Deep sea mining

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Deep sea mining is a mineral retrieval process that takes place on the ocean floor. Ocean mining sites are usually around large areas of polymetallic nodules or active and extinct hydrothermal vents at 1,400 to 3,700 metres (4,600 to 12,100 ft) below the ocean’s surface.[1] The vents create globular or massive sulfide deposits, which contain valuable metals such as silver, gold, copper, manganese, cobalt, and zinc.[2][3] The deposits are mined using either hydraulic pumps or bucket systems that take ore to the surface to be processed.

As with all mining operations, deep sea mining raises questions about its potential environmental impact. Environmental advocacy groups such as Greenpeace and the Deep Sea Mining Campaign[4] have argued that seabed mining should not be permitted in most of the world's oceans because of the potential for damage to deepsea ecosystems and pollution by heavy metal laden plumes.[2]

Brief history[edit]

In the 1960s the prospect of deep-sea mining was brought up by the publication of J. L. Mero's Mineral Resources of the Sea.[3] The book claimed that nearly limitless supplies of cobalt, nickel and other metals could be found throughout the planet's oceans. Mero stated that these metals occurred in deposits of manganese nodules, which appear as lumps of compressed flowers on the seafloor at depths of about 5,000 m. Some nations including France, Germany and the United States sent out research vessels in search of nodule deposits. Initial estimates of deep sea mining viability turned out to be much exaggerated. This overestimate, coupled with depressed metal prices, led to the near abandonment of nodule mining by 1982. From the 1960s to 1984 an estimated US $650 million had been spent on the venture, with little to no return.[3]

Over the past decade a new phase of deep-sea mining has begun. Rising demand for precious metals in Japan, China, Korea and India has pushed these countries in search of new sources. Interest has recently shifted toward hydrothermal vents as the source of metals instead of scattered nodules. The trend of transition towards an electricity-based information and transportation infrastructure currently seen in western societies further pushes demands for precious metals. The current revived interest in phosphorus nodule mining at the seafloor stems from phosphor-based artificial fertilizers being of significant importance for world food production. Growing world population pushes the need for artificial fertilizers or greater incorporation of organic systems within agricultural infrastructure.

Currently, the best potential deep sea site, the Solwara 1 Project, has been found in the waters off Papua New Guinea, a high grade copper-gold resource and the world's first Seafloor Massive Sulphide (SMS) resource.[5] The Solwara 1 Project is located at 1600 metres water depth in the Bismarck Sea, New Ireland Province.[5] Using ROV (remotely operated underwater vehicles) technology developed by UK-based Soil Machine Dynamics, Nautilus Minerals Inc. is first company of its kind to announce plans to begin full-scale undersea excavation of mineral deposits.[6] However a dispute with the government of Papua-New Guinea delayed production and its now scheduled to commence commercial operations in early 2018.[5]

An additional site that is being explored and looked at as a potential deep sea mining site is the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ). In the CCFZ, there are many small, spherical rocks—sizes varying between microscopic levels and those the size of volleyballs—floating around. These rocks are composed of many different minerals, including copper, titanium, and manganese.[7] Mining claims registered with the International Seabed Authority (ISA) are mostly located in the CCFZ, most commonly in the manganese nodule province.[8]

The world's first "large-scale" mining of hydrothermal vent mineral deposits was carried out by Japan in August - September, 2017. [9] Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC) carried out this operation using the Research Vessel Hakurei. [10] This mining was carried out at the 'Izena hole/cauldron' vent field within the hydrothermally active back-arc basin known as the Okinawa Trough which contains 15 confirmed vent fields according to the InterRidge Vents Database.

On November 10, 2020, the Chinese submersible Fendouzhe reached the bottom of the Mariana Trench 10,909 meters (35,790 feet). It didn't surpass the record of American undersea explorer Victor Vescovo who claimed 10,927 meters (35,853 feet) in May 2019. Chief designer of the submersible, Ye Cong said the seabed was abundant with resources and a "treasure map" can be made of the deep sea.[11]

Laws and regulations[edit]

The international law–based regulations on deep sea mining are contained in the United Nations Conventions on the Law of the Sea from 1973 to 1982, which came into force in 1994.[2][3] The convention set up the International Seabed Authority (ISA), which regulates nations’ deep sea mining ventures outside each nations’ Exclusive Economic Zone (a 200-nautical-mile (370 km) area surrounding coastal nations). The ISA requires nations interested in mining to explore two equal mining sites and turn one over to the ISA, along with a transfer of mining technology over a 10- to 20-year period. This seemed reasonable at the time because it was widely believed that nodule mining would be extremely profitable. However, these strict requirements led some industrialized countries to refuse to sign the initial treaty in 1982.[3][12]

The US abides by the Deep Seabed Hard Mineral Resources Act, which was originally written in 1980. This legislations is largely recognized as one of the main concerns the US has with ratifying UNCLOS.[13]

Within the EEZ of nation states seabed mining comes under the jurisdiction of national laws. Despite extensive exploration both within and outside of EEZs, only a few countries, notably New Zealand, have established legal and institutional frameworks for the future development of deep seabed mining.

Papua New Guinea was the first country to approve a permit for the exploration of minerals in the deep seabed. Solwara 1 was awarded its licence and environmental permits despite three independent reviews of the environmental impact statement mine finding significant gaps and flaws in the underlying science ( see

The ISA has recently arranged a workshop in Australia where scientific experts, industry representatives, legal specialists and academics worked towards improving existing regulations and ensuring that development of seabed minerals does not cause serious and permanent damage to the marine environment.

Resources mined[edit]

The deep sea contains many different resources available for extraction, including silver, gold, copper, manganese, cobalt, and zinc. These raw materials are found in various forms on the sea floor.

Minerals and related depths[1]

Type of mineral deposit Average Depth Resources found
Polymetallic nodules 4,000 – 6,000 m Nickel, copper, cobalt, and manganese
Manganese crusts 800 – 2,400 m Mainly cobalt, some vanadium, molybdenum and platinum
Sulfide deposits 1,400 – 3,700 m Copper, lead and zinc some gold and silver

Diamonds are also mined from the seabed by De Beers and others. Nautilus Minerals Inc and Neptune Minerals are planning to mine the offshore waters of Papua New Guinea and New Zealand.[14]

Extraction methods[edit]

Recent technological advancements have given rise to the use remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to collect mineral samples from prospective mine sites. Using drills and other cutting tools, the ROVs obtain samples to be analyzed for precious materials. Once a site has been located, a mining ship or station is set up to mine the area.[6]

There are two predominant forms of mineral extraction being considered for full-scale operations: continuous-line bucket system (CLB) and the hydraulic suction system. The CLB system is the preferred method of nodule collection. It operates much like a conveyor-belt, running from the sea floor to the surface of the ocean where a ship or mining platform extracts the desired minerals, and returns the tailings to the ocean.[12] Hydraulic suction mining lowers a pipe to the seafloor which transfers nodules up to the mining ship. Another pipe from the ship to the seafloor returns the tailings to the area of the mining site.[12]

In recent years, the most promising mining areas have been the Central and Eastern Manus Basin around Papua New Guinea and the crater of Conical Seamount to the east. These locations have shown promising amounts of gold in the area's sulfide deposits (an average of 26 parts per million). The relatively shallow water depth of 1050 m, along with the close proximity of a gold processing plant makes for an excellent mining site.[3]

Deep sea mining project value chain can be differentiated using the criteria of the type of activities where the value is actually added. During prospecting, exploration and resource assessment phases the value is added to intangible assets, for the extraction, processing and distribution phases the value increases with relation to product processing. There is an intermediate phase – the pilot mining test which could be considered to be an inevitable step in the shift from “resources” to “reserves” classification, where the actual value starts.[15]

Exploration phase involves such operations as locating, sea bottom scanning and sampling using technologies such as echo-sounders, side scan sonars, deep-towed photography, ROVs, AUVs. The resource valuation incorporates the examination of data in the context of potential mining feasibility.

Value chain based on product processing involves such operations as actual mining (or extraction), vertical transport, storing, offloading, transport, metallurgical processing for final products. Unlike the exploration phase, the value increases after each operation on processed material eventually delivered to the metal market. Logistics involves technologies analogous to those applied in land mines. This is also the case for the metallurgical processing, although rich and polymetallic mineral composition which distinguishes marine minerals from its land analogs requires special treatment of the deposit. Environmental monitoring and impact assessment analysis relate to the temporal and spatial discharges of the mining system if they occur, sediment plumes, disturbance to the benthic environment and the analysis of the regions affected by seafloor machines. The step involves an examination of disturbances near the seafloor, as well as disturbances near the surface. Observations include baseline comparisons for the sake of quantitative impact assessments for ensuring the sustainability of the mining process.[15]

Environmental impacts[edit]

Research shows that polymetallic nodule fields are hotspots of abundance and diversity for a highly vulnerable abyssal fauna.[16] Because deep sea mining is a relatively new field, the complete consequences of full-scale mining operations on this ecosystem are unknown. However, some researchers have said they believe that removal of parts of the sea floor will result in disturbances to the benthic layer, increased toxicity of the water column and sediment plumes from tailings.[2][16] Removing parts of the sea floor could disturb the habitat of benthic organisms, with unknown long-term effects.[1] Aside from the direct impact of mining the area, some researchers and environmental activists have raised concerns about leakage, spills and corrosion that could alter the mining area’s chemical makeup.

Among the impacts of deep sea mining, sediment plumes could have the greatest impact. Plumes are caused when the tailings from mining (usually fine particles) are dumped back into the ocean, creating a cloud of particles floating in the water. Two types of plumes occur: near bottom plumes and surface plumes.[1] Near bottom plumes occur when the tailings are pumped back down to the mining site. The floating particles increase the turbidity, or cloudiness, of the water, clogging filter-feeding apparatuses used by benthic organisms.[17] Surface plumes cause a more serious problem. Depending on the size of the particles and water currents the plumes could spread over vast areas.[1][12] The plumes could impact zooplankton and light penetration, in turn affecting the food web of the area.

A rare species called 'Scaly-foot snail', also known as sea pangolin, has become first species to be threatened because of deep sea mining.[1][12]


An article in the Harvard Environmental Law Review in April 2018 argued that "the 'new global gold rush' of deep sea mining shares many features with past resource scrambles – including a general disregard for environmental and social impacts, and the marginalisation of indigenous peoples and their rights".[18][19] The Foreshore and Seabed Act (2004) ignited fierce indigenous opposition in New Zealand, as its claiming of the seabed for the Crown in order to open it up to mining conflicted with Māori claims to their customary lands, who protested the Act as a "sea grab." Later, this act was repealed after an investigation from the UN Commission on Human Rights upheld charges of discrimination. The Act was subsequently repealed and replaced with the Marine and Coastal Area Bill (2011).[20][21] However, conflicts between indigenous sovereignty and seabed mining continue. Organizations like the Deep Sea Mining Campaign and Alliance of Solwara Warriors, comprising 20 communities in the Bismarck and Solomon Sea, are examples of organizations that are seeking to ban seabed mining in Papua New Guinea, where the Solwara 1 project is set to occur, and in the Pacific. They argue primarily that decision-making about deep sea mining has not adequately addressed Free Prior and Informed Consent from affected communities and have not adhered to the precautionary principle, a rule proposed by the 1982 UN World Charter for Nature which informs the ISA regulatory framework for mineral exploitation of the deep sea.[22]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Ahnert, A.; Borowski, C. (2000). "Environmental risk assessment of anthropogenic activity in the deep-sea". Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery. 7 (4): 299–315. doi:10.1023/A:1009963912171.
  2. ^ a b c d Halfar, J.; Fujita, R. M. (2007). "ECOLOGY: Danger of Deep-Sea Mining". Science. 316 (5827): 987. doi:10.1126/science.1138289. PMID 17510349.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Glasby, G. P. (2000). "ECONOMIC GEOLOGY: Lessons Learned from Deep-Sea Mining". Science. 289 (5479): 551–3. doi:10.1126/science.289.5479.551. PMID 17832066.
  4. ^ Rosenbaum, Dr. Helen (November 2011). "Out of Our Depth: Mining the Ocean Floor in Papua New Guinea". Deep Sea Mining Campaign. MiningWatch Canada, CELCoR, Packard Foundation. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  5. ^ a b c "Solwara 1 Project – High Grade Copper and Gold". Nautilus Minerals Inc. 2010. Archived from the original on 12 August 2010. Retrieved 14 September 2010.
  6. ^ a b "Treasure on the ocean floor". Economist 381, no. 8506: 10. (30 November 2006)
  7. ^ "Human Activities Are Taking Their Toll in the Deep Ocean". Retrieved 2020-10-11.
  8. ^ Ahnert, Ahmed; Borowski*, Christian (2000). "Environmental risk assessment of anthropogenic activity in the deep-sea". Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery. 7 (4): 299–315. doi:10.1023/A:1009963912171.
  9. ^ "Japan successfully undertakes large-scale deep-sea mineral extraction". The Japan Times Online. 2017-09-26. ISSN 0447-5763. Retrieved 2019-03-11.
  10. ^ "Deep Sea Mining Watch". Mining the deep seabed is about to become a reality. Retrieved 2019-03-11.
  11. ^ "China breaks national record for Mariana Trench manned-dive amid race for deep sea resources". CNN. November 11, 2020. Archived from the original on November 11, 2020.
  12. ^ a b c d e Sharma, B. N. N. R. (2000). "Environment and Deep-Sea Mining: A Perspective". Marine Georesources and Geotechnology. 18 (3): 285–294. doi:10.1080/10641190051092993.
  13. ^ U.S. Ocean Commission (2002). "DEEP SEABED HARD MINERAL RESOURCES ACT" (PDF). Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  14. ^ Oancea, Dan (November 6, 2006). Deep-Sea Mining and Exploration.
  15. ^ a b Abramowski, T. (2016). Value chain of deep seabed mining, Article in the book: Deep sea mining value chain: organization, technology and development, pp 9-18, Interoceanmetal Joint Organization
  16. ^ a b University of Ghent press bulletin, June 7, 2016 Archived June 14, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ Sharma, R. (2005). "Deep-Sea Impact Experiments and their Future Requirements". Marine Georesources & Geotechnology. 23 (4): 331–338. doi:10.1080/10641190500446698.
  18. ^ "Broadening Common Heritage: Addressing Gaps in the Deep Sea Mining Regulatory Regime". Harvard Environmental Law Review. 2018-04-16. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
  19. ^ Doherty, Ben (2018-04-18). "Deep-sea mining possibly as damaging as land mining, lawyers say". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
  20. ^ DeLoughrey, Elizabeth. “Ordinary Futures: Interspecies Worldings in the Anthropocene.” Global Ecologies and the Environmental Humanities; Postcolonial Approaches. Ed. DeLoughrey Elizabeth, Jill Didur, Anthony Carrigan. New York: Routledge, 2015. 352–72.
  21. ^ Shewry, Teresa (January 2017). "Going Fishing: Activism against Deep Ocean Mining, from the Raukūmara Basin to the Bismarck Sea". South Atlantic Quarterly. 116 (1): 207–217. doi:10.1215/00382876-3749625. ISSN 0038-2876.
  22. ^ "About the Deep Sea Mining campaign | Deep Sea Mining: Out Of Our Depth". Retrieved 2018-11-02.

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