Council of State (India)

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The Council of State was the upper house of the legislature for British India (the Imperial Legislative Council) created by the Government of India Act 1919 from the old Imperial Legislative Council, implementing the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms. The Central Legislative Assembly was the lower house.

As a result of Indian independence, the Council of State was dissolved on 14 August 1947 and its place taken by the Constituent Assembly of India and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan.

The Council of State used to meet at the Metcalfe House.[1] The Viceroy or Governor-General was its ex officio President.[2]

Composition[edit]

1919 to 1937[edit]

The Council of States was created by the Government of India Act 1919. As per this Act, the Council was to have 60 members. The composition was as follows:[3]

  • Members nominated by the Governor-General (26)
    • Officials (20)
    • Non-officials (6), one of whom was nominated as the result of an election held in Berar.
  • Elected members (34)
    • General (20): Madras (4), Bombay (3), Bengal (3), United Provinces (3), Punjab (1), Bihar & Orissa (3), Central Provinces (1), Burma (1), Assam (1)
    • Muslim (10): Madras (1), Bombay (2), Bengal (2), United Provinces (2), Punjab (2), Bihar & Orissa (1)
    • Chamber of Commerce (3): Bombay, Bengal, Burma
    • Sikh (1)

The province-wise composition was as follows:

  • Madras (5): General (4), Muslim (1)
  • Bombay (6): General (3), Muslim (2) (Bombay, Sind), Bombay Chamber of Commerce (1)
  • Bengal (6): General (3) (East Bengal, West Bengal (2)), Muslim (2) (East Bengal, West Bengal), Bengal Chamber of Commerce (1)
  • United Provinces (5): General (3) (Central, Northern, Southern), Muslim (2) (West, East)
  • Punjab (4): General (1), Muslim (2) (East, West), Sikh (1)
  • Bihar & Orissa (4): General (3), Muslim (1)
  • Central Provinces (1): General
  • Burma (2): General (1), Burma Chamber of Commerce (1)
  • Assam (1): General in rotation with Muslim

The Muslim seats of Punjab together with one General seat of Bihar and Orissa alternated to elect 2 seats for every Council of State.[3]

The members had a tenure of 5 years. There were no women members.

The elected members were voted from an electorate consisting of persons who fulfilled either condition

  • Paid an annual income tax of Rs. 10,000 or annual land revenue of Rs. 750
  • Member of the Senate of any University
  • Experience in any Legislative Council in India or
  • Title-holder

This electorate consisted of not more than 17,000 of entire population of 24 crores (240,000,000) in 1920.

1937 to 1947[edit]

The Government of India Act 1935 introduced further reforms. The size of the Council was increased to 260 members, 156 came from provinces while 104 came from the princely states. However, elections to the federal legislature did not take place until 1946.

Members of First Council of State (1921)[edit]

[4]

Nominated[edit]

Elected[edit]

  • Assam: Chandradhar Barua
  • Bengal: Sir Benode Chandra Mitter (West Bengal Non-Muhammadan), Sir Deva Prasad Sarvadhikary (West Bengal Non-Muhammadan), Raja Pramada Nath Ray of Dighapatia (East Bengal Non-Muhammadan), Haji Chowdhuri Mohammad Ismail Khan (West Bengal Muslim), Maulvi Abdul Karim (East Bengal Muslim)
  • Bihar & Orissa: Rameshwar Singh of Darbhanga (Non-Muhammadan), Keshav Prasad Singh of Dumraon (Non-Muhammadan), Saiyid Zahir-ud-din (Muhammadan)
  • Bombay: Lalubhai Samaldas (Non-Muhammadan), Vaman Govind Kale (Non-Muhammadan), Pheroze Sethna (Non-Muhammadan), Raghunath Pandurang Karandikar (Non-Muhammadan), Ebrahim Haroon Jaffer (Bombay Presidency Muhammadan), Ali Baksh Muhammad Hussain (Sind Muhammadan), Ghulam Muhammad Bhurgri (Sind Muhammadan), Sir Arthur Froom (Bombay Chamber of Commerce)
  • Burma: Maung Bo Pye (Non-European), Sir Edgar Holberton (Commerce)
  • Central Provinces: Maneckji Byramji Dadabhoy (Non-Muhammadan)
  • Madras: K. V. Rangaswamy Iyengar (Non-Muhammadan), V. S. Srinivasa Sastri (Non-Muhammadan), S. Rm. M. Annamalai Chettiar (Non-Muhammadan), V. Ramabhadra Naidu (Non-Muhammadan), Ahmed Tamby Maricair (Muhammadan)
  • Punjab: Lala Ram Saran Das (Non-Muhammadan), Sir Malik Umar Hayat Khan (West Punjab Muhammadan), Zulfikar Ali Khan (Muhammadan), Jogendra Singh (Sikh)
  • United Provinces: Raja Sir Rampal Singh (UP Central Non-Muhammadan) Lala Sukhbir Sinha (UP Northern Non-Muhammadan), Raja Moti Chand (UP Southern Non-Muhammadan), Nawab Muhammad Abdul Majid (UP West Muhammadan), Saiyid Raza Ali (UP East Muhammadan)
  • Other: Manindra Chandra Nandy Maharaja of Cossimbazar, Ganganath Jha, E. M. Cook, Denys Bray, H. D. Craik, B. C. Mitter, J. A. Richey, B. N. Sarma, J. R. Wood, Sevasila Vedamurti

Members of Second Council of State (1926)[edit]

[5][6]

Nominated[edit]

  • Officials: Field Marshal Sir William Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood (Commander-in-Chief), Sir Muhammad Habibullah (Member for Education, Health and Lands), Satish Ranjan Das (Law Member), Major General Sir Robert Charles MacWatt (Director General, Indian Medical Service), David Thomas Chadwick (Commerce Secretary), Arthur Cecil McWatters (Finance Secretary), James Crerar (Home Secretary), Arthur Herbert Ley (Secretary for Industries and Labour), John Perronet Thompson (Political Secretary), James Alexander Bichey (Educational Commissioner for the Government of India), Sir Clement Hindley (Chief Commissioner, Railways), Thomas Emerson (Bengal), Kiran Chandra De (Bengal), John Austen Hubback (Bihar and Orissa), D. Weston (Bihar and Orissa), Evelyn Bobins Abbott (Delhi), Sir Charles George Todhunter (Madras), H. A. B. Vernon (Madras), Diwan Tek Chand (Punjab), A. Latifi (Punjab), Pandit Shyam Bihari Misra (United Provinces), John Ernest Buttery Hotson (Bombay), G. W. Hatch (Bombay)
  • Non-Officials: Keshav Chandra Roy (Bengal), Sir Bijoy Chand Mahtab (Bengal), Prince Afsar-ul-Mulk Mirza Muhammad Akram Hussain (Bengal), Sir Dinshaw Edulji Wacha (Bombay), Raja Sir Harnam Singh (Punjab), Sardar Charanjit Singh (Punjab)(Indian Christians), Sir Malik Umar Hayat Khan (Punjab), Raja Nawab Ali Khan (United Provinces), Raja Ramakrishna Ranga Rao of Bobbili (Madras), G. A. Natesan (Madras), Major Nawab Mahomed Akbar Khan (North- West Frontier Province), Maneckji Dadabhoy (Central Provinces), G. S. Khaparde (Berar)

Elected Members[edit]

  • Assam: Khan Bahadur Ghulam Mustafa Chowdhury (Muhammadan), Zaminder Bhatipara Estate, Founder member of All India Muslim League, active participant of Islamic Khelafat Andolon, philanthropist, legislator of Assam Legislative Council
  • Bengal: Lokenath Mukherjee (West Bengal Non-Muhammadan), Rai Bahadur Nalini Nath Seth (West Bengal Non-Muhammadan), Mahmood Suhrawardy (West Bengal Muhammadan), Maulvi Abdul Karim (East Bengal Muhammadan), John William Anderson Bell (Bengal Chamber of Commerce), G. C. Godfrey (Bengal Chamber of Commerce)
  • Bihar & Orissa: Rameshwar Singh (Non-Muhammadan), Anugrah Narayan Sinha (Non-Muhammadan), Mahendra Prasad (Non-Muhammadan), Shah Muhammad Zubair (Muhammadan)
  • Bombay: Pheroze Sethna (Non-Muhammadan), Ratansi D. Morarji (Non-Muhamaddan), Manmohandas Ramji Vora (Non-Muhammadan), Ebrahim Haroon Jaffer (Muhammadan), Mian Ali Baksh Muhammad Hussain (Sind Muhammadan), Sir Arthur Froom (Bombay Chamber of Commerce)
  • Burma: Pundi Chetlur Desika Chari (General), Sir Edgar Holberton (Burma Chamber of Commerce), W. A. Gray (Burma Chamber of Commerce)
  • Central Provinces: Seth Govind Das (General)
  • Madras: Saiyed Mohamad Padshah Sahib Bahadur (Muhammadan), Dr. U. Rama Rao (Non-Muhammadan) (Swaraj),[6] V. Ramadas Pantulu (Non-Muhammadan), Sir C. Sankaran Nair (Non-Muhammadan),[6] S. Rm. M. Annamalai Chettiar (Non-Muhammadan)
  • Punjab: Lala Ram Saran Das (Punjab Non-Muhammadan), Nawab Sahibzada Sayad Mohammad Mehr Shah (East and West Punjab Muhammadan), Sardar Shivdev Singh Uberoi (Punjab Sikh)
  • United Provinces: Munshi Narayan Prasad Asthana (United Provinces Northern Non-Muhammadan), Raja Moti Chand (United Provinces Southern Non-Muhammadan), Prakash Narain Sapru (United Provinces Southern Non-Muhammadan), Raja Sir Rampal Singh (United Provinces Central Non-Muhammadan), Saiyid Alay Nabi (United Provinces West Muhammadan), Maharaja Sir Muhammad Ali Muhamamd Khan (United Provinces East Muhammadan), Nawab Sir Muhammad Muzammil-ullah Khan (United Provinces West Muhammadan), Sukhbir Sinha
  • Other: Madhav Shrihari Aney, Hussain Imam, Syed Muhammad Padshah, Raja Yuvaraj Dutta Singh, Srinarain Mehta

Members of Third Council of State (1930-1936)[edit]

[7][8]

Nominated[edit]

  • Government of India:
  • Officials from Provinces: A de C. Williams, Sir Guthrie Russell, T. M. Dow (Bengal), E. F. Thomas (Madras)
  • Non-Officials: G. S. Khaparde (Berar), Khwaja Habibullah (Bengal), Maharaja Jagadish Nath Ray (Bengal), Pandit Gokaran Nath Agra (United Provinces), Shaikh Magbul Husain (United Provinces), Raja Charanjit Singh (Punjab), Nawab Malik Mohammad Hayat Khan Noon (Punjab), Major Nawab Sir Mahomed Akbar Khan (NWFP), Maharaja Kameshwar Singh of Darbhanga (Bihar), Khan Bahadur Shams-ud-din Haidar (Bihar), Sir Nasarvanji Choksy (Bombay), Sir Josna Ghosal (Bombay)

Elected Members[edit]

  • Assam: Khan Bahadur Ghulam Mustafa Chowdhury
  • Bengal: Jagadish Chandra Banerjee (East Bengal Non-Muhammadan), Nripendra Narayan Sinha (West Bengal Non-Muhammadan), Satyendra Chandra Ghose Maulik (West Bengal Non-Muhammadan), Mahmood Suhrawardy (West Bengal Muhammadan), Syed Abdul Hafeez (East Bengal Muhammadan), George Campbell (Bengal Chamber of Commerce)
  • Bihar & Orissa: Abu Abdullah Syed Hussain Imam (Muhammadan)
  • Bombay: Sardar Shri Jagannath Maharaj Pandit (Non-Muhammadan), Shantidas Askuran (Non-Muhammadan), Pheroze Sethna (Non-Muhammadan), Sir Suleman Cassum Haji Mitha (Muhammadan), Ali Baksh Muhammad Hussain (Sind Muhammadan), R. H. Parker (Bombay Chamber of Commerce)
  • Burma: J. B. Glass (Burma Chamber of Commerce)
  • Central Provinces: V. V. Kalikar
  • Madras: S. Rm. M. Annamalai Chettiar (Non-Muhammadan), Yarlagadda Ranganayakulu Naidu (Non-Muhammadan), V. C. Vellingiri Gounder (Non-Muhammadan), G. N. Chetty (Non-Muhammadan), Syed Muhammad Padshah Saheb Bahadur (Muhammadan),
  • Punjab: Lala Ram Saran Das (Non-Muhammadan), Sardar Buta Singh (Sikh), Chaudhri Muhammad Din (East Punjab Muhammadan)
  • United Provinces: Lala Mathura Prasad Mehrotra (UP Central Non-Muhammadan), Lala Jagdish Prasad (UP Northern Non-Muhammadan), Prakash Narain Sapru (UP Southern Non-Muhammadan), Hafiz Muhammad Halim (UP West Muhammadan), Shaikh Mushir Hosain Kidwai (UP East Muhammadan)

Fourth Council of State[edit]

[9][10]

Nominated[edit]

  • Officials: General Sir Claude Auchinleck, Sir Mohammad Usman, Jogendra Singh, Feroz Khan Noon, Sir Satyendranath Roy, C. E. Jones, E. Conran-Smith, G. S. Bozman, Shavax A. Lal, A de C. Williams, N. R. Pillai, Ernest Wood, B. R. Sen
  • Non-Officials: Sir David Devadoss (Madras), K. Ramunni Menon (Madras), Sir Josna Ghosal (Bengal), Maneckji Dadabhoy (Bombay), Raja Charanjit Singh (Punjab), Shamsuddin Haidar (Bihar), Brijlal Nandlal Biyani (Berar), A. P. Patro, Rahimtoola Chinoy, Satyendra Kumar Das, Sir Satya Charan Mukherjee, Sir Mohammad Yakub, Sardar Nihal Singh, Khurshid Ali Khan, Lt. Col. Sir S. Hissam-ud-din Bahadur, Sobha Singh, Sri Narain Mehta, Mohendra Lal Das,

Elected Members[edit]

  • Assam: Khan Bahadur Ghulam Mustafa Chaudhury (Muhammadan)
  • Bengal: Kumarsankar Ray Chaudhury (East Bengal Non-Muhammadan), Kumar Nripendra Narayan Sinha (West Bengal Non-Muhammadan), Susil Kumar Roy Chowdhury (West Bengal Non-Muhammadan)
  • Bihar: Maharaja Kameshwar Singh of Darbhanga (Non-Muhammadan), Hossain Imam (Muhammadan)
  • Bombay: Shantidas Askuran (Non-Muhammadan), Govindalal Shivlal Motilal (Non-Muhammadan), Maneckji Nadirshaw Dalal (Non-Muhammadan), Sir Suleman Cassum Haji Mitha (Muhammadan), R. H. Parker (Bombay Chamber of Commerce)
  • Central Provinces: V. V. Kalikar (General)
  • Madras: Rao Bahadur K. Govindachari (Non-Muhammadan), M. Ct. M. Chidambaram Chettyar (Non-Muhammadan), Narayandas Girdhardas (Non-Muhammadan), V. Ramadas Pantulu (Non-Muhammadan), Saiyad Mohamed Sahib Bahadur (Muhammadan)
  • Orissa: Nikunja Kishore Das (Non-Muhammadan),
  • Punjab: Lala Ram Saran Das (Non-Muhammadan), Chaudhri Ataullah Khan Tarar (East & West Punjab Muhammadan), Sardar Buta Singh (Sikh)
  • Sind: Ali Buksh Mohammad Hussain (Muhammadan)
  • United Provinces: H. N. Kunzru (UP Northern Non-Muhammadan), Prakash Narain Sapru (UP Southern Non-Muhammadan), Haji Syed Mohamed Husain (UP West Muhammadan), Chaudhri Niamatullah (UP East Muhammadan)

Presidents[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]