program that would alert countries to "objects of an extraterrestrial origin", also called potentially hazardous objects.
Colonel General Nikolay Bogdanov, commander of the Central Military District, created task forces that were directed to the probable impact areas to search for fragments of the asteroid and to monitor the situation. Meteorites (fragments) measuring 1 to 5 cm (0.4 to 2 in) were found 1 km (0.6 mi) from Chebarkul in the Chelyabinsk region.
On the day of the impact, Bloomberg News reported that the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs had suggested the investigation of creating an "Action Team on Near-Earth Objects", a proposed global asteroid warning network system, due to 2012 DA14's approach. As a result of the impact, two scientists in California proposed directed-energy weapon technology development as a possible means to protect Earth from asteroids. Furthermore, the NEOWISE satellite was brought out of hibernation for its second mission extension to scan for near-earth objects. Later in 2013, NASA began annual asteroid impact simulation testing.
It is estimated that the frequency of airbursts from objects 20 metres (70 ft) across is about once in every 60 years. There have been incidents in the previous century involving a comparable energy yield or higher: the 1908 Tunguska event, and, in 1963 off the coast of the Prince Edward Islands in the Indian Ocean. Two of those were over unpopulated areas; however, the 1963 event may not have been a meteor.
Centuries before, the 1490 Ch'ing-yang event, of an unknown magnitude, apparently caused 10,000 deaths. While modern researchers are skeptical about the 10,000 deaths figure, the 1908 Tunguska event would have been devastating over a highly populous district.
Based on its entry direction and speed of 19 kilometres per second (68,000 km/h; 43,000 mph), the Chelyabinsk meteor apparently originated in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. It was probably an asteroid fragment. The meteorite has veins of black material which had experienced high-pressure shock, and were once partly melted due to a previous collision. The metamorphism in the chondrules in the meteorite samples indicates the rock comprising the meteor had a history of collisions and was once several kilometres below the surface of a much larger LL chondrite asteroid. The Chelyabinsk asteroid probably entered an orbital resonance with Jupiter (a common way for material to be ejected from the asteroid belt) which increased its orbital eccentricity until its perihelion was reduced enough for it to be able to collide with the Earth.
In the aftermath of the air burst of the body, many small meteorites fell on areas west of Chelyabinsk, generally at terminal velocity, about the speed of a piece of gravel dropped from a skyscraper. Analysis of the meteor showed that all resulted from the main breakup at 27–34 km altitude. Local residents and schoolchildren located and picked up some of the meteorites, many located in snowdrifts, by following a visible hole that had been left in the outer surface of the snow. Speculators were active in the informal market that emerged for meteorite fragments.
In the hours after the visual meteor sighting, a 6-metre (20 ft) wide hole was discovered on Lake Chebarkul's frozen surface. It was not immediately clear whether this was the result of an impact; scientists from the Ural Federal University collected 53 samples from around the hole the same day it was discovered. The early specimens recovered were all less than 1 centimetre (0.39 in) in size and initial laboratory analysis confirmed their meteoric origin. They are ordinary chondrite meteorites and contain 10 per cent iron. The fall is officially designated as the Chelyabinsk meteorite. The Chelyabinsk meteor was later determined to come from the LL chondrite group. The meteorites were LL5 chondrites having a shock stage of S4, and had a variable appearance between light and dark types. Petrographic changes during the fall allowed estimates that the body was heated between 65 and 135 degrees during its atmospheric entry.
In June 2013, Russian scientists reported that further investigation by magnetic imaging below the location of the ice hole in Lake Chebarkul had identified a 60-centimetre (2.0-foot)-size meteorite buried in the mud at the bottom of the lake. Before recovery began, the chunk was estimated to weigh roughly 300 kilograms (660 lb).
After an operation lasting a number of weeks, it was raised from the bottom of the Chebarkul lake on 16 October 2013. With a total mass of 654 kg (1,442 lb), this is the largest found fragment of the Chelyabinsk meteorite. Initially, it tipped and broke the scales used to weigh it, splitting into three pieces.
In November 2013, a video from a security camera was released showing the impact of the fragment at the Chebarkul lake. This is the first recorded impact of a meteorite on video. From the measured time difference between the shadow generating meteor to the moment of impact, scientists calculated that this meteorite hit the ice at about 225 m/s (740 ft/s), 64 per cent of the speed of sound.
The Russian government put out a brief statement within an hour of the event. Serendipitously the news in English was first reported by the hockey site Russian Machine Never Breaks before heavy coverage by the international media and the Associated Press ensued, with the Russian government's confirmation less than two hours afterwards. Less than 15 hours after the meteor impact, videos of the meteor and its aftermath had been viewed millions of times.
The number of injuries caused by the asteroid led the Internet-search giant Google to remove a Google Doodle from their website, created for the predicted pending arrival of another asteroid, 2012 DA14. New York City planetarium director Neil deGrasse Tyson stated the Chelyabinsk meteor was unpredicted because no attempt had been made to find and catalogue every 15 m (49 ft) near-Earth object. Doing so would be very difficult, and current efforts only aim at a complete inventory of 150 m (490 ft) near-Earth objects. The Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System, on the other hand, could now predict some Chelyabinsk-like events a day or so in advance, if and only if their radiant is not close to the Sun.
On 27 March 2013, a broadcast episode of the science television series Nova titled "Meteor Strike" documented the Chelyabinsk meteor, including the significant contribution to meteoritic science made by the numerous videos of the airburst posted online by ordinary citizens. The Nova program called the video documentation and the related scientific discoveries of the airburst "unprecedented". The documentary also discussed the much greater tragedy "that could have been" had the asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere more steeply.
Impactor orbital parameters
|Popova, Jenniskens, Emel'yanenko et al.; Science||2.78
|Lyytinen via Hankey; AMS||2.53||0.80||1.66||0.52||4.05°||326.43°||116.0°|
|Zuluaga, Ferrin; arXiv||2.64||0.82||1.73||0.51||3.45°||326.70°||120.6°|
|Borovicka, et al.; IAU||2.33||0.77||1.55||0.50||3.6°||326.41°||109.7°|
|Zuluaga, Ferrin, Geens; arXiv||1.816||0.716||1.26
|Chodas, Chesley; JPL via Sky and Telescope||2.78||0.75||1.73||0.57||4.2°|
|de la Fuente Marcos; MNRAS: Letters||2.48||0.76||1.62||0.53||3.97°||326.45°||109.71°|
Ω = ascending node longitude, ω = argument of perihelion
Videos of the Chelyabinsk superbolide, particularly from the dashboard cameras and traffic cameras which are ubiquitous in Russia, helped to establish the meteor's provenance as an Apollo asteroid. Sophisticated analysis techniques included the subsequent superposition of nighttime starfield views over recorded daytime images of the same cameras, as well as the plotting of the daytime shadow vectors shown in several online videos.
The radiant of the impacting asteroid was located in the constellation Pegasus in the Northern hemisphere. The radiant was close to the Eastern horizon where the Sun was starting to rise.
The asteroid belonged to the Apollo group of near-Earth asteroids, and was roughly 40 days past perihelion (closest approach to the Sun) and had aphelion (furthest distance from the Sun) in the asteroid belt. Several groups independently derived similar orbits for the object, but with sufficient variance to point to different potential parent bodies of this meteoroid. The Apollo asteroid 2011 EO40 is one of the candidates proposed for the role of the parent body of the Chelyabinsk superbolide. Other published orbits are similar to the 2-kilometre-diameter asteroid (86039) 1999 NC43 to suggest they had once been part of the same object; they may not be able to reproduce the timing of the impact.
Coincidental asteroid approach
Preliminary calculations rapidly showed that the object was unrelated to the long-predicted close approach of the asteroid 367943 Duende, that flew by Earth 16 hours later at a distance of 27,700 km (17,200 mi). The Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, Russian sources, the European Space Agency, NASA and the Royal Astronomical Society all concluded that the two asteroids had widely different trajectories and therefore could not have been related.
- ^ Historical, normally accurate, Chinese records of the 1490 Ch'ing-yang event describe over 10,000 deaths, but have never been confirmed.
- ^ a b c d Yeomans, Don; Chodas, Paul (1 March 2013). "Additional Details on the Large Fireball Event over Russia on Feb. 15, 2013". NASA/JPL Near-Earth Object Program Office. Archived from the original on 30 April 2013.
Note that [the] estimates of total energy, diameter and mass are very approximate.
NASA's webpage in turn acknowledges credit for its data and visual diagrams to:
- Peter Brown (University of Western Ontario); William Cooke (Marshall Space Flight Center); Paul Chodas, Steve Chesley and Ron Baalke (JPL); Richard Binzel (MIT); and Dan Adamo.
- ^ a b "Chelyabinsk". Meteoritical Bulletin Database. The Meteoritical Society. Archived from the original on 3 June 2013.
- ^ a b Число пострадавших при падении метеорита приблизилось к 1500 [The number of victims of the meteorite approached 1500] (in Russian). РосБизнесКонсалтинг [RBC]. 18 February 2013. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- ^ a b "Meteorite-caused emergency situation regime over in Chelyabinsk region". Russia Beyond The Headlines. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Interfax. 5 March 2013. Archived from the original on 23 June 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- ^ Global Catastrophe Recap – February 2013 Archived 23 April 2022 at the Wayback Machine, Aon, March 2013
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Popova, Olga P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Emel'yanenko, Vacheslav; et al. (2013). "Chelyabinsk Airburst, Damage Assessment, Meteorite Recovery, and Characterization". Science. 342 (6162): 1069–1073. Bibcode:2013Sci...342.1069P. doi:10.1126/science.1242642. hdl:10995/27561. PMID 24200813. S2CID 30431384.
- ^ David, Leonard (7 October 2013). "Russian Fireball Explosion Shows Meteor Risk Greater Than Thought". www.space.com. New York: Wired Magazine/Conde Nast. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2017.best estimate of the equivalent nuclear blast yield of the Chelyabinsk explosion
- ^ Schiermeier, Quirin (6 November 2013). "Risk of massive asteroid strike underestimated". Nature News. Nature Publishing Group. doi:10.1038/nature.2013.14114. S2CID 131384120. Archived from the original on 7 November 2013.
- ^ Byford, Sam (15 February 2013). "Russia rocked by meteor explosion". The Verge. Archived from the original on 5 March 2013.
- ^ a b Kuzmin, Andrey (15 February 2013). "Meteorite explodes over Russia, more than 1,000 injured". Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 February 2013.
- ^ Shurmina, Natalia; Kuzmin, Andrey (15 February 2013). "Meteorite hits central Russia, more than 500 people hurt". Yahoo News. Archived from the original on 15 February 2013.
- ^ a b c d e Agle, D. C. (13 February 2013). "Russia Meteor Not Linked to Asteroid Flyby". NASA news. NASA. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013.
- ^ Arutunyan, Anna; Bennetts, Marc (15 February 2013). "Meteor in central Russia injures at least 500". USA Today. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
- ^ Heintz, Jim; Isachenkov, Vladimir (15 February 2013). "100 injured by meteorite falls in Russian Urals". Mercury News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013.
- ^ a b Major, Jason (15 February 2013). "Meteor Blast Rocks Russia". Universe Today. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013.
- ^ a b Fountain, Henry (25 March 2013). "A Clearer View of the Space Bullet That Grazed Russia". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 March 2013.
- ^ a b "PM Medvedev Says Russian Meteorite KEF-2013 Shows "Entire Planet" Vulnerable". Newsroom America. 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 23 June 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
- ^ Videos capture exploding meteor in sky (Television production). United States: CNN. 16 February 2013. Archived from the original on 14 August 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
- ^ "Meteor shower over Russia sees meteorites hit Earth". The Sydney Morning Herald. 16 February 2013. Archived from the original on 23 June 2013.
- ^ "Russian Meteor strike eyewitnesses speak". YouTube. 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 23 June 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
In Russian, with translation voiceover in English
- ^ Mackey, Robert; Mullany, Gerry (15 February 2013). "Spectacular Videos of Meteor Over Siberia". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 April 2013.
- ^ "Meteor over Russia seen by Meteosat – EUMETSAT". eumetsat.int. EUMETSAT. Archived from the original on 6 September 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
- ^ Rubin, Alan E.; Grossman, Jeffrey N. (January 2010). "Meteorite and meteoroid: New comprehensive definitions". Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 45 (1): 114–122. Bibcode:2010M&PS...45..114R. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.2009.01009.x. S2CID 129972426.
- ^ Grady, Monica M (31 August 2000). Catalogue of Meteorites. London: Natural History Museum, Cambridge University Press. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-521-66303-8. Archived from the original on 15 February 2023. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
- ^ Brumfiel, Geoff (15 February 2013). "Russian meteor largest in a century". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2013.12438. S2CID 131657241. Archived from the original on 20 February 2013.
- ^ T.C. (15 February 2013). "Asteroid impacts – How to avert Armageddon". The Economist. Archived from the original on 19 February 2013.
- ^ Chang, Kenneth (15 February 2013). "Size of Blast and Number of Injuries Are Seen as Rare for a Rock From Space". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 February 2013.
- ^ Ewalt, David M (15 February 2013). "Exploding Meteorite Injures A Thousand People in Russia". Forbes. Archived from the original on 8 April 2013.
- ^ S.F. Chronicle (1896). "Explosion of an Aerolite in Madrid (10 February 1896)". Notices from the Lick Observatory. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 8 (47): 86–87. Bibcode:1896PASP....8...86C. doi:10.1086/121074.
Many injuries resulted from the panic which broke out... Much damage was done by the force of the concussion.
- ^ Heintz, Jim (15 February 2013). "500 injured by blasts as meteor falls in Russia". Yahoo News. Archived from the original on 24 June 2013.
- ^ a b "Are 2012 DA14 and the Chelyabinsk meteor related?". Kilpisjärvi Atmospheric Imaging Receiver Array. Finland: Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory. 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 23 June 2013.
- ^ Barstein, Geir (18 February 2013). "Kan koste flere tusen grammet" [(Meteorite) can cost several thousand dollars per gram]. Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 1 May 2013.
- ^ ssvilponis (16 February 2013). Chelyabinsk meteorite, 2013 February 15th (Map). Google Maps. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- ^ Geens, Stefan (16 February 2013). "Reconstructing the Chelyabinsk meteor's path, with Google Earth, YouTube and high-school math". Ogle Earth. Archived from the original on 28 February 2013.
- ^ Fazekas, Andrew (1 July 2013). "Russian Meteor Shockwave Circled Globe Twice". Newswatch. National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 13 July 2013.
- ^ Cooke, William (15 February 2013). "Orbit of the Russian Meteor". NASA blogs. Archived from the original on 7 March 2013.
- ^ Malik, Tariq (17 February 2013). "Russian Meteor Blast Bigger Than Thought, NASA Says". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013.
- ^ Black, Phil; Smith-Spark, Laura (18 February 2013). "Russia starts cleanup after meteor strike". CNN. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013.
- ^ Sreeja, VN (4 March 2013). "New Asteroid '2013 EC' Similar To Russian Meteor To Pass Earth At A Distance Less Than Moon's Orbit". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 30 April 2013.
- ^ "M 4.2 - 1 km WSW of Chelyabinsk, Russia". National Earthquake Information Center. United States Geological Survey. 15 February 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- ^ Sample, Ian (7 November 2013). "Scientists reveal the full power of the Chelyabinsk meteor explosion". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013.
- ^ Lobanovsky, Yury. "Parameters of Chelyabinsk and Tunguska Meteoroids" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 November 2022. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
- ^ "Russian meteor hit atmosphere with force of 30 Hiroshima bombs". The Telegraph. 16 February 2013. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013.
- ^ Метеорит в Челябинске [Meteorite in Chelyabinsk] (in Russian). YouTube. 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- ^ Brown, P.; Spalding, R. E.; ReVelle, D. O.; Tagliaferri, E.; Worden, S. P. (2002). "The flux of small near-Earth objects colliding with the Earth" (PDF). Nature. 420 (6913): 294–296. Bibcode:2002Natur.420..294B. doi:10.1038/nature01238. PMID 12447433. S2CID 4380864. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 April 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- ^ "Newly Released Security Cam Video Shows Chelyabinsk Meteorite Impact in Lake Chebarkul by Bob King on November 7, 2013". 7 November 2013. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 7 November 2013.
- ^ "Fallout from the Russian fireball encircled Earth, research shows". The Christian Science Monitor. 19 August 2013. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- ^ "Russian Fireball Largest Ever Detected by CTBTO's Sensors". CTBTO. 18 February 2013. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
- ^ Harper, Paul (20 February 2013). "Meteor explosion largest infrasound recorded". The New Zealand Herald. APN Holdings NZ. Archived from the original on 26 March 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- ^ Schiermeier, Quirin (10 June 2013). "Russian meteor blast was the largest ever recorded by CTBTO". Nature News Blog. Macmillan Publishers Limited. Archived from the original on 29 March 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- ^ a b c d "Meteor Strike". NOVA. PBS. 27 March 2013. Archived from the original on 21 April 2013.
- ^ "Оценка мощности взрыва Челябинского болида в 500 килотонн завышена в 3–4 раза" (in Russian). 19 February 2013. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
- ^ "Meteor Physics". aquarid.physics.uwo.ca. Archived from the original on 23 January 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2023.
- ^ Le Pichon, Alexis; Ceranna, L.; Pilger, C.; Mialle, P.; Brown, D.; Herry, P.; Brachet, N. (2013). "2013 Russian Fireball largest ever detected by CTBTO infrasound sensors". Geophysical Research Letters. 40 (14): 3732. Bibcode:2013GeoRL..40.3732L. doi:10.1002/grl.50619. S2CID 129384715.
- ^ Brown, PG; Assink, JD; Astiz, L; Blaauw, R; Boslough, MB; et al. (2013). "A 500-kiloton airburst over Chelyabinsk and an enhanced hazard from small impactors". Nature. 503 (7475): 238–41. Bibcode:2013Natur.503..238B. doi:10.1038/nature12741. hdl:10125/33201. PMID 24196713. S2CID 4450349. Archived from the original on 15 February 2023. Retrieved 8 December 2022.
- ^ "Sandia supercomputers offer new explanation of Tunguska disaster". Sandia National Laboratories. 17 December 2007. Archived from the original on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2007.
- ^ "Research to Address Near-Earth Objects Remains Critical, Experts Say | American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)". www.aaas.org. Archived from the original on 28 November 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2023.
- ^ a b Kelly Beatty (7 November 2013). "New Chelyabinsk Results Yield Surprises". Archived from the original on 6 August 2014.
- ^ "WGN, the Journal of the IMO 41:1 (2013) A Preliminary Report on the Chelyabinsk Fireball/Airburst Peter Brown" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- ^ "Postcards from Chelyabinsk – SETI Institute Colloquium Series (Peter Jenniskens) 15:10 on". YouTube. Archived from the original on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- ^ a b "Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS)". cams.seti.org. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- ^ "Пострадавшую при падении метеорита перевезут из Челябинска в Москву". RIA. 16 February 2013. Archived from the original on 15 February 2023. Retrieved 15 February 2023.
- ^ Heintz, Jim; Isachenkov, Vladimir (15 February 2013). "Meteor explodes over Russia's Ural Mountains; 1,100 injured as shock wave blasts out windows". Postmedia Network Inc. The Associated Press. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
Emergency Situations Ministry spokesman Vladimir Purgin said many of the injured were cut as they flocked to windows to see what caused the intense flash of light, which was momentarily brighter than the sun.
- ^ a b Grossman, Lisa (6 November 2013). "CSI Chelyabinsk: 10 insights from Russia's meteorite". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013.
- ^ "Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS)". Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (17 February 2013). "After Assault From the Heavens, Russians Search for Clues and Count Blessings". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013.
- ^ a b "Челябинская учительница спасла при падении метеорита более 40 детей". Интерфакс-Украина (in Russian). Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
- ^ "Meteorite explosion over Russia injures hundreds". The Guardian. 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013.
- ^ Bidder, Benjamin (15 February 2013). "Meteoriten-Hagel in Russland: "Ein Knall, Splittern von Glas"" [Meteorite hail in Russia: "A blast, splinters of glass"]. Der Spiegel (in German). Archived from the original on 18 February 2013.
- ^ "Central Russia hit by meteor shower in Ural region". BBC News. 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013.
- ^ Campbell, Charlie (15 February 2013). "Meteorite injures hundreds in Russia". Time. Archived from the original on 15 February 2013.
- ^ "Chelyabinsk Station history". Weather Underground. 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 30 April 2013.
- ^ Zhang, Moran (16 February 2013). "Russia Meteor 2013: Damage To Top $33 Million; Rescue, Cleanup Team Heads To Meteorite-Hit Urals". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 30 April 2013.
- ^ Ущерб от челябинского метеорита превысит миллиард рублей [Damage from Chelyabinsk meteorite exceeds one billion rubles] (in Russian). Lenta.ru. 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013.
- ^ "Russian meteor damage estimated at over $30 million". Archived from the original on 28 May 2022. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
- ^ Сергей Давыдов: жертв и серьезных разрушений нет [Sergei Davydov: casualties and no serious damage]. Chelad (in Russian). 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013.
- ^ Gretz, Adam (15 February 2013). "KHL arena among buildings damaged in Russian meteorite strike". CBS Sports. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013.
- ^ "NASA and International Researchers Collect Clues to Meteoroid Science November 6, 2013". 6 November 2013. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- ^ Boyarkina, A. P., Demin, D. V., Zotkin, I. T., Fast, W. G. Estimation of the blast wave of the Tunguska meteorite from the forest destruction. – Meteoritika, Vol. 24, 1964, pp. 112–128 (in Russian).
- ^ "400 injured by meteorite falls in Russian Urals". Ynetnews. 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013.
- ^ Amos, Howard (15 February 2013). "Meteorite explosion over Chelyabinsk injures hundreds". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013.
- ^ В полынье в Чебаркульском районе Челябинской области, возможно, найдены обломки метеорита – МЧС [In the ice-hole in Chebarkulsky district of Chelyabinsk region, possibly found fragments of the meteorite – MOE] (in Russian). Interfax. 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 23 June 2013.
- ^ Drajem, Mark; Weber, Alexander (15 February 2013). "Asteroid Passes Earth as UN Mulls Monitoring Network". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013.
- ^ David, Leonard (18 February 2013). "United Nations reviewing asteroid impact threat". CBS News. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013.
- ^ Villamarin, Jenalyn (22 February 2013). "End of the World 2013: DE-STAR Project Proposed after Asteroid 2012 DA14 Flyby, Russian Meteor Blast". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 30 April 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- ^ Barrie, Allison (19 February 2013). "Massive, orbital laser blaster could defend against asteroid threats". Fox News. Archived from the original on 21 February 2013.
- ^ "The WISE in NEOWISE: How a Hibernating Satellite Awoke to Discover the Comet". 22 July 2020. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
- ^ "NASA has led 7 asteroid-impact simulations. Only once did experts figure out how to stop the space rock from hitting Earth". Business Insider. 20 May 2021. Archived from the original on 21 May 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
- ^ Robert Marcus; H. Jay Melosh; Gareth Collins (2010). "Earth Impact Effects Program". Imperial College London / Purdue University. Archived from the original on 10 March 2010. Retrieved 4 February 2013. (solution using 2600kg/m^3, 17 km/s, 45 degrees)
- ^ Wayne Edwards; Peter G. Brown; Douglas O. ReVelle (2006). "Estimates of meteoroid kinetic energies from observations of infrasonic airwaves" (PDF). Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics. 68 (10): 1136–1160. Bibcode:2006JASTP..68.1136E. doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2006.02.010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 August 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
- ^ Silber, Elizabeth A.; Revelle, Douglas O.; Brown, Peter G.; Edwards, Wayne N. (2009). "An estimate of the terrestrial influx of large meteoroids from infrasonic measurements". Journal of Geophysical Research. 114 (E8). Bibcode:2009JGRE..114.8006S. doi:10.1029/2009JE003334. Archived from the original on 19 November 2021. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
- ^ a b Yau, Kevin; Weissman, Paul; Yeomans, Donald (1994). "Meteorite Falls in China and Some Related Human Casualty Events". Meteoritics. 29 (6): 864. Bibcode:1994Metic..29..864Y. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.1994.tb01101.x.
- ^ Kring, David A.; Boslough, Mark (1 September 2014). "Chelyabinsk: Portrait of an asteroid airburst". Physics Today. 67 (9): 32–37. Bibcode:2014PhT....67i..32K. doi:10.1063/PT.3.2515. ISSN 0031-9228.
- ^ a b Kramer, Andrew E. (18 February 2013). "Russians Wade into the Snow to Seek Treasure From the Sky". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 February 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
- ^ "NASA (YouTube) – Dr. David Kring – Asteroid Initiative Workshop Cosmic Explorations Speakers Session". YouTube. 21 November 2013. Archived from the original on 15 February 2023. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- ^ Badyukov, D.D.; Raitala, J.; Kostama, P.; Ignatiev, A.V. (March 2015). "Chelyabinsk meteorite: Shock metamorphism, black veins and impact melt dikes, and the Hugoniot". Petrology. 23 (2): 103–115. doi:10.1134/S0869591115020022. S2CID 140628758.
- ^ "Huge Chunk of Meteorite Located in Urals Lake – Scientist". RIA Novosti. 22 June 2013. Archived from the original on 23 June 2013.
- ^ Весы не выдержали тяжести челябинского метеорита [Weighing scales couldn't withstand the heft of the Chelyabinsk meteorite] (in Russian). NTV. 16 October 2013. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013.
- ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (16 October 2013). "Lifted From a Russian Lake, a Big, if Fragile, Space Rock". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013.
- ^ King, Bob (7 November 2013). "Newly Released Security Cam Video Shows Chelyabinsk Meteorite Impact in Lake Chebarkul". Universe Today. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013.
- ^ Franke-Ruta, Garance (15 February 2013). "How a D.C. Hockey Fan Site Got the Russian Meteorite Story Before the AP". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013.
- ^ Челябинский метеорит стал одной из самых популярных тем в мире [Chelyabinsk meteorite has become one of the hottest topics in the world]. Federal Press World News (in Russian). Federal Press. 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 23 June 2013.
- ^ "How A Hockey Blog Got The Scoop on Russia's Meteorite". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 28 April 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
- ^ "Meteor Over Russia Hits Internet with 7.7 Million Video Views". Visible Measures. Visible Measures. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013.
- ^ Stern, Joanna (15 February 2013). "Asteroid 2012 DA14 Google Doodle Removed After Russian Meteor Shower Injuries". ABC News. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013.
- ^ "Neil deGrasse Tyson: Radar could not detect meteor". Today. 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013.
- ^ Kaplan, Karen (27 March 2013). "Russian meteor, a 'death rock from space,' stars on 'Nova'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 28 March 2013.
- ^ a b c Hankey, Mike (15 February 2013). "Large Daytime Fireball Hits Russia". American Meteor Society. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013.
- ^ a b c d e Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Ferrin, Ignacio (2013). "A preliminary reconstruction of the orbit of the Chelyabinsk Meteoroid". arXiv:1302.5377 [astro-ph.EP].
We use this result to classify the meteoroid among the near Earth asteroid families finding that the parent body belonged to the Apollo asteroids.
- ^ a b "CBET 3423 : 20130223 : Trajectory and Orbit of the Chelyabinsk Superbolide". Astronomical Telegrams. International Astronomical Union. 23 February 2013. Archived from the original on 23 April 2013. (registration required)
- ^ Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Ferrin, Ignacio; Geens, Stefan (2013). "The orbit of the Chelyabinsk event impactor as reconstructed from amateur and public footage". arXiv:1303.1796 [astro-ph.EP].
- ^ Beatty, Kelly (6 March 2013). "Update on Russia's Mega-Meteor". Sky and Telescope. Sky Publishing Corp. Archived from the original on 23 June 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- ^ Вибе, Дмитрий (25 March 2013). Семинар по Челябинскому метеориту: российская наука выдала "официальную" информацию [Seminar in Chelyabinsk meteorite: Russian science has given "official" information] (in Russian). Компьютерра [Computerra]. Archived from the original on 23 June 2013.
- ^ a b Proud, S. R. (16 July 2013). "Reconstructing the orbit of the Chelyabinsk meteor using satellite observations". Geophysical Research Letters. 40 (13): 3351–3355. Bibcode:2013GeoRL..40.3351P. doi:10.1002/grl.50660.
- ^ a b c d de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R. (1 September 2014). "Reconstructing the Chelyabinsk event: pre-impact orbital evolution". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters. 443 (1): L39–L43. arXiv:1405.7202. Bibcode:2014MNRAS.443L..39D. doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slu078. S2CID 118417667.
- ^ "Astronomers Calculate Orbit of Chelyabinsk Meteorite". The Physics arXiv Blog. MIT Technology Review. 25 February 2013. Archived from the original on 23 June 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
Their conclusion is that the Chelyabinsk meteorite is from a family of rocks that cross Earth's orbit called Apollo asteroids.
- ^ Rincon, Paul (26 February 2013). "Russia meteor's origin tracked down". BBC News. Archived from the original on 26 February 2013.
- ^ Geens, Stefan (9 March 2013). "Chelyabinsk meteoroid trajectories compared using Google Earth and YouTube". YouTube. Archived from the original on 1 September 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- ^ Borovička, Jiří; Spurný, Pavel; Brown, Peter; Wiegert, Paul; Kalenda, Pavel; Clark, David; Shrbený, Lukáš (6 November 2013). "The trajectory, structure and origin of the Chelyabinsk asteroidal impactor". Nature. 503 (7475): 235–7. Bibcode:2013Natur.503..235B. doi:10.1038/nature12671. PMID 24196708. S2CID 4399008.
- ^ Plait, Phil (15 February 2013). "Breaking: Huge Meteor Explodes Over Russia". Slate. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013.
- ^ Уральский метеорит отвлек научный мир от знаменитого астероида [Ural meteorite distracted (sic) from the scientific world famous asteroid] (in Russian). Moscow: РИА Новости (RIA Novosti). 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 17 March 2013.
- ^ Elenin, Leonid (15 February 2013). "Siberian fireball (video)". SpaceObs (in Russian). Archived from the original on 4 March 2013.
- ^ "Russian Asteroid Strike". ESA.int. European Space Agency. 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 21 February 2013.
- ^ Marson, James; Naik, Gautam (15 February 2013). "Falling Meteor Explodes Over Russia". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 15 February 2013.
- This article contains portions of text translated from the corresponding article of the Russian Wikipedia. A list of contributors can be found there in its history section.
- Balcerak, E. (2013). "Nuclear test monitoring system detected meteor explosion over Russia". Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union. 94 (42): 384. Bibcode:2013EOSTr..94S.384B. doi:10.1002/2013EO420010.
- Barry, Ellen; Kramer, Andrew E. (15 February 2013). "Shock Wave of Fireball Meteor Rattles Siberia, Injuring 1,200". NYTimes.com. (website).
Also published as "Meteor Explodes, Injuring Over 1,000 in Siberia". The New York Times (New York ed.). 16 February 2013. p. A1. (print).
- Borovička, J.; Spurný, P.; Brown, P.; Wiegert, P.; Kalenda, P.; Clark, D.; Shrbený, L. (2013). "The trajectory, structure and origin of the Chelyabinsk asteroidal impactor". Nature. 503 (7475): 235–237. Bibcode:2013Natur.503..235B. doi:10.1038/nature12671. PMID 24196708. S2CID 4399008.
- Brown, P. G.; Assink, J. D.; Astiz, L.; Blaauw, R.; Boslough, M. B.; et al. (2013). "A 500-kiloton airburst over Chelyabinsk and an enhanced hazard from small impactors". Nature. 503 (7475): 238–241. Bibcode:2013Natur.503..238B. doi:10.1038/nature12741. hdl:10125/33201. PMID 24196713. S2CID 4450349.
- Gorkavyi, N.; Rault, D. F.; Newman, P. A.; Da Silva, A. M.; Dudorov, A. E. (2013). "New stratospheric dust belt due to the Chelyabinsk bolide". Geophysical Research Letters. 40 (17): 4728–4733. Bibcode:2013GeoRL..40.4728G. doi:10.1002/grl.50788. hdl:2060/20140016772. S2CID 129408498.
- Gorkavyi, N. N.; Taidakova, T. A.; Provornikova, E. A.; Gorkavyi, I. N.; Akhmetvaleev, M. M. (2013). "Aerosol plume after the Chelyabinsk bolide". Solar System Research. 47 (4): 275–279. Bibcode:2013SoSyR..47..275G. doi:10.1134/S003809461304014X. S2CID 123632925.
- Kohout, Tomas; Gritsevich, Maria; Grokhovsky, Victor I.; Yakovlev, Grigoriy A.; Haloda, Jakub; et al. (2013). "Mineralogy, reflectance spectra, and physical properties of the Chelyabinsk LL5 chondrite – Insight into shock-induced changes in asteroid regoliths". Icarus. 228 (1): 78–85. arXiv:1309.6081. Bibcode:2014Icar..228...78K. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2013.09.027. S2CID 59359694.
- Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.; Pilger, C.; Mialle, P.; Brown, D.; Herry, P.; Brachet, N. (2013). "The 2013 Russian fireball largest ever detected by CTBTO infrasound sensors". Geophysical Research Letters. 40 (14): 3732–3737. Bibcode:2013GeoRL..40.3732L. doi:10.1002/grl.50619. S2CID 129384715.
- Miller, Steven D.; Straka, William; Bachmeier, Scott (5 November 2013). "Earth-viewing satellite perspectives on the Chelyabinsk meteor event". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110 (45): 18092–18097. Bibcode:2013PNAS..11018092M. doi:10.1073/pnas.1307965110. PMC 3831432. PMID 24145398.
- Popova, Olga P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Emel'yanenko, Vacheslav; Kartashova, Anna; Biryukov, Eugeny; et al. (2013). "Chelyabinsk Airburst, Damage Assessment, Meteorite Recovery, and Characterization". Science. 342 (6162): 1069–1073. Bibcode:2013Sci...342.1069P. doi:10.1126/science.1242642. hdl:10995/27561. PMID 24200813. S2CID 30431384.
- Proud, S. R. (2013). "Reconstructing the orbit of the Chelyabinsk meteor using satellite observations". Geophysical Research Letters. 40 (13): 3351–3355. Bibcode:2013GeoRL..40.3351P. doi:10.1002/grl.50660.
- Tauzin, B.; Debayle, E.; Quantin, C.; Coltice, N. (2013). "Seismoacoustic coupling induced by the breakup of the 15 February 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor". Geophysical Research Letters. 40 (14): 3522. Bibcode:2013GeoRL..40.3522T. doi:10.1002/grl.50683. S2CID 3611357.
- Yau, Kevin; Weissman, Paul; Yeomans, Donald (1994). "Meteorite falls in China and some related human casualty events". Meteoritics. 29 (6): 864–871. Bibcode:1994Metic..29..864Y. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.1994.tb01101.x. ISSN 0026-1114.
- Synopsis: "A calculation based on the number of casualty events in the Chinese meteorite records suggests that the probability of a meteorite striking a human is far greater than previous estimates."
- "Meteor vapour trail from space". Image captured by EUMETSAT satellite. 16 February 2013.
- "Satellite views of meteor vapor trail over Russia". CIMSS Satellite Blog.
- Метеоритный удар по Челябинску [Collection of videos and photographs of the meteor and resulting damage]. Chelyabinsk website (in Russian). 15 February 2013.
- "The trajectory, structure and origin of the Chelyabinsk asteroidal impactor". Animations hosted by Paul Wiegert.
- "Postcards from Chelyabinsk – SETI Institute Colloquium Series (Peter Jenniskens) (video)". SETI institute.
- "Meteor Strike". NOVA documentary broadcast, 53 minutes, aired 27 March 2013. PBS.
Includes extensive scientific analysis of the worldwide infrasound monitoring network data from which the megaton energy estimates were made.
- Animation of meteor explosion, by "Strip the Cosmos"