Microplastics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Microplastics in sediments from four rivers in Germany. Note the diverse shapes indicated by white arrowheads. (The white bars represent 1 mm for scale.)
Photodegraded Plastic Straw. A light touch breaks larger straw into microplastics.

Microplastics are fragments of any type of plastic less than 5 mm (0.20 in) in length,[1] according to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)[2][3] and the European Chemicals Agency.[4] They cause pollution by entering natural ecosystems from a variety of sources, including cosmetics, clothing, food packaging, and industrial processes.[1][5]

The term macroplastics is used to differentiate microplastics from larger plastic waste, such as plastic bottles or bigger pieces of plastics. Two classifications of microplastics are currently recognized. Primary microplastics include any plastic fragments or particles that are already 5.0 mm in size or less before entering the environment.[5] These include microfibers from clothing, microbeads, plastic glitter[6] and plastic pellets (also known as nurdles).[7][8][9] Secondary microplastics arise from the degradation (breakdown) of larger plastic products through natural weathering processes after entering the environment.[5] Such sources of secondary microplastics include water and soda bottles, fishing nets, plastic bags, microwave containers, tea bags and tire wear.[10][9][11][12] Both types are recognized to persist in the environment at high levels, particularly in aquatic and marine ecosystems, where they cause water pollution.[13] 35% of all ocean microplastics come from textiles/clothing, primarily due to the erosion of polyester, acrylic, or nylon-based clothing, often during the washing process.[14] However, microplastics also accumulate in the air and terrestrial ecosystems.

Because plastics degrade slowly (often over hundreds to thousands of years),[15][16] microplastics have a high probability of ingestion, incorporation into, and accumulation in the bodies and tissues of many organisms.[1] The toxic chemicals that come from both the ocean and runoff can also biomagnify up the food chain.[17][18] In terrestrial ecosystems, microplastics have been demonstrated to reduce the viability of soil ecosystems and reduce weight of earthworms.[19][20] The cycle and movement of microplastics in the environment are not fully known, but research is currently underway to investigate the phenomenon.[5] Deep layer ocean sediment surveys in China (2020) show the presence of plastics in deposition layers far older than the invention of plastics, leading to suspected underestimation of microplastics in surface sample ocean surveys.[21] Likewise, they have been found in high mountains, at great distances from their source.[22]

Microplastics have also been found in human blood, though their effects are largely unknown.[23]

Classification[edit]

Microplastic samples
Microplastic fibers identified in the marine environment
Photodegraded green plastic bag adjacent to hiking trail in about 2,000 pieces of 1 to 25 mm size after three months' exposure outdoors

The term "microplastics" was introduced in 2004 by Professor Richard Thompson, a marine biologist at the University of Plymouth in the United Kingdom.[24][25][26][27]

Microplastics are common in our world today. In 2014, it was estimated that there are between 15 and 51 trillion individual pieces of microplastic in the world's oceans, which was estimated to weigh between 93,000 and 236,000 metric tons.[28][29][30]

Primary microplastics[edit]

Polyethylene based microspherules in toothpaste
a) Artificial turf football field with ground tire rubber (GTR) used for cushioning. b) Microplastics from the same field, washed away by rain, found in nature close to a stream.

Primary microplastics are small pieces of plastic that are purposefully manufactured.[5][31] They are usually used in facial cleansers and cosmetics, or in air blasting technology. In some cases, their use in medicine as vectors for drugs was reported.[32] Microplastic "scrubbers", used in exfoliating hand cleansers and facial scrubs, have replaced traditionally used natural ingredients, including ground almond shells, oatmeal, and pumice. Primary microplastics have also been produced for use in air-blasting technology. This process involves blasting acrylic, melamine, or polyester microplastic scrubbers at machinery, engines, and boat hulls to remove rust and paint. As these scrubbers are used repeatedly until they diminish in size and their cutting power is lost, they often become contaminated with heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, and lead.[33] Although many companies have committed to reducing the production of microbeads, there are still many bioplastic microbeads that also have a long degradation life cycle, for example in cosmetics.

Secondary microplastics[edit]

Secondary plastics are small pieces of plastic derived from the breakdown of larger plastic debris, both at sea and on land.[5] Over time, a culmination of physical, biological, and chemphotodegradation, including photo-oxidation caused by sunlight exposure, can reduce the structural integrity of plastic debris to a size that is eventually undetectable to the naked eye.[34] This process of breaking down large plastic material into much smaller pieces is known as fragmentation.[33] It is considered that microplastics might further degrade to be smaller in size, although the smallest microplastic reportedly detected in the oceans at present is 1.6 micrometres (6.3×10−5 in) in diameter.[35] The prevalence of microplastics with uneven shapes suggests that fragmentation is a key source.[17] It was observed that more microplastics might be formed from biodegradable polymer than from non-biodegradable polymer in both seawater and fresh water.[36]

Other sources: as a by-product/dust emission during wear and tear[edit]

There are countless sources of both primary and secondary microplastics. Microplastic fibers enter the environment from the washing of synthetic clothing.[37][11] Tires, composed partly of synthetic styrene-butadiene rubber, will erode into tiny plastic and rubber particles as they are used. Furthermore, 2.0-5.0 mm plastic pellets, used to create other plastic products, often[quantify] enter ecosystems due to spillages and other accidents.[9] A Norwegian Environment Agency review report about microplastics published in early 2015[38] states it would be beneficial to classify these sources as primary, as long as microplastics from these sources are added from human society since the "start of the pipe", and their emissions are inherently a result of human material and product use and not secondary defragmentation in the nature.

Nanoplastics[edit]

Depending on the definition used, nanoplastics are less than 1 μm (i.e. 1000 nm) or less than 100 nm in size.[39][40] Speculations over nanoplastics in the environment range from it being a temporary byproduct during the fragmentation of microplastics to it being an invisible environmental threat at potentially high and continuously rising concentrations.[41] The presence of nanoplastics in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre has been confirmed[42] and recent developments in Raman spectroscopy coupled with optical tweezers (Raman Tweezers)[43] as well as nano-fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (nano-FTIR) or atomic force infrared (AFM-IR) are promising answers in the near future regarding the nanoplastic quantity in the environment. Fluorescence could represent a unique tool for the identification and quantification of nanoplastics, since it allows the development of fast, easy, cheap, and sensitive methods.[44] However, the nanoplastic problem is complex and nanoscale properties as well as interaction with biomolecules need to be explored at the fundamental level with high spatial and temporal resolution.[45]

Nanoplastics are thought to be a risk to environmental and human health.[39] Due to their small size, nanoplastics can cross cellular membranes and affect the functioning of cells. Nanoplastics are lipophilic and models show that polyethylene nanoplastics can be incorporated into the hydrophobic core of lipid bilayers.[46] Nanoplastics are also shown to cross the epithelial membrane of fish accumulating in various organs including the gallbladder, pancreas, and the brain.[47][48] Little is known on adverse health effects of nanoplastics in organisms including humans. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), polystyrene nanoplastics can induce a stress response pathway altering glucose and cortisol levels, which is potentially tied to behavioral changes in stress phases.[49] In Daphnia, polystyrene nanoplastic can be ingested by the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia pulex and affect its growth and reproduction as well as induce stress defense, including the ROS production and MAPK-HIF-1/NF-κB-mediated antioxidant system.[50][51][52] Nanoplastics can also adsorb toxic chemical pollutants, such as antibiotics, which enable the selective association with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, resulting in the dissemination of nanoplastics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria by bacterivorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans across the soil.[53]

Sources[edit]

Most microplastic pollution comes from textiles, tires and city dust[54] which account for over 80% of all microplastic in the environment.[13] The existence of microplastics in the environment is often established through aquatic studies. These include taking plankton samples, analyzing sandy and muddy sediments, observing vertebrate and invertebrate consumption, and evaluating chemical pollutant interactions.[55] Through such methods, it has been shown that there are microplastics from multiple sources in the environment.

Microplastics could contribute up to 30% of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch polluting the world's oceans and, in many developed countries, are a bigger source of marine plastic pollution than the visible larger pieces of marine litter, according to a 2017 IUCN report.[9]

Car and truck tires[edit]

Wear and tear from tires significantly contributes to the flow of (micro-)plastics into the environment. Estimates of emissions of microplastics to the environment in Denmark are between 5,500 and 14,000 tonnes (6,100 and 15,400 tons) per year. Secondary microplastics (e.g. from car and truck tires or footwear) are more important than primary microplastics by two orders of magnitude. The formation of microplastics from the degradation of larger plastics in the environment is not accounted for in the study.[56]

The estimated per capita emission ranges from 0.23 to 4.7 kg/year, with a global average of 0.81 kg/year. The emissions from car tires (wear reaching 100%) are substantially higher than those of other sources of microplastics, e.g., airplane tires (2%), artificial turf (wear 12–50%), brakes (wear 8%), and road markings (wear 5%). In the case of road markings, recent field study indicated that they were protected by a layer of glass beads and their contribution was only between 0.1 and 4.3 g/person/year,[57] which would constitute approximately 0.7% of all of the secondary microplastics emissions; this value agrees with some emissions estimates.[58][59] Emissions and pathways depend on local factors like road type or sewage systems. The relative contribution of tire wear and tear to the total global amount of plastics ending up in our oceans is estimated to be 5–10%. In air, 3–7% of the particulate matter (PM2.5) is estimated to consist of tire wear and tear, indicating that it may contribute to the global health burden of air pollution which has been projected by the World Health Organization at 3 million deaths in 2012. Pollution from tire wear and tear also enters the food chain, but further research is needed to assess human health risks.[60]

Clothing[edit]

Studies have shown that many synthetic fibers, such as polyester, nylon, acrylics, and spandex, can be shed from clothing and persist in the environment.[61][62][63] Each garment in a load of laundry can shed more than 1,900 fibers of microplastics, with fleeces releasing the highest percentage of fibers, over 170% more than other garments.[64][65] For an average wash load of 6 kilograms (13 lb), over 700,000 fibers could be released per wash.[66]

Washing machine manufacturers have also reviewed research into whether washing machine filters can reduce the amount of microfiber fibers that need to be treated by sewage treatment facilities.[67]

These microfibers have been found to persist throughout the food chain from zooplankton to larger animals such as whales.[9] The primary fiber that persist throughout the textile industry is polyester which is a cheap cotton alternative that can be easily manufactured. However, these types of fibers contribute greatly to the persistence to microplastics in terrestrial, aerial, and marine ecosystems. The process of washing clothes causes garments to lose an average of over 100 fibers per liter of water.[65] This has been linked with health effects possibly caused by the release of monomers, dispersive dyes, mordants, and plasticizers from manufacturing. The occurrence of these types of fibers in households has been shown to represent 33% of all fibers in indoor environments.[65]

Textile fibers have been studied in both indoor and outdoor environments to determine the average human exposure. The indoor concentration was found to be 1.0–60.0 fibers/m3, whereas the outdoor concentration was much lower at 0.3–1.5 fibers/m3.[68] The deposition rate indoors was 1586–11,130 fibers per day/m3 which accumulates to around 190-670 fibers/mg of dust.[68] The largest concern with these concentrations is that it increases exposure to children and the elderly, which can cause adverse health effects.[citation needed]

Cosmetics industry[edit]

Some companies have replaced natural exfoliating ingredients with microplastics, usually in the form of "microbeads" or "micro-exfoliates". These products are typically composed of polyethylene, a common component of plastics, but they can also be manufactured from polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and nylon.[69] They are often found in face washes, hand soaps, and other personal care products; the beads are usually washed into the sewage system immediately after use. Their small size prevents them from fully being retained by preliminary treatment screens at wastewater plants, thereby allowing some to enter rivers and oceans.[70] Wastewater treatment plants only remove an average of 95–99.9% of microbeads because of their small design. This leaves an average of 0–7 microbeads per litre being discharged.[71] Considering that the treatment plants of the world discharge 160 trillion liters of water per day, around 8 trillion microbeads are released into waterways every day. This number does not account for the sewage sludge that is reused as fertilizer after the waste water treatment that has been known to still contain these microbeads.[72]

Although many companies have committed to phasing out the use of microbeads in their products, there are at least 80 different facial scrub products that are still being sold with microbeads as a main component.[71][failed verification] This contributes to the 80 metric tons of microbead discharge per year by the United Kingdom alone, which not only has a negative impact upon the wildlife and food chain, but also upon levels of toxicity, as microbeads have been proven to absorb dangerous chemicals such as pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.[71] The restriction proposal by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and reports by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and TAUW suggest that there are more than 500 microplastic ingredients that are widely used in cosmetics and personal care products.[73]

Even when microbeads are removed from cosmetic products, there are still harmful products being sold with plastics in them. For example, acrylate copolymers cause toxic effects for waterways and animals if they are polluted.[74] Acrylate copolymers also can emit styrene monomers when used in body products which increases a person's chances of cancer.[75] Countries like New Zealand which have banned microbeads often pass over other polymers such as acrylate copolymers, which can be just as toxic to people and the environment.[76]

After the Microbead-Free Waters Act of 2015, the use of microbeads in toothpaste and other rinse-off cosmetic products has been discontinued in the US,[77] however since 2015 many industries have instead shifted toward using FDA-approved "rinse-off" metallized-plastic glitter as their primary abrasive agent.[78][79][80]

Fishing industry[edit]

Recreational and commercial fishing, marine vessels, and marine industries are all sources of plastic that can directly enter the marine environment, posing a risk to biota both as macroplastics, and as secondary microplastics following long-term degradation. Marine debris observed on beaches also arises from beaching of materials carried on inshore and ocean currents. Fishing gear is a form of plastic debris with a marine source. Discarded or lost fishing gear, including plastic monofilament line and nylon netting (sometimes called ghost nets), is typically neutrally buoyant and can, therefore, drift at variable depths within the oceans. Various countries have reported that microplastics from the industry and other sources have been accumulating in different types of seafood. In Indonesia, 55% of all fish species had evidence of manufactured debris similar to America which reported 67%.[81] However, the majority of debris in Indonesia was plastic, while in North America the majority was synthetic fibers found in clothing and some types of nets. The implication from the fact that fish are being contaminated with microplastic is that those plastics and their chemicals will bioaccumulate in the food chain.

One study analyzed the plastic-derived chemical called polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the stomachs of short-tailed shearwaters. It found that one-fourth of the birds had higher-brominated congeners that are not naturally found in their prey. However, the PBDE got into the birds' systems through plastic that was found in the stomachs of the birds. It is therefore not just the plastics that are being transferred through the food chain but the chemicals from the plastics as well.[82]

Manufacturing[edit]

The manufacture of plastic products uses granules and small resin pellets as their raw material. In the United States, production increased from 2.9 million pellets in 1960 to 21.7 million pellets in 1987.[83] In 2019, plastic world production was 368 million tonnes; 51% were produced in Asia. China, the world's largest producer, created 31% of the world total.[84] Through accidental spillage during land or sea transport, inappropriate use as packing materials, and direct outflow from processing plants, these raw materials can enter aquatic ecosystems. In an assessment of Swedish waters using an 80 μm mesh, KIMO Sweden found typical microplastic concentrations of 150–2,400 microplastics per m3; in a harbor adjacent to a plastic production facility, the concentration was 102,000 per m3.[33]

Many industrial sites in which convenient raw plastics are frequently used are located near bodies of water. If spilled during production, these materials may enter the surrounding environment, polluting waterways.[38] "More recently, Operation Cleansweep, a joint initiative of the American Chemistry Council and Society of the Plastics Industry, is aiming for industries to commit to zero pellet loss during their operations".[33] Overall, there is a significant lack of research aimed at specific industries and companies that contribute to microplastics pollution.

Packaging and shipping[edit]

Shipping has significantly contributed to marine pollution. Some statistics indicate that in 1970, commercial shipping fleets around the world dumped over 23,000 tons of plastic waste into the marine environment. In 1988, an international agreement (MARPOL 73/78, Annex V) prohibited the dumping of waste from ships into the marine environment. In the United States, the Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act of 1987 prohibits discharge of plastics in the sea, including from naval vessels.[85][86] However, shipping remains a dominant source of plastic pollution, having contributed around 6.5 million tons of plastic in the early 1990s.[87][88] Research has shown that approximately 10% of the plastic found on the beaches in Hawaii are nurdles.[89] In one incident on 24 July 2012, 150 tonnes of nurdles and other raw plastic material spilled from a shipping vessel off the coast near Hong Kong after a major storm. This waste from the Chinese company Sinopec was reported to have piled up in large quantities on beaches.[38] While this is a large incident of spillage, researchers speculate that smaller accidents also occur and further contribute to marine microplastic pollution.[38]

Plastic containers can shed microplastics and nanoparticles into foods and beverages. [90]

Personal protective equipment[edit]

Face masks[edit]

Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the usage of medical face masks has sharply increased to reach approximately 89 million masks each.[91] Single use face masks are made from polymers, such as polypropylene, polyurethane, polyacrylonitrile, polystyrene, polycarbonate, polyethylene, or polyester. The increase in production, consumption, and littering of face masks was added to the list of environmental challenges, due to the addition of plastic particles waste in the environment. After degrading, disposable face masks could break down into smaller size particles (under 5mm) emerging a new source of microplastic.[92] A single surgical weathered face mask may release up to 173,000 fibers/ day.[91]

A report made in February 2020 by Oceans Asia, an organization committed to advocacy and research on marine pollution, confirms "the presence of face masks of different types and colors in an ocean in Hong Kong".[92]

Plastics[edit]

Bottled water[edit]

In one study, 93% of the bottled water from 11 different brands showed microplastic contamination. Per liter, researchers found an average of 325 microplastic particles.[93] Of the tested brands, Nestlé Pure Life and Gerolsteiner bottles contained the most microplastic with 930 and 807 microplastic particles per liter (MPP/L), respectively.[93] San Pellegrino products showed the least quantity of microplastic densities. Compared to water from taps, water from plastic bottles contained twice as much microplastic.[93] Another study capable of detecting nanoplastics found 240,000 fragments per liter: 10% between 5 mm and 1 μm and 90% under 1 μm in diameter.[94][95]

Some of the contamination likely comes from the process of bottling and packaging the water,[93] and possibly from filters used to purify the water.[94]

Baby bottles[edit]

Newborn drinks milk from a baby bottle

In 2020 researchers reported that polypropylene infant feeding bottles with contemporary preparation procedures were found to cause microplastics exposure to infants ranging from 14,600 to 4,550,000 particles per capita per day in 48 regions. Microplastics release is higher with warmer liquids and similar with other polypropylene products such as lunchboxes.[96][97][98] Unexpectedly, silicone rubber baby bottle nipples degrade over time from repeated steam sterilization, shedding micro- and nano-sized particles of silicone rubber, researchers found in 2021. They estimated that, using such heat-degraded nipples for a year, a baby will ingest more than 660,000 particles.[99][100]

Single-use plastic products[edit]

Conventional paper coffee cups, with internal plastic coating, release many nanoplastics into water.[101][102]

Common single-use plastic products, such as plastic cups, or even paper coffee cups that are lined with a thin plastic film inside, release trillions of microplastic-nanoparticles per liter into water during normal use.[102][103][104] Single-use plastic products enter aquatic environments[105] and "[l]ocal and statewide policies that reduce single-use plastics were identified as effective legislative actions that communities can take to address plastic pollution".[106][107]

Sewage treatment plants[edit]

Sewage treatment plants, also known as wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), remove contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage, using various physical, chemical, and biological processes.[108] Most plants in developed countries have both primary and secondary treatment stages. In the primary stage of treatment, physical processes are employed to remove oils, sand, and other large solids using conventional filters, clarifiers, and settling tanks.[109] Secondary treatment uses biological processes involving bacteria and protozoa to break down organic matter. Common secondary technologies are activated sludge systems, trickling filters, and constructed wetlands.[109] The optional tertiary treatment stage may include processes for nutrient removal (nitrogen and phosphorus) and disinfection.[109]

Microplastics have been detected in both the primary and secondary treatment stages of the plants. A groundbreaking 1998 study suggested that microplastic fibers would be a persistent indicator of sewage sludges and wastewater treatment plant outfalls.[110] A study estimated that about one particle per liter of microplastics are being released back into the environment, with a removal efficiency of about 99.9%.[108][111][112] A 2016 study showed that most microplastics are actually removed during the primary treatment stage where solid skimming and sludge settling are used.[108] When these treatment facilities are functioning properly, the contribution of microplastics into oceans and surface water environments from WWTPs is not disproportionately large.[108][113] Many studies show that while wastewater treatment plants certainly reduce the microplastic load on waterways, with current technological developments they are not able to clean the waters fully of this pollutant.[114][115]

Sewage sludge is used for soil fertilizer in some countries, which exposes plastics in the sludge to the weather, sunlight, and other biological factors, causing fragmentation. As a result, microplastics from these biosolids often end up in storm drains and eventually into bodies of water.[116] In addition, some studies show that microplastics do pass through filtration processes at some WWTPs.[33] According to a study from the UK, samples taken from sewage sludge disposal sites on the coasts of six continents contained an average one particle of microplastic per liter. A significant amount of these particles was of clothing fibers from washing machine effluent.[65]

Human health[edit]

The potential risks of microplastic to human health are little understood, and the field is difficult to research because of the potentially long time between exposure to the contaminant and any associated health effect becoming evident.[117] Microplastic pollution has been associated with various adverse health conditions, including respiratory disease and inflammation, but it is not known whether there is a causative effect.[23] There is concern microplastic pollutants may act as a vector for antibiotic resistant genes and bacteria.[117] It is reported that clinically important bacterial genus like Eggerthella were notably (more than three times) enriched on riverine microplastics compared to water[118].

According to a comprehensive review of scientific evidence published by the European Union's Scientific Advice Mechanism in 2019, "little is known with respect to the human health risks of nano- and microplastics, and what is known is surrounded by considerable uncertainty". The authors of the review identify the main limitations as the quality or methodology of the research to date. Since "the poison is in the dose", the review concludes that "there is a need to understand the potential modes of toxicity for different size-shape-type NMP [nano- (< 0.1 mm) and microplastic] combinations in carefully selected human models, before robust conclusions about 'real' human risks can be made".[119]

Mean/median intake of microplastics in humans are at levels considered to be safe in humans; however, some individuals may sometimes exceed these limits; the effects of this, if any, are unknown.[89] It is unknown whether and to what degree microplastics bioaccumulate in humans.[120][121]

Effects on the environment[edit]

According to a comprehensive review of scientific evidence published by the European Union's Scientific Advice Mechanism in 2019, microplastics are now present in every part of the environment. While there is no evidence of widespread ecological risk from microplastic pollution yet, risks are likely to become widespread within a century if pollution continues at its current rate.[119]

There is rapid growth of microplastic pollution research that may influence the growth of understanding of the problem, with marine and estuarine environments most frequently studied. Researchers have called for better sharing of research data that might lead to effective solutions.[122]

Participants at the 2008 International Research Workshop on the Occurrence, Effects and Fate of Microplastic Marine Debris at the University of Washington at Tacoma[123] concluded that microplastics are a problem in the marine environment, based on:

  • the documented occurrence of microplastics in the marine environment,
  • the long residence times of these particles (and, therefore, their likely buildup in the future), and
  • their demonstrated ingestion by marine organisms.

So far, research has mainly focused on larger plastic items. Widely recognized problems facing marine life are entanglement, ingestion, suffocation and general debilitation often leading to death and/or strandings. This causes serious public concern. In contrast, microplastics are not as conspicuous, being less than 5 mm, and are usually invisible to the naked eye. Particles of this size are available to a much broader range of species, enter the food chain at the bottom, become embedded in animal tissue, and are then undetectable by unaided visual inspection.

Furthermore, consequences of plastic degradation and pollution release over long term have mostly been overlooked. The large amounts of plastic currently in the environment, exposed to degradation, but that has many more years of decay and release of toxic compounds to follow is referred to as toxicity debt.[41]

Microplastics have been detected not just in marine but also in freshwater systems including marshes, streams, ponds, lakes, and rivers in (Europe, North America, South America, Asia and Australia).[124][125] Samples collected across 29 Great Lakes tributaries from six states in the United States were found to contain plastic particles, 98% of which were microplastics ranging in size from 0.355mm to 4.75mm.[126]

Hurricane Larry in September 2021 deposited, during the storm peak, 113,000 particles/m2/day as it passed over Newfoundland, Canada. Back-trajectory modelling and polymer type analysis indicate that those microplastics may have been ocean-sourced as the hurricane traversed the North Atlantic garbage patch of the North Atlantic Gyre.[127]

Biological integration into organisms[edit]

Micro and nano plastics can become embedded in animals’ tissue through ingestion or respiration.[1] The initial demonstration of bioaccumulation of these particles in animals was conducted under controlled conditions by exposing them to high concentrations of microplastics over extended periods, accumulating these particles in their gut and gills due to ingestion and respiration, respectively. Various annelid species, such as deposit-feeding lugworms (Arenicola marina), have been shown to accumulate microplastics embedded in their gastrointestinal tract. Similarly, many crustaceans, like the shore crab Carcinus maenas, have been seen to integrate microplastics into both their respiratory and digestive tracts. [62][128][129] Plastic particles are often mistaken by fish for food, which can block their digestive tracts, sending incorrect feeding signals to the brains of the animals.[13] However, research in 2021 revealed that fish ingest microplastics inadvertently rather than intentionally.[130] The first occurrence of bioaccumulation of micro and nanoplastics in wild animals was documented in the skin mucosa of salmon, and it was attributed to the resemblance between nanoplastics and the outer shell of the viruses that the mucosa traps.[131] This discovery was entirely serendipitous, as the research team had developed a detailed molecular separation process for the components of fish skin with the primary objective of isolating chitin from a vertebrate for the first time.[132]

Representation of the exposure of marine life to microplastics

Some coral such as Pocillopora verrucosa have also been found to ingest microplastics.[133] It can take up to 14 days for microplastics to pass through an animal (as compared to a normal digestion period of 2 days), but enmeshment of the particles in animals' gills can prevent elimination entirely.[128] When microplastic-laden animals are consumed by predators, the microplastics are then incorporated into the bodies of higher trophic-level feeders. For example, scientists have reported plastic accumulation in the stomachs of lantern fish which are small filter feeders and are the main prey for commercial fish like tuna and swordfish.[134][135] Microplastics also absorb chemical pollutants that can be transferred into the organism's tissues.[136] Small animals are at risk of reduced food intake due to false satiation and resulting starvation or other physical harm from the microplastics.

A study done at the Argentinean coastline of the Rio de la Plata estuary, found the presence of microplastics in the guts of 11 species of coastal freshwater fish. These 11 species of fish represented four different feeding habits: detritivore, planktivore, omnivore and ichthyophagous.[137] This study is one of the few so far to show the ingestion of microplastics by freshwater organisms.

Bottom feeders, such as benthic sea cucumbers, who are non-selective scavengers that feed on debris on the ocean floor, ingest large amounts of sediment. It has been shown that four species of sea cucumber (Thyonella gemmate, Holothuria floridana, H. grisea and Cucumaria frondosa) ingested between 2- and 20-fold more PVC fragments and between 2- and 138-fold more nylon line fragments (as much as 517 fibers per organism) based on plastic-to-sand grain ratios from each sediment treatment. These results suggest that individuals may be selectively ingesting plastic particles. This contradicts the accepted indiscriminate feeding strategy of sea cucumbers, and may occur in all presumed non-selective feeders when presented with microplastics.[138]

Bivalves, important aquatic filter feeders, have also been shown to ingest microplastics and nanoplastics.[139] Upon exposure to microplastics, bivalve filtration ability decreases.[140] Multiple cascading effects occur as a result, such as immunotoxicity and neurotoxicity.[141][142][143] Decreased immune function occurs due to reduced phagocytosis and NF-κB gene activity.[141][143] Impaired neurological function is a result of the inhibition of ChE and suppression of neurotransmitter regulatory enzymes.[143] When exposed to microplastics, bivalves also experience oxidative stress, indicating an impaired ability to detoxify compounds within the body, which can ultimately damage DNA.[142] Bivalve gametes and larvae are also impaired when exposed to microplastics. Rates of developmental arrest, and developmental malformities increase, while rates of fertilization decrease.[139][144] When bivalves have been exposed to microplastics as well as other pollutants such as POPs, mercury or hydrocarbons in lab settings, toxic effects were shown to be aggravated.[140][141][142]

Not only fish and free-living organisms can ingest microplastics. Scleractinian corals, which are primary reef-builders, have been shown to ingest microplastics under laboratory conditions.[145] While the effects of ingestion on these corals has not been studied, corals can easily become stressed and bleach. Microplastics have been shown to stick to the exterior of the corals after exposure in the laboratory.[145] The adherence to the outside of corals can potentially be harmful, because corals cannot handle sediment or any particulate matter on their exterior and slough it off by secreting mucus, expending energy in the process, increasing the likelihood of mortality.[146]

Marine biologists in 2017 discovered that three-quarters of the underwater seagrass in the Turneffe Atoll off the coast of Belize had microplastic fibers, shards, and beads stuck to it. The plastic pieces had been overgrown by epibionts (organisms that naturally stick themselves to seagrass). Seagrass is part of the barrier reef ecosystem and is fed on by parrotfish, which in turn are eaten by humans. These findings, published in Marine Pollution Bulletin, may be "the first discovery of microplastics on aquatic vascular plants... [and] only the second discovery of microplastics on marine plant life anywhere in the world."[147]

Research published in 2023 demonstrated that microplastic exposure impaired the cognitive performance of hermit crabs, which could potentially impact their survivability.[148]

It is not just aquatic animals which may be harmed.[149] Microplastics can stunt the growth of terrestrial plants due to the increased uptake of toxic metals such as cadmium.[150][151][152]

In 2019, the first European records of microplastic items in amphibians' stomach content was reported in specimens of the common European newt (Triturus carnifex). This also represented the first evidence for Caudata worldwide, highlighting that the emerging issue of plastics is a threat even in remote high-altitude environments.[153] The microplastic has also been found in common blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) which shows a ubiquity of microplastics in terrestrial environments.[154]

Zooplankton ingest microplastics beads (1.7–30.6 μm) and excrete fecal matter contaminated with microplastics. Along with ingestion, the microplastics stick to the appendages and exoskeleton of the zooplankton.[7] Zooplankton, among other marine organisms, consume microplastics because they emit similar infochemicals, notably dimethyl sulfide, just as phytoplankton do.[155][verification needed][156] Plastics such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and polypropylene (PP) produce dimethyl sulfide odors.[155] These types of plastics are commonly found in plastic bags, food storage containers, and bottle caps.[157] Green and red filaments of plastics are found in the planktonic organisms and in seaweeds.[158]

Not only do animals and plants ingest microplastics, some microbes also live on the surface of microplastics. This community of microbes form a slimy biofilm which, according to a 2019 study,[159] has a unique structure and possesses a special risk, because microplastic biofilms have been proven to provide a novel habitat for colonization that increases overlap between different species, thus spreading pathogens and antibiotic resistant genes[118] through horizontal gene transfer. Then, due to rapid movement through waterways, these pathogens can be moved very quickly from their origin to another location where a specific pathogen may not be naturally present, spreading the potential disease.[159]

Persistent organic pollutants and Emerging organic contaminants[edit]

Plastic particles may highly concentrate and transport synthetic organic compounds (e.g. persistent organic pollutants and emerging organic contaminants), commonly present in the environment and ambient seawater, on their surface through adsorption.[160] Microplastics can act as carriers for the transfer of POPs from the environment to organisms, also termed as the Trojan Horse effect.[161][87][88] Recent articles have also shown that microplastics can sorb emerging organic chemicals such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products.[162][163] The sorption potential is affected by water matrix, pH, ionic strength and aging of microparticles.[162]

Additives added to plastics during manufacture may leach out upon ingestion, potentially causing serious harm to the organism. Endocrine disruption by plastic additives may affect the reproductive health of humans and wildlife alike.[88]

Plastics, polymers derived from mineral oils, are virtually non-biodegradable.[citation needed] However, renewable natural polymers are now in development which can be used for the production of biodegradable materials similar to those derived from oil-based polymers.[citation needed]

Disease[edit]

In 2023, plasticosis, a new disease caused solely by plastics, was discovered in seabirds. The birds identified as having the disease have scarred digestive tracts from ingesting plastic waste.[164] "When birds ingest small pieces of plastic, they found, it inflames the digestive tract. Over time, the persistent inflammation causes tissues to become scarred and disfigured, affecting digestion, growth and survival."[165]

Where microplastics can be found[edit]

Air[edit]

Airborne microplastics have been detected in the atmosphere, as well as indoors and outdoors. In 2019 a study found microplastic to be atmospherically transported to remote areas on the wind.[166] A 2017 study found indoor airborne microfiber concentrations between 1.0 and 60.0 microfibers per cubic meter (33% of which were found to be microplastics).[167] Another study looked at microplastic in the street dust of Tehran and found 2,649 particles of microplastic within 10 samples of street dust, with ranging samples concentrations from 83 particle – 605 particles (±10) per 30.0 g of street dust.[168] Microplastics and microfibers were also found in snow samples,[169] and high up in "clean" air in high mountains at vast distances from their source.[22][170] However, much like freshwater ecosystems and soil, more studies are needed to understand the full impact and significance of airborne microplastics.[119]

Water[edit]

Oceans[edit]

A growing concern regarding plastic pollution in the marine ecosystem is the use of microplastics. Microplastics are beads of plastic less than 5 millimeters wide,[171] and they are commonly found in hand soaps, face cleansers, and other exfoliators. When these products are used, the microplastics go through the water filtration system and into the ocean, but because of their small size they are likely to escape capture by the preliminary treatment screens on wastewater plants.[172] These beads are harmful to the organisms in the ocean, especially filter feeders, because they can easily ingest the plastic and become sick. The microplastics are such a concern because it is difficult to clean them up due to their size, so humans can try to avoid using these harmful plastics by purchasing products that use environmentally safe exfoliates.

Because plastic is so widely used across the planet, microplastics have become widespread in the marine environment. For example, microplastics can be found on sandy beaches[173] and surface waters[174] as well as in the water column and deep sea sediment. Microplastics are also found within the many other types of marine particles such as dead biological material (tissue and shells) and some soil particles (blown in by wind and carried to the ocean by rivers). Population density and proximity to urban centers have been considered the main factors that influence the abundance of microplastics in the environment.

Ice cores[edit]

Plastic pollution has previously been recorded in Antarctic surface waters and sediments as well as in the Arctic sea ice,[175] but in 2009, for the first time, plastic was found in Antarctic sea ice, with 96 microplastic particles from 14 different types of polymers in an ice core sampled from east Antarctica.[176] Relatively large particle sizes in Antarctic sea ice suggest local pollution sources.

Freshwater[edit]

Microplastics have been widely detected in the world's aquatic environments.[124][177] The first study on microplastics in freshwater ecosystems was published in 2011 that found an average of 37.8 fragments per square meter of Lake Huron sediment samples. Additionally, studies have found MP (microplastic) to be present in all of the Great Lakes with an average concentration of 43,000 MP particle km−2.[178] Microplastics have also been detected in freshwater ecosystems outside of the United States, for example in 2019 study conducted in Poland showed that microplastic was present in all 30 studied lakes of the Masurian Lakeland with density from 0.27 to 1.57 particles per liter.[179] In Canada, a three-year study found a mean microplastic concentration of 193,420 particles km−2 in Lake Winnipeg. None of the microplastics detected were micro-pellets or beads and most were fibers resulting from the breakdown of larger particles, synthetic textiles, or atmospheric fallout.[180] The highest concentration of microplastic ever discovered in a studied freshwater ecosystem was recorded in the Rhine river at 4000 MP particles kg−1.[181]

Soil[edit]

A substantial portion of microplastics are expected to end up in the world's soil, yet very little research has been conducted on microplastics in soil outside of aquatic environments.[182] In wetland environments microplastic concentrations have been found to exhibit a negative correlation with vegetation cover and stem density.[124] There exists some speculation that fibrous secondary microplastics from washing machines could end up in soil through the failure of water treatment plants to completely filter out all of the microplastic fibers. Furthermore, geophagous soil fauna, such as earthworms, mites, and collembolans could contribute to the amount of secondary microplastic present in soil by converting consumed plastic debris into microplastic via digestive processes. Further research, however, is needed. There is concrete data linking the use of organic waste materials to synthetic fibers being found in the soil; but most studies on plastics in soil merely report its presence and do not mention origin or quantity.[9][183] Controlled studies on fiber-containing land-applied wastewater sludges (biosolids) applied to soil reported semiquantitative[clarification needed] recoveries of the fibers a number of years after application.[184]

Salt and seafood[edit]

A 2015 review of 15 brands of table salts commercially available in China found microplastics were much more prevalent in sea salts compared to lake, rock, or well salts, attributing this to sea salts being contaminated by ocean water pollution while the rock/well salts were more likely contaminated during the production stages of collecting, wind drying, and packaging.[185] According to a 2017 estimate, a person who consumes seafood will ingest 11,000 bits of microplastics per year. A 2019 study found a kilo of sugar had 440 microplastic particles, a kilo of salt contained 110 particles, and a litre of bottled water contained 94 particles.[186][187][188]

Human body[edit]

While it is known microplastic enter the human body from the environment, the quantities involved are not well understood.[23]

The microplastics ingested by fish and crustaceans can be subsequently consumed by humans as the end of the food chain.[189] Microplastics are found in air, water, and food that humans eat, especially seafood; however, the degree of absorption and retention is unclear.[190][120] However, ingestion of microplastics via food may be relatively minor; for example, while mussels are known to accumulate microplastics, humans are predicted to be exposed to more microplastics in household dust than by consuming mussels.[191]

Microplastics have been found in human testicles.[192]

Prevention[edit]

Treatment[edit]

Some researchers have proposed incinerating plastics to use as energy, which is known as energy recovery. As opposed to losing the energy from plastics into the atmosphere in landfills, this process turns some of the plastics back into energy that can be used. However, as opposed to recycling, this method does not diminish the amount of plastic material that is produced. Therefore, recycling plastics is considered a more efficient solution.[89]

Biodegradation is another possible solution to large amounts of microplastic waste. In this process, microorganisms consume and decompose synthetic polymers by means of enzymes.[193] These plastics can then be used in the form of energy and as a source of carbon once broken down. The microbes could potentially be used to treat sewage wastewater, which would decrease the amount of microplastics that pass through into the surrounding environments.[193]

Filtering[edit]

Efficient removal of microplastics via waste water treatment plants is critical to prevent the transfer of microplastics from society to natural water systems. The captured microplastics in the treatment plants become part of the sludge produced by the plants. The problem is that this sludge is often used as farm fertilizer meaning the plastics enter waterways through runoff.[13]

Fionn Ferreira, winner of the 2019 Google Science Fair, is developing a device for the removal of microplastic particles from water using a ferrofluid.[194]

Collection devices[edit]

Computer modelling done by The Ocean Cleanup, a Dutch foundation, has suggested that collection devices placed nearer to the coasts could remove about 31% of the microplastics in the area.[195] On 9 September 2018, The Ocean Cleanup launched the world's first ocean cleanup system, 001 aka "Wilson", which is being deployed to the Great Pacific Garbage Patch.[196] System 001 is 600 meters long that acts as a U-shaped skiff that uses natural oceanic currents to concentrate plastic and other debris on the ocean's surface into a confined area for extraction by vessels.[197] The project has been met with criticism from oceanographers and plastic pollution experts, though it has seen wide public support.[198][199][200]

In addition, some bacteria have adapted to eat plastic, and some bacteria species have been genetically modified to eat (certain types of) plastics.[201] Other than degrading microplastics, microbes had been engineered in a novel way to capture microplastics in their biofilm matrix from polluted samples for easier removal of such pollutants.[202] The microplastics in the biofilms can then be released with an engineered 'release' mechanism via biofilm dispersal to facilitate with microplastics recovery.[203]

Education and recycling[edit]

Increasing education through recycling campaigns is another proposed solution for microplastic contamination. While this would be a smaller-scale solution, education has been shown to reduce littering, especially in urban environments where there are often large concentrations of plastic waste.[89] If recycling efforts are increased, a cycle of plastic use and reuse would be created to decrease our waste output and production of new raw materials. In order to achieve this, states would need to employ stronger infrastructure and investment around recycling.[204] Some advocate for improving recycling technology to be able to recycle smaller plastics to reduce the need for production of new plastics.[89]

Action for creating awareness[edit]

A signboard encouraging the public to collect nurdles so as to reduce their negative impact on the coastal environment

On 11 April 2013, in order to create awareness, Italian artist Maria Cristina Finucci founded The Garbage Patch State[205] under the patronage of UNESCO and the Italian Ministry of the Environment.[206]

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched its "Trash-Free Waters" initiative in 2013 to prevent single-use plastic wastes from ending up in waterways and ultimately the ocean.[207] EPA collaborates with the United Nations Environment Programme–Caribbean Environment Programme (UNEP-CEP) and the Peace Corps to reduce and also remove trash in the Caribbean Sea.[208] EPA has also funded various projects in the San Francisco Bay Area including one that is aimed at reducing the use of single-use plastics such as disposable cups, spoons and straws, from three University of California campuses.[209]

Additionally, there are many organizations advocating action to counter microplastics and that is spreading microplastic awareness. One such group is the Florida Microplastic Awareness Project (FMAP), a group of volunteers who search for microplastics in coastal water samples.[210] There is also increased global advocacy aimed at achieving the target of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 14 which hopes to prevent and significantly reduce all forms of marine pollution by 2025.[211]

Funding[edit]

The Clean Oceans Initiative is a project launched in 2018 by the public institutions European Investment Bank, Agence Française de Développement and KfW Entwicklungsbank. The goal of the organisations was to provide up to €2 billion in lending, grants and technical assistance until 2023 to develop projects that remove pollution from waterways (with a focus on macroplastics and microplastics) before it reaches the oceans.[13] The effort focuses on initiatives that demonstrate efficient methods of minimising plastic waste and microplastics output, emphasising on riverine and coastal areas.[212] Cassa Depositi e Prestiti (CDP), the Italian national promotional institution and financial institution for development cooperation, and the Instituto de Crédito Oficial (ICO), the Spanish promotional bank, became new partners in October 2020.[213][214][215] As of December 2023, The Clean Oceans Initiative had funded almost €3.2 billion, exceeding 80% of its €4 billion objective. Over 20 million people will benefit from the signed project proposals, which include better wastewater treatment in Sri Lanka, China, Egypt, and South Africa, solid waste management in Togo and Senegal, and stormwater management and flood protection in Benin, Morocco, and Ecuador.[216][217]

In February 2022, the initiative stated that it would increase its financing aim to €4 billion by the end of 2025. At the same time, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) became the Clean Oceans Initiative's sixth member.[212] By February 2023, the program had met 65% of its goal, with €2.6 billion spent in 60 projects benefiting more than 20 million people across Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Europe.[213][218]

By the beginning of 2022, more than 80% of this target has been achieved, with €1.6 billion being used in long-term financing for public and private sector initiatives that minimise the discharge of plastics, microplastics, and other pollutants through enhanced solid waste, wastewater, and storm water management.[212]

The European Investment Bank and the Asian Development Bank formed the Clean and Sustainable Ocean Partnership in January 2021 to promote cooperative projects for a clean and sustainable ocean and blue economy in the Asia-Pacific region.[219][220]

Policy and legislation[edit]

With increasing awareness of the detrimental effects of microplastics on the environment, groups are now advocating for the removal and ban of microplastics from various products.[1][221] One such campaign is "Beat the Microbead", which focuses on removing plastics from personal care products.[69] The Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation run the Global Microplastics Initiative, a project to collect water samples to provide scientists with better data about microplastic dispersion in the environment.[222] UNESCO has sponsored research and global assessment programs due to the trans-boundary issue that microplastic pollution constitutes.[223] These environmental groups will keep pressuring companies to remove plastics from their products in order to maintain healthy ecosystems.[224]

China[edit]

In 2018, China banned the import of recyclables from other countries, forcing those other countries to re-examine their recycling schemes.[225] The Yangtze River in China contributes 55% of all plastic waste going to the seas. Including microplastics, the Yangtze bears an average of 500,000 pieces of plastic per square kilometer.[226] Scientific American reported that China dumps 30% of all plastics in the ocean.[227]

United States[edit]

In the US, some states have taken action to mitigate the negative environmental effects of microplastics.[228] Illinois was the first US state to ban cosmetics containing microplastics.[89] At the federal level, the Microbead-Free Waters Act 2015 was enacted after being signed by President Barack Obama on 28 December 2015. The law bans "rinse-off" cosmetic products that perform an exfoliating function, such as toothpaste or face wash. It does not apply to other products such as household cleaners. The act took effect on 1 July 2017, with respect to manufacturing, and 1 July 2018, with respect to introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce.[229] On 16 June 2020, California adopted a definition of 'microplastics in drinking water', setting the foundation for a long-term approach to studying their contamination and human health effects.[230]

On 25 July 2018, a microplastic reduction amendment was passed by the U.S. House of Representatives.[231] The legislation, as part of the Save Our Seas Act designed to combat marine pollution, aims to support the NOAA's Marine Debris Program. In particular, the amendment is geared towards promoting NOAA's Great Lakes Land-Based Marine Debris Action Plan to increase testing, cleanup, and education around plastic pollution in the Great Lakes.[231] President Donald Trump signed the re-authorization and amendment bill into effect on 11 October 2018.

Japan[edit]

On 15 June 2018, the Japanese government passed a bill with the goal of reducing microplastic production and pollution, especially in aquatic environments.[232] Proposed by the Environment Ministry and passed unanimously by the Upper House, this is also the first bill to pass in Japan that is specifically targeted at reducing microplastic production, specifically in the personal care industry with products such as face wash and toothpaste.[232] This law is revised from previous legislation, which focused on removing plastic marine debris. It also focuses on increasing education and public awareness surrounding recycling and plastic waste.[232] The Environment Ministry has also proposed a number of recommendations for methods to monitor microplastic quantities in the ocean (Recommendations, 2018).[233] However, the legislation does not specify any penalties for those who continue manufacturing products with microplastics.[232]

European Union[edit]

The European Commission has noted the increased concern about the impact of microplastics on the environment.[234] In April 2018, the European Commission's Group of Chief Scientific Advisors commissioned a comprehensive review of the scientific evidence on microplastic pollution through the EU's Scientific Advice Mechanism.[234] The evidence review was conducted by a working group nominated by European academies and delivered in January 2019.[235] A Scientific Opinion based on the SAPEA report was presented to the Commission in 2019, on the basis of which the commission will consider whether policy changes should be proposed at a European level to curb microplastic pollution.[236]

In January 2019, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) proposed to restrict intentionally added microplastics.[237]

The European Union participates with 10% of the global total, around 150 000 tonnes of microplastics each year. This is 200 grams per person per year, with significant regional variance in per-capita microplastic creation. [186][238]

The European Commission's Circular Economy Action Plan sets out mandatory requirements for the recycling and waste reduction of key products e.g. plastic packaging. The plan starts the process to restrict addition of microplastics in products. It mandates measures for capturing more microplastics at all stages of the lifecycle of a product. E.g. the plan would examine different policies which aim to reduce release of secondary microplastics from tires and textiles.[239] The European Commission plans to update the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive to further address microplastic waste and other pollution. They aim to protect the environment from industrial and urban waste water discharge. A revision to the EU Drinking Water Directive was provisionally approved to ensure microplastics are regularly monitored in drinking water. It would require countries must propose solutions if a problem is found.[13]

The REACH restriction on synthetic polymer microparticles entered into force on 17 October 2023.[240][241]

United Kingdom[edit]

The Environmental Protection (Microbeads) (England) Regulations 2017 ban the production of any rinse-off personal care products (such as exfoliants) containing microbeads.[242] This particular law denotes specific penalties when it is not obeyed. Those who do not comply are required to pay a fine. In the event that a fine is not paid, product manufacturers may receive a stop notice, which prevents the manufacturer from continuing production until they have followed regulation preventing the use of microbeads. Criminal proceedings may occur if the stop notice is ignored.[242]

Haiti[edit]

Haiti has no collective system for waste collection and treatment,[243] and thus plastic is often disposed of in urban water evacuation canals, which then degrade to form microplastics. Due to tropical temperatures and average daily duration of 12 hours,[clarify] the plastics present in urban waterways could degrade more rapidly. Their discharge into Port-au-Prince Bay exposes this ecosystem to a number of environmental hazards pollutants contained in the waste, and to climatic hazards, particularly ocean acidification.[244]

On August 9, 2012, the Haitian government published a decree prohibiting the production, importation, marketing and use, of polyethylene bags and expanded polystyrene objects for foodstuffs. However, 14 Caribbean countries (more than a third) have banned single-use plastic bags and/or polystyrene containers.

On July 10, 2013, a second decree was published to once again prohibit “the importation, production or sale of expanded polystyrene articles for food use.” In support of the second decree, the ministries of the Environment, Justice and Public Security, Trade and Industry as well as the Economy and Finance announced in a note published in January 2018 that specialists from the brigade will be deployed on the territory to force the application of the said decree.[245]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Ghosh, Soumya; Vashisth, Kshitij; Han, Sungsoo; Bhaskar, Rakesh (January 2023). "Microplastics as an Emerging Threat to the Global Environment and Human Health". Sustainability. 15 (14): 10821. doi:10.3390/su151410821. ISSN 2071-1050.
  2. ^ Arthur, Courtney; Baker, Joel; Bamford, Holly (2009). "Proceedings of the International Research Workshop on the Occurrence, Effects and Fate of Microplastic Marine Debris" (PDF). NOAA Technical Memorandum. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  3. ^ Collignon, Amandine; Hecq, Jean-Henri; Galgani, François; Collard, France; Goffart, Anne (2014). "Annual variation in neustonic micro- and meso-plastic particles and zooplankton in the Bay of Calvi (Mediterranean–Corsica)" (PDF). Marine Pollution Bulletin. 79 (1–2): 293–298. Bibcode:2014MarPB..79..293C. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.11.023. PMID 24360334. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 September 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  4. ^ European Chemicals Agency. "Restricting the use of intentionally added microplastic particles to consumer or professional use products of any kind". ECHA. European Commission. Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Ghosh, Soumya; Vashisth, Kshitij; Han, Sungsoo; Bhaskar, Rakesh (June 2023). "Microplastics as an Emerging Threat to the Global Environment and Human Health". Sustainability. 15 (14): 10821. doi:10.3390/su151410821. ISSN 2071-1050.
  6. ^ Green, DS; Jefferson, M; Boots, B; Stone, L (January 2021). "All that glitters is litter? Ecological impacts of conventional versus biodegradable glitter in a freshwater habitat". Journal of Hazardous Materials. 402: 124070. Bibcode:2021JHzM..40224070G. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124070. ISSN 0304-3894. PMID 33254837. S2CID 224894411. Archived from the original on 5 May 2024. Retrieved 17 October 2023.
  7. ^ a b Cole, M; Lindeque, P; Fileman, E; Halsband, C; Goodhead, R; Moger, J; Galloway, TS (2013). "Microplastic Ingestion by Zooplankton". Environmental Science & Technology. 47 (12): 6646–55. Bibcode:2013EnST...47.6646C. doi:10.1021/es400663f. hdl:10871/19651. PMID 23692270.
  8. ^ "Where Does Marine Litter Come From?". Marine Litter Facts. British Plastics Federation. Archived from the original on 18 May 2021. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Boucher, Julien; Friot, Damien (2017). Primary microplastics in the oceans: A global evaluation of sources. doi:10.2305/IUCN.CH.2017.01.en. ISBN 978-2831718279.
  10. ^ Kovochich, M; Liong, M; Parker, JA; Oh, SC; Lee, JP; Xi, L; Kreider, ML; Unice, KM (February 2021). "Chemical mapping of tire and road wear particles for single particle analysis". Science of the Total Environment. 757: 144085. Bibcode:2021ScTEn.757n4085K. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144085. ISSN 0048-9697. PMID 33333431. S2CID 229318535.
  11. ^ a b Conkle, JL; Báez Del Valle, CD; Turner, JW (2018). "Are We Underestimating Microplastic Contamination in Aquatic Environments?". Environmental Management. 61 (1): 1–8. Bibcode:2018EnMan..61....1C. doi:10.1007/s00267-017-0947-8. PMID 29043380. S2CID 40970384.
  12. ^ "Plastic free July: How to stop accidentally consuming plastic particles from packaging". Stuff. 11 July 2019. Archived from the original on 4 November 2021. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  13. ^ a b c d e f "Development solutions: Building a better ocean". European Investment Bank. Archived from the original on 21 October 2021. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  14. ^ Resnick, Brian (19 September 2018). "More than ever, our clothes are made of plastic. Just washing them can pollute the oceans". Vox. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  15. ^ Chamas, Ali; Moon, Hyunjin; Zheng, Jiajia; Qiu, Yang; Tabassum, Tarnuma; Jang, Jun Hee; Abu-Omar, Mahdi; Scott, Susannah L.; Suh, Sangwon (2020). "Degradation Rates of Plastics in the Environment". ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. 8 (9): 3494–3511. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b06635.
  16. ^ Klein S, Dimzon IK, Eubeler J, Knepper TP (2018). "Analysis, Occurrence, and Degradation of Microplastics in the Aqueous Environment". In Wagner M, Lambert S (eds.). Freshwater Microplastics. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Vol. 58. Cham.: Springer. pp. 51–67. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-61615-5_3. ISBN 978-3319616148. See Section 3, "Environmental Degradation of Synthetic Polymers".
  17. ^ a b Grossman, Elizabeth (15 January 2015). "How Plastics from Your Clothes Can End up in Your Fish". Time. Archived from the original on 18 November 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  18. ^ "How Long Does it Take Trash to Decompose". 4Ocean. 20 January 2017. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  19. ^ "Why food's plastic problem is bigger than we realise". www.bbc.com. Archived from the original on 18 November 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  20. ^ Nex, Sally (2021). How to garden the low carbon way: the steps you can take to help combat climate change (First American ed.). New York. ISBN 978-0744029284. OCLC 1241100709.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  21. ^ Xue B, Zhang L, Li R, Wang Y, Guo J, Yu K, Wang S (February 2020). "Underestimated Microplastic Pollution Derived from Fishery Activities and "Hidden" in Deep Sediment". Environmental Science & Technology. 54 (4): 2210–2217. Bibcode:2020EnST...54.2210X. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b04850. PMID 31994391. S2CID 210950462.
  22. ^ a b "No mountain high enough: study finds plastic in 'clean' air". The Guardian. AFP. 21 December 2021. Archived from the original on 14 January 2022. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  23. ^ a b c Blackburn K, Green D (March 2022). "The potential effects of microplastics on human health: What is known and what is unknown". Ambio (Review). 51 (3): 518–530. Bibcode:2022Ambio..51..518B. doi:10.1007/s13280-021-01589-9. PMC 8800959. PMID 34185251.
  24. ^ Thompson, Andrea. "Earth Has a Hidden Plastic Problem – Scientists Are Hunting It Down". Scientific American. Archived from the original on 31 December 2019. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  25. ^ "To Save the Oceans, Should You Give Up Glitter?". National Geographic News. 30 November 2017. Archived from the original on 2 January 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  26. ^ "Microplastic waste: This massive (tiny) threat to sea life is now in every ocean". The Independent. 13 July 2014. Archived from the original on 14 May 2022. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  27. ^ Frias, JP; Nash, R (January 2019). "Microplastics: Finding a consensus on the definition". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 138: 145–7. Bibcode:2019MarPB.138..145F. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.11.022. ISSN 0025-326X. PMID 30660255. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 12 February 2024.
  28. ^ Ioakeimidis, C; Fotopoulou, KN; Karapanagioti, HK; Geraga, M; Zeri, C; Papathanassiou, E; Galgani, F; Papatheodorou, G (2016). "The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach". Scientific Reports. 6: 23501. Bibcode:2016NatSR...623501I. doi:10.1038/srep23501. PMC 4802224. PMID 27000994.
  29. ^ "Ocean Life Eats Tons of Plastic – Here's Why That Matters". 16 August 2017. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  30. ^ Sebille, Erik van. "Far more microplastics floating in oceans than thought". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 19 January 2020. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  31. ^ Karbalaei, Samaneh; Hanachi, Parichehr; Walker, Tony R.; Cole, Matthew (2018). "Occurrence, sources, human health impacts and mitigation of microplastic pollution" (PDF). Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 25 (36): 36046–36063. Bibcode:2018ESPR...2536046K. doi:10.1007/s11356-018-3508-7. PMID 30382517. S2CID 53191765. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 March 2020.
  32. ^ Patel, MM; Goyal, BR; Bhadada, SV; Bhatt, JS; Amin, AF (2009). "Getting into the Brain: Approaches to Enhance Brain Drug Delivery". CNS Drugs. 23 (1): 35–58. doi:10.2165/0023210-200923010-00003. PMID 19062774. S2CID 26113811.
  33. ^ a b c d e Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Pennie; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S. (2011). "Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: A review". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 62 (12): 2588–2597. Bibcode:2011MarPB..62.2588C. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.09.025. hdl:10871/19649. PMID 22001295.
  34. ^ Masura, Julie; Baker, Joel; Foster, Gregory; Arthur, Courtney (2015). Herring, Carlie (ed.). Laboratory Methods for the Analysis of Microplastics in the Marine Environment: Recommendations for quantifying synthetic particles in waters and sediments (Report). NOAA Marine Debris Program. Archived from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  35. ^ Conkle, Jeremy L.; Báez Del Valle, Christian D.; Turner, Jeffrey W. (2017). "Are We Underestimating Microplastic Contamination in Aquatic Environments?". Environmental Management. 61 (1): 1–8. Bibcode:2018EnMan..61....1C. doi:10.1007/s00267-017-0947-8. PMID 29043380. S2CID 40970384.
  36. ^ Wei, Xin-Feng; Bohlén, Martin; Lindblad, Catrin; Hedenqvist, Mikael; Hakonen, Aron (15 June 2021). "Microplastics generated from a biodegradable plastic in freshwater and seawater". Water Research. 198: 117123. Bibcode:2021WatRe.19817123W. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2021.117123. PMID 33865028. S2CID 233291017.
  37. ^ "What are the Sources of Microplastics and its Effect on Humans and the Environment? – Conserve Energy Future". Conserve Energy Future. 19 May 2018. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  38. ^ a b c d Sundt, Peter, and Schulze, Per-Erik: "Sources of microplastic-pollution to the marine environment", "Mepex for the Norwegian Environment Agency", 2015
  39. ^ a b Dhada, Indramani; Periyasamy, Arivalagan; Sahoo, Kaushal Kishor; Manojkumar, Y.; Pilli, Sridhar (1 January 2023), Tyagi, R. D.; Pandey, Ashok; Drogui, Patrick; Yadav, Bhoomika (eds.), "Chapter 9 - Microplastics and nanoplastics: Occurrence, fate, and persistence in wastewater treatment plants", Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Elsevier, pp. 201–240, ISBN 978-0-323-99908-3, archived from the original on 15 November 2022, retrieved 15 July 2023
  40. ^ There is not yet a consensus on this upper limit. Pinto da Costa, João (2018). "Nanoplastics in the Environment". In Harrison, Roy M.; Hester, Ron E. (eds.). Plastics and the Environment. Issues in Environmental Science and Technology. Vol. 47. London: Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 85. ISBN 978-1788012416. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 24 August 2019. First, it is necessary to define what constitutes a 'nanoplastic'. Nonoparticles exhibit specific properties that differ from their bulk counterparts and are generally considered as particles with less than 100nm in at least one dimension. [...] However, for nanoplastics, a clear consensus classification has not been reached and multiple size-based definitions have been proposed. [...] although nanoplastics are the least known type of plastic waste, they are also, potentially, the most hazardous. [...] Nanoplastics may occur in the environment as a result of their direct release or from the fragmentation of larger particles. They may, similarly to microplastics, [...] therefore be classified as either primary or secondary nanoplastics.
  41. ^ a b Rillig, Matthias C.; Kim, Shin Woong; Kim, Tae-Young; Waldman, Walter R. (2 March 2021). "The Global Plastic Toxicity Debt". Environmental Science & Technology. 55 (5): 2717–2719. Bibcode:2021EnST...55.2717R. doi:10.1021/acs.est.0c07781. ISSN 0013-936X. PMC 7931444. PMID 33596648.
  42. ^ Ter Halle, Alexandra; Jeanneau, Laurent; Martignac, Marion; Jardé, Emilie; Pedrono, Boris; Brach, Laurent; Gigault, Julien (5 December 2017). "Nanoplastic in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre". Environmental Science & Technology. 51 (23): 13689–13697. Bibcode:2017EnST...5113689T. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b03667. PMID 29161030.
  43. ^ Gillibert, Raymond; Balakrishnan, Gireeshkumar; Deshoules, Quentin; Tardivel, Morgan; Magazzù, Alessandro; Donato, Maria Grazia; Maragò, Onofrio M.; Lamy de La Chapelle, Marc; Colas, Florent; Lagarde, Fabienne; Gucciardi, Pietro G. (6 August 2019). "Raman Tweezers for Small Microplastics and Nanoplastics Identification in Seawater" (PDF). Environmental Science & Technology. 53 (15): 9003–9013. Bibcode:2019EnST...53.9003G. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b03105. PMID 31259538. S2CID 195756469. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 July 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  44. ^ Capolungo, Chiara; Genovese, Damiano; Montalti, Marco; Rampazzo, Enrico; Zaccheroni, Nelsi; Prodi, Luca (15 December 2021). "Frontispiece: Photoluminescence-Based Techniques for the Detection of Micro- and Nanoplastics". Chemistry – A European Journal. 27 (70): chem.202187062. doi:10.1002/chem.202187062. ISSN 0947-6539. S2CID 245302112.
  45. ^ Sil, Diyali; Osmanbasic, Edin; Mandal, Sasthi Charan; Acharya, Atanu; Dutta, Chayan (23 May 2024). "Variable Non-Gaussian Transport of Nanoplastic on Supported Lipid Bilayers in Saline Conditions". The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. 15 (20): 5428–5435. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.4c00806. ISSN 1948-7185.
  46. ^ Hollóczki, Oldamur; Gehrke, Sascha (2020). "Can Nanoplastics Alter Cell Membranes?". ChemPhysChem. 21 (1): 9–12. doi:10.1002/cphc.201900481. PMC 6973106. PMID 31483076.
  47. ^ Skjolding, L. M.; Ašmonaitė, G.; Jølck, R. I.; Andresen, T. L.; Selck, H.; Baun, A.; Sturve, J. (2017). "An assessment of the importance of exposure routes to the uptake and internal localisation of fluorescent nanoparticles in zebrafish ( Danio rerio ), using light sheet microscopy" (PDF). Nanotoxicology. 11 (3): 351–359. doi:10.1080/17435390.2017.1306128. PMID 28286999. S2CID 4412141. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  48. ^ Pitt, Jordan A.; Kozal, Jordan S.; Jayasundara, Nishad; Massarsky, Andrey; Trevisan, Rafael; Geitner, Nick; Wiesner, Mark; Levin, Edward D.; Di Giulio, Richard T. (2018). "Uptake, tissue distribution, and toxicity of polystyrene nanoparticles in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio)". Aquatic Toxicology. 194: 185–194. Bibcode:2018AqTox.194..185P. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2017.11.017. PMC 6959514. PMID 29197232.
  49. ^ Brun, Nadja R.; van Hage, Patrick; Hunting, Ellard R.; Haramis, Anna-Pavlina G.; Vink, Suzanne C.; Vijver, Martina G.; Schaaf, Marcel J. M.; Tudorache, Christian (2019). "Polystyrene nanoplastics disrupt glucose metabolism and cortisol levels with a possible link to behavioural changes in larval zebrafish". Communications Biology. 2 (1): 382. doi:10.1038/s42003-019-0629-6. PMC 6802380. PMID 31646185.
  50. ^ Liu, Zhiquan; Huang, Youhui; Jiao, Yang; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Donglei; Yu, Ping; Li, Yiming; Cai, Mingqi; Zhao, Yunlong (2020). "Polystyrene nanoplastic induces ROS production and affects the MAPK-HIF-1/NFkB-mediated antioxidant system in Daphnia pulex". Aquatic Toxicology. 220: 105420. Bibcode:2020AqTox.22005420L. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105420. PMID 31986404. S2CID 210934769.
  51. ^ Liu, Zhiquan; Cai, Mingqi; Yu, Ping; Chen, Minghai; Wu, Donglei; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Yunlong (2018). "Age-dependent survival, stress defense, and AMPK in Daphnia pulex after short-term exposure to a polystyrene nanoplastic". Aquatic Toxicology. 204: 1–8. Bibcode:2018AqTox.204....1L. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.08.017. PMID 30153596. S2CID 52113220.
  52. ^ Liu, Zhiquan; Yu, Ping; Cai, Mingqi; Wu, Donglei; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Youhui; Zhao, Yunlong (2019). "Polystyrene nanoplastic exposure induces immobilization, reproduction, and stress defense in the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia pulex". Chemosphere. 215: 74–81. Bibcode:2019Chmsp.215...74L. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.09.176. PMID 30312919. S2CID 52973259.
  53. ^ Chan, Shepherd Yuen; Liu, Sylvia Yang; Wu, Rongben; Wei, Wei; Fang, James Kar-Hei; Chua, Song Lin (2 June 2023). "Simultaneous Dissemination of Nanoplastics and Antibiotic Resistance by Nematode Couriers". Environmental Science & Technology. 57 (23): 8719–8727. Bibcode:2023EnST...57.8719C. doi:10.1021/acs.est.2c07129. ISSN 0013-936X. PMID 37267481. S2CID 259047038. Archived from the original on 4 June 2023. Retrieved 4 June 2023.
  54. ^ "Microplastics from textiles: towards a circular economy for textiles in Europe — European Environment Agency". www.eea.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 27 July 2023. Retrieved 15 July 2023.
  55. ^ Ivar do Sul, Juliana A.; Costa, Monica F. (2014). "The present and future of microplastic pollution in the marine environment". Environmental Pollution. 185: 352–364. Bibcode:2014EPoll.185..352I. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2013.10.036. PMID 24275078.
  56. ^ Microplastics: Occurrence, effects and sources of releases to the environment in Denmark (PDF) (Report). Copenhagen: Ministry of Environment and Food in Denmark, Danish Environmental Protection Agency. 2015. p. 14. ISBN 978-8793352803. Environmental project No. 1793. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  57. ^ Burghardt, Tomasz E.; Pashkevich, Anton; Babić, Darko; Mosböck, Harald; Babić, Dario; Żakowska, Lidia (1 January 2022). "Microplastics and road markings: the role of glass beads and loss estimation". Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 102: 103123. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2021.103123. S2CID 244808286.
  58. ^ Wang, Teng; Li, Baojie; Zou, Xinqing; Wang, Ying; Li, Yali; Xu, Yongjiang; Mao, Longjiang; Zhang, Chuchu; Yu, Wenwen (October 2019). "Emission of primary microplastics in mainland China: Invisible but not negligible". Water Research. 162: 214–224. Bibcode:2019WatRe.162..214W. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2019.06.042. PMID 31276985. S2CID 195813593. Archived from the original on 19 June 2022. Retrieved 29 July 2022.
  59. ^ Verschoor, A., van Herwijnen, R., Posthuma, C., Klesse, K., Werner, S., 2017. Assessment document of land-based inputs of microplastics in the marine environment. Publication 705/2017. OSPAR Commission: London, United Kingdom.
  60. ^ Kole, Pieter Jan; Löhr, Ansje J.; Van Belleghem, Frank; Ragas, Ad; Kole, Pieter Jan; Löhr, Ansje J.; Van Belleghem, Frank G. A. J.; Ragas, Ad M. J. (2017). "Wear and Tear of Tyres: A Stealthy Source of Microplastics in the Environment". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 14 (10): 1265. doi:10.3390/ijerph14101265. PMC 5664766. PMID 29053641.
  61. ^ "Life-Mermaids Project". Leitat. Terrassa, Spain. 8 August 2014. Archived from the original on 2 February 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  62. ^ a b Grossman, Elizabeth: "How Microplastics from Your Fleece Could End up on Your Plate", "Civil Eats", 15 January 2015
  63. ^ Periyasamy, Aravin Prince; Tehrani-Bagha, Ali (March 2022). "A review of microplastic emission from textile materials and its reduction techniques". Polymer Degradation and Stability. 199: 109901. doi:10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2022.109901.
  64. ^ Katsnelson, Alla (2015). "News Feature: Microplastics present pollution puzzle". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (18): 5547–5549. Bibcode:2015PNAS..112.5547K. doi:10.1073/pnas.1504135112. PMC 4426466. PMID 25944930.
  65. ^ a b c d Browne, Mark Anthony; Crump, Phillip; Niven, Stewart J.; Teuten, Emma; Tonkin, Andrew; Galloway, Tamara; Thompson, Richard (2011). "Accumulation of Microplastic on Shorelines Worldwide: Sources and Sinks". Environmental Science & Technology. 45 (21): 9175–9179. Bibcode:2011EnST...45.9175B. doi:10.1021/es201811s. PMID 21894925. S2CID 19178027.
  66. ^ Napper, Imogen E.; Thompson, Richard C. (2016). "Release of synthetic microplastic plastic fibres from domestic washing machines: Effects of fabric type and washing conditions". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 112 (1–2): 39–45. Bibcode:2016MarPB.112...39N. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.09.025. hdl:10026.1/8163. PMID 27686821.
  67. ^ "An Update on Microfiber Pollution". Patagonia. 3 February 2017. Archived from the original on 26 May 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
  68. ^ a b Dris, Rachid; Gasperi, Johnny; Mirande, Cécile; Mandin, Corinne; Guerrouache, Mohamed; Langlois, Valérie; Tassin, Bruno (2017). "A first overview of textile fibers, including microplastics, in indoor and outdoor environments" (PDF). Environmental Pollution (Submitted manuscript). 221: 453–458. Bibcode:2017EPoll.221..453D. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2016.12.013. PMID 27989388. S2CID 25039103. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 July 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
  69. ^ a b "International Campaign against Microbeads in Cosmetics". Beat the Microbead. Amsterdam: Plastic Soup Foundation. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015.
  70. ^ Fendall, Lisa S.; Sewell, Mary A. (2009). "Contributing to marine pollution by washing your face: Microplastics in facial cleansers". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 58 (8): 1225–1228. Bibcode:2009MarPB..58.1225F. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.04.025. PMID 19481226.
  71. ^ a b c Anderson, A.G.; Grose, J.; Pahl, S.; Thompson, R.C.; Wyles, K.J. (2016). "Microplastics in personal care products: Exploring perceptions of environmentalists, beauticians and students" (PDF). Marine Pollution Bulletin (Submitted manuscript). 113 (1–2): 454–460. Bibcode:2016MarPB.113..454A. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.10.048. hdl:10026.1/8172. PMID 27836135. S2CID 18394356. Archived from the original on 19 July 2022. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  72. ^ Rochman, Chelsea M.; Kross, Sara M.; Armstrong, Jonathan B.; Bogan, Michael T.; Darling, Emily S.; Green, Stephanie J.; Smyth, Ashley R.; Veríssimo, Diogo (2015). "Scientific Evidence Supports a Ban on Microbeads". Environmental Science & Technology. 49 (18): 10759–10761. Bibcode:2015EnST...4910759R. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b03909. PMID 26334581.
  73. ^ "Guide to Microplastics – Check Your Products". Beat the Microbead. Amsterdam: Plastic Soup Foundation. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  74. ^ Tikhomirov, Iu P. (1991). "Vliianie vybrosov proizvodstv akrilatov na okruzhaiushchuiu sredu i profilaktika ikh neblagopriiatnogo vozdeĭstviia" [Effect of acrylate industry wastes on the environment and the prevention of their harmful action]. Vestnik Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR (in Russian) (2): 21–25. OCLC 120600446. PMID 1828644.
  75. ^ "After 40 years in limbo: Styrene is probably carcinogenic". ScienceDaily. Archived from the original on 15 November 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  76. ^ "Microbeads are banned, but plastic-filled products are everywhere". Stuff. 11 June 2020. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  77. ^ "What Are Microbeads In Toothpaste?". Colgate. Archived from the original on 27 September 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  78. ^ Weaver, Caity (21 December 2018). "What Is Glitter? A strange journey to the glitter factory". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 December 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  79. ^ Bartle, Trisha (17 October 2022). "TikTok Is Going Deep On The Glitter Conspiracy Theories–Is It Toothpaste, Boats, Or Something Else?". Collective World. Archived from the original on 8 December 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  80. ^ Dr. Beccy Corkill (21 December 2022). "The Glitter Conspiracy Theory: Who Is Taking All Of The Glitter?". IFLScience. Archived from the original on 10 January 2023. Retrieved 18 January 2023.
  81. ^ Rochman, Chelsea M.; Tahir, Akbar; Williams, Susan L.; Baxa, Dolores V.; Lam, Rosalyn; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Teh, Foo-Ching; Werorilangi, Shinta; Teh, Swee J. (2015). "Anthropogenic debris in seafood: Plastic debris and fibers from textiles in fish and bivalves sold for human consumption". Scientific Reports. 5: 14340. Bibcode:2015NatSR...514340R. doi:10.1038/srep14340. PMC 4585829. PMID 26399762.
  82. ^ Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige; Yamashita, Rei; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Fukuwaka, Masa-aki; Watanuki, Yutaka (2013). "Accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals in tissues of seabirds ingesting marine plastics". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 69 (1–2): 219–222. Bibcode:2013MarPB..69..219T. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.12.010. PMID 23298431.
  83. ^ Pruter, A.T. (June 1987). "Sources, quantities and distribution of persistent plastics in the marine environment". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 18 (6): 305–310. Bibcode:1987MarPB..18..305P. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(87)80016-4. Archived from the original on 10 November 2021. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  84. ^ "Plastics – the Facts 2020" (PDF). PlasticsEurope.org. 2020. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 September 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  85. ^ Derraik, José G.B. (2002). "The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 44 (99): 842–852. Bibcode:2002MarPB..44..842D. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(02)00220-5. PMID 12405208. In the USA, for instance, the Marine Plastics Pollution Research and Control Act of 1987 not only adopted Annex V, but also extended its application to US Navy vessels
  86. ^ Craig S. Alig; Larry Koss; Tom Scarano; Fred Chitty (1990). "Control of Plastic Wastes Aboard Naval Ships at Sea" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. ProceedingsoftheSecondInternational Conference on Marine Debris, 2–7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2018. The U.S. Navy is taking a proactive approach to comply with the prohibition on the at-sea discharge of plastics mandated by the Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act of 1987
  87. ^ a b Derraik, José G.B (2002). "The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: A review". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 44 (9): 842–852. Bibcode:2002MarPB..44..842D. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(02)00220-5. PMID 12405208.
  88. ^ a b c Teuten, E. L.; Saquing, J. M.; Knappe, D. R. U.; Barlaz, M. A.; Jonsson, S.; Bjorn, A.; Rowland, S. J.; Thompson, R. C.; Galloway, T. S.; Yamashita, R.; Ochi, D.; Watanuki, Y.; Moore, C.; Viet, P. H.; Tana, T. S.; Prudente, M.; Boonyatumanond, R.; Zakaria, M. P.; Akkhavong, K.; Ogata, Y.; Hirai, H.; Iwasa, S.; Mizukawa, K.; Hagino, Y.; Imamura, A.; Saha, M.; Takada, H. (2009). "Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 364 (1526): 2027–2045. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0284. PMC 2873017. PMID 19528054.
  89. ^ a b c d e f Thompson, R. C.; Moore, C. J.; Vom Saal, F. S.; Swan, S. H. (2009). "Plastics, the environment and human health: Current consensus and future trends". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 364 (1526): 2153–2166. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0053. PMC 2873021. PMID 19528062.
  90. ^ Hussain, Kazi Albab (2023). "Assessing the Release of Microplastics and Nanoplastics from Plastic Containers and Reusable Food Pouches: Implications for Human Health". Environmental Science and Technology. 57 (26). American Chemical Society: 9782–9792. Bibcode:2023EnST...57.9782H. doi:10.1021/acs.est.3c01942. PMID 37343248. S2CID 259221106. Archived from the original on 31 January 2024. Retrieved 1 February 2024.
  91. ^ a b Saliu, Francesco; Veronelli, Maurizio; Raguso, Clarissa; Barana, Davide; Galli, Paolo; Lasagni, Marina (July 2021). "The release process of microfibers: from surgical face masks into the marine environment". Environmental Advances. 4: 100042. Bibcode:2021EnvAd...400042S. doi:10.1016/j.envadv.2021.100042.
  92. ^ a b Fadare, Oluniyi O.; Okoffo, Elvis D. (2020). "Covid-19 face masks: A potential source of microplastic fibers in the environment". Science of the Total Environment. 737: 140279. Bibcode:2020ScTEn.737n0279F. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140279. PMC 7297173. PMID 32563114.
  93. ^ a b c d Mason, Sherri A.; Welch, Victoria G.; Neratko, Joseph (11 September 2018). "Synthetic Polymer Contamination in Bottled Water". Frontiers in Chemistry. 6: 407. Bibcode:2018FrCh....6..407M. doi:10.3389/fchem.2018.00407. PMC 6141690. PMID 30255015.
  94. ^ a b James Doubek (10 January 2024). "Researchers find a massive number of plastic particles in bottled water". NPR. Archived from the original on 17 February 2024. Retrieved 17 February 2024.
  95. ^ Naixin Qian; Xin Gao; Xiaoqi Lang; Huiping Deng; Teodora Maria Bratu; Qixuan Chen; Phoebe Stapleton; Beizhan Yan; Wei Min (16 January 2024). "Rapid single-particle chemical imaging of nanoplastics by SRS microscopy". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 121 (3): e2300582121. Bibcode:2024PNAS..12100582Q. doi:10.1073/pnas.2300582121. PMC 10801917. PMID 38190543.
  96. ^ Carrington, Damian (19 October 2020). "Bottle-fed babies swallow millions of microplastics a day, study finds". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  97. ^ "High levels of microplastics released from infant feeding bottles during formula prep". phys.org. Archived from the original on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  98. ^ Li, Dunzhu; Shi, Yunhong; Yang, Luming; Xiao, Liwen; Kehoe, Daniel K.; Gun'ko, Yurii K.; Boland, John J.; Wang, Jing Jing (2020). "Microplastic release from the degradation of polypropylene feeding bottles during infant formula preparation". Nature Food. 1 (11): 746–754. doi:10.1038/s43016-020-00171-y. hdl:2262/94127. PMID 37128027. S2CID 228978799.
  99. ^ Amherst, University of Massachusetts. "Steam disinfection of baby bottle nipples exposes babies and the environment to micro- and nanoplastic particles". phys.org. Archived from the original on 29 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  100. ^ Su, Yu; Hu, Xi; Tang, Hongjie; Lu, Kun; Li, Huimin; Liu, Sijin; Xing, Baoshan; Ji, Rong (11 November 2021). "Steam disinfection releases micro(nano)plastics from silicone-rubber baby teats as examined by optical photothermal infrared microspectroscopy". Nature Nanotechnology. 17 (1): 76–85. doi:10.1038/s41565-021-00998-x. PMID 34764453. S2CID 243991051.
  101. ^ Son, Ji-Won; Nam, Yejin; Kim, Changwoo (15 February 2024). "Nanoplastics from disposable paper cups and microwavable food containers". Journal of Hazardous Materials. 464: 133014. Bibcode:2024JHzM..46433014S. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2023.133014. ISSN 0304-3894. PMID 37984146. S2CID 265264721. Archived from the original on 5 May 2024. Retrieved 13 January 2024.
  102. ^ a b "Take-out coffee cups may be shedding trillions of plastic nanoparticles, study says". UPI. Archived from the original on 9 May 2022. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  103. ^ Zhou, Guanyu; Wu, Qidong; Tang, Peng; Chen, Chen; Cheng, Xin; Wei, Xin-Feng; Ma, Jun; Liu, Baicang (2023). "How many microplastics do we ingest when using disposable drink cups?". Journal of Hazardous Materials. 441: 129982. Bibcode:2023JHzM..44129982Z. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129982. S2CID 252260760. Archived from the original on 24 June 2023. Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  104. ^ Zangmeister, Christopher D.; Radney, James G.; Benkstein, Kurt D.; Kalanyan, Berc (3 May 2022). "Common Single-Use Consumer Plastic Products Release Trillions of Sub-100 nm Nanoparticles per Liter into Water during Normal Use". Environmental Science & Technology. 56 (9): 5448–5455. Bibcode:2022EnST...56.5448Z. doi:10.1021/acs.est.1c06768. ISSN 0013-936X. PMID 35441513. S2CID 248263169.
  105. ^ Li, Chaoran; Busquets, Rosa; Campos, Luiza C. (10 March 2020). "Assessment of microplastics in freshwater systems: A review" (PDF). Science of the Total Environment. 707: 135578. Bibcode:2020ScTEn.707m5578L. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135578. ISSN 0048-9697. PMID 31784176. S2CID 208499072. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 July 2022. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
  106. ^ Rochman, Chelsea M.; Munno, Keenan; Box, Carolynn; Cummins, Anna; Zhu, Xia; Sutton, Rebecca (5 January 2021). "Think Global, Act Local: Local Knowledge Is Critical to Inform Positive Change When It Comes to Microplastics". Environmental Science & Technology. 55 (1): 4–6. Bibcode:2021EnST...55....4R. doi:10.1021/acs.est.0c05746. ISSN 0013-936X. PMID 33296180. S2CID 228086978.
  107. ^ Okeke, Emmanuel Sunday; Okoye, Charles Obinwanne; Atakpa, Edidiong Okokon; Ita, Richard Ekeng; Nyaruaba, Raphael; Mgbechidinma, Chiamaka Linda; Akan, Otobong Donald (1 February 2022). "Microplastics in agroecosystems-impacts on ecosystem functions and food chain". Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 177: 105961. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2021.105961. ISSN 0921-3449. S2CID 244585297.
  108. ^ a b c d Carr, Steve A.; Liu, Jin; Tesoro, Arnold G. (2016). "Transport and fate of microplastic particles in wastewater treatment plants". Water Research. 91: 174–182. Bibcode:2016WatRe..91..174C. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2016.01.002. PMID 26795302.
  109. ^ a b c Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Treatment (PDF) (Report). Wastewater Treatment Manuals. Wexford: Environmental Protection Agency, Ireland. 1997. Archived from the original on 19 July 2022. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  110. ^ Habib, Daniel; Locke, David C.; Cannone, Leonard J. (1998). "Synthetic Fibers as Indicators of Municipal Sewage Sludge, Sludge Products, and Sewage Treatment Plant Effluents". Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 103 (1/4): 1–8. Bibcode:1998WASP..103....1H. doi:10.1023/A:1004908110793. S2CID 91607460.
  111. ^ Estahbanati, Shirin; Fahrenfeld, N.L. (November 2016). "Influence of wastewater treatment plant discharges on microplastic concentrations in surface water". Chemosphere. 162: 277–284. Bibcode:2016Chmsp.162..277E. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.07.083. PMID 27508863.
  112. ^ Mintenig, S.M.; Int-Veen, I.; Löder, M.G.J.; Primpke, S.; Gerdts, G. (2017). "Identification of microplastic in effluents of waste water treatment plants using focal plane array-based micro-Fourier-transform infrared imaging". Water Research. 108: 365–72. Bibcode:2017WatRe.108..365M. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2016.11.015. PMID 27838027.
  113. ^ Murphy, Fionn; Ewins, Ciaran; Carbonnier, Frederic; Quinn, Brian (2016). "Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTW) as a Source of Microplastics in the Aquatic Environment" (PDF). Environmental Science & Technology. 50 (11): 5800–5808. Bibcode:2016EnST...50.5800M. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b05416. PMID 27191224. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  114. ^ Pol, Wojciech; Żmijewska, Angelika; Stasińska, Emilia; Zieliński, Piotr (11 April 2022). "Spatial–Temporal Distribution of Microplastics in Lowland Rivers Flowing Through Two Cities (NE Poland)". Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 233 (4): 140. Bibcode:2022WASP..233..140P. doi:10.1007/s11270-022-05608-7. ISSN 1573-2932. S2CID 248089033. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 28 July 2023.
  115. ^ Balla, Alexia; Mohsen, Ahmed; Gönczy, Sándor; Kiss, Tímea (January 2022). "Spatial Variations in Microfiber Transport in a Transnational River Basin". Applied Sciences. 12 (21): 10852. doi:10.3390/app122110852. ISSN 2076-3417.
  116. ^ Weithmann, Nicolas; Möller, Julia N.; Löder, Martin G. J.; Piehl, Sarah; Laforsch, Christian; Freitag, Ruth (2018). "Organic fertilizer as a vehicle for the entry of microplastic into the environment". Science Advances. 4 (4): eaap8060. Bibcode:2018SciA....4.8060W. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aap8060. PMC 5884690. PMID 29632891.
  117. ^ a b Stapleton MJ, Hai FI (December 2023). "Microplastics as an emerging contaminant of concern to our environment: a brief overview of the sources and implications". Bioengineered (Review). 14 (1): 2244754. doi:10.1080/21655979.2023.2244754. PMC 10413915. PMID 37553794.
  118. ^ a b Guruge, Keerthi S.; Goswami, Prasun; Kanda, Kazuki; Abeynayaka, Amila; Kumagai, Masahiko; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tamamura-Andoh, Yukino (2024). "Plastiome: Plastisphere-enriched mobile resistome in aquatic environments". Journal of Hazardous Materials. 471 (134353). doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2024.134353. ISSN 0304-3894.
  119. ^ a b c A scientific perspective on microplastics in nature and society. Scientific Advice for Policy by European Academies. 2019. ISBN 978-3982030104. Archived from the original on 28 March 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  120. ^ a b Weis, Judith; Andrews, Clinton J; Dyksen, John; Ferrara, Raymond; Gannon, John; Laumbach, Robert J; Lederman, Peter; Lippencott, Robert; Rothman, Nancy (2015). "Human Health Impacts of Microplastics and Nanoplastics" (PDF). NJDEP SAB Public Health Standing Committee: 23. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  121. ^ Catarino, Ana I.; MacChia, Valeria; Sanderson, William G.; Thompson, Richard C.; Henry, Theodore B. (2018). "Low levels of microplastics (MP) in wild mussels indicate that MP ingestion by humans is minimal compared to exposure via household fibres fallout during a meal". Environmental Pollution. 237: 675–684. Bibcode:2018EPoll.237..675C. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2018.02.069. hdl:10026.1/11254. PMID 29604577. S2CID 4976211.
  122. ^ Jenkins, Tia; Persaud, Bhaleka; Cowger, Win; Szigeti, Kathy; Roche, Dominique; Clary, Erin; Slowinski, Stephanie; Lei, Benjamin; Abeynayaka, Amila; Nyadjro, Ebenezer; Maes, Thomas; Thornton Hampton, Leah; Bergmann, Melanie; Aherne, Julian; Mason, Sherri (16 September 2022). "Evaluating the Current State of Findability and Accessibility of Microplastics Data". Archived from the original on 9 May 2023. Retrieved 9 May 2023. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  123. ^ Arthur, Courtney; Baker, Joel; Bamford, Holly, eds. (2009). "Proceedings of the International Research Workshop on the Occurrence, Effects, and Fate of Microplastic Marine Debris, September 9–11, 2008". Technical Memorandum NOS-OR&R-30: 49. Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  124. ^ a b c Helcoski, Ryan; Yonkos, Lance T.; Sanchez, Alterra; Baldwin, Andrew H. (2020). "Wetland soil microplastics are negatively related to vegetation cover and stem density". Environmental Pollution. 256: 113391. Bibcode:2020EPoll.25613391H. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113391. PMID 31662247.
  125. ^ Eerkes-Medrano, D.; Thompson, R.C.; Aldridge, D.C. (2015). "Microplastics in freshwater systems: A review of the emerging threats, identification of knowledge gaps and prioritisation of research needs". Water Research. 75: 63–82. Bibcode:2015WatRe..75...63E. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2015.02.012. PMID 25746963.
  126. ^ Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; Mason, Sherri A. (2016). "Plastic Debris in 29 Great Lakes Tributaries: Relations to Watershed Attributes and Hydrology". Environmental Science & Technology. 50 (19): 10377–85. Bibcode:2016EnST...5010377B. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b02917. PMID 27627676.
  127. ^ Transport and deposition of ocean-sourced microplastic particles by a North Atlantic hurricane Archived 5 May 2024 at the Wayback Machine, Anna C. Ryan et al, Nature (journal) - Communications Earth & Environment, 2023-11-23, accessed 21 December 2023
  128. ^ a b Watts, Andrew J. R.; Lewis, Ceri; Goodhead, Rhys M.; Beckett, Stephen J.; Moger, Julian; Tyler, Charles R.; Galloway, Tamara S. (2014). "Uptake and Retention of Microplastics by the Shore Crab Carcinus maenas". Environmental Science & Technology. 48 (15): 8823–30. Bibcode:2014EnST...48.8823W. doi:10.1021/es501090e. PMID 24972075.
  129. ^ Thompson, R. C.; Olsen, Y.; Mitchell, R. P.; Davis, A.; Rowland, S. J.; John, A. W.; McGonigle, D.; Russell, A. E. (2004). "Lost at Sea: Where is All the Plastic?". Science. 304 (5672): 838. doi:10.1126/science.1094559. PMID 15131299. S2CID 3269482.
  130. ^ Li, Bowen; Liang, Weiwenhui; Liu, Quan-Xing; Fu, Shijian; Ma, Cuizhu; Chen, Qiqing; Su, Lei; Craig, Nicholas J.; Shi, Huahong (3 August 2021). "Fish Ingest Microplastics Unintentionally". Environmental Science & Technology. 55 (15): 10471–10479. Bibcode:2021EnST...5510471L. doi:10.1021/acs.est.1c01753. PMID 34297559. S2CID 236211111.
  131. ^ Peeples, Lynne (23 March 2015). "Surprise Finding Heightens Concern Over Tiny Bits Of Plastic Polluting Our Oceans". Huffpost. Archived from the original on 28 April 2024. Retrieved 28 April 2024.
  132. ^ Tang, Joyce; Fernandez, Javier; Sohn, Joel; Amemiya, Chris (March 2015). "Chitin Is Endogenously Produced in Vertebrates". Current Biology. 25 (7): 897–900. Bibcode:2015CBio...25..897T. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.01.058. PMC 4382437. PMID 25772447.
  133. ^ Reichert, Jessica; Schellenberg, Johannes; Schubert, Patrick; Wilke, Thomas (1 June 2018). "Responses of reef building corals to microplastic exposure". Environmental Pollution. 237: 955–960. Bibcode:2018EPoll.237..955R. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2017.11.006. PMID 29146203. S2CID 4913992.
  134. ^ Cozar, A.; Echevarria, F.; Gonzalez-Gordillo, J. I.; Irigoien, X.; Ubeda, B.; Hernandez-Leon, S.; Palma, A. T.; Navarro, S.; Garcia-De-Lomas, J.; Ruiz, A.; Fernandez-De-Puelles, M. L.; Duarte, C. M. (2014). "Plastic debris in the open ocean". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111 (28): 10239–10244. Bibcode:2014PNAS..11110239C. doi:10.1073/pnas.1314705111. PMC 4104848. PMID 24982135.
  135. ^ Romeo, Teresa; Pietro, Battaglia; Pedà, Cristina; Consoli, Pierpaolo; Andaloro, Franco; Fossi, Maria Cristina (June 2015). "First evidence of presence of plastic debris in stomach of large pelagic fish in the Mediterranean Sea". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 95 (1): 358–361. Bibcode:2015MarPB..95..358R. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.04.048. ISSN 0025-326X. PMID 25936574. Archived from the original on 5 May 2024. Retrieved 24 August 2023.
  136. ^ Wardrop, Peter; Shimeta, Jeff; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Morrison, Paul D.; Miranda, Ana; Tang, Min; Clarke, Bradley O. (2016). "Chemical Pollutants Sorbed to Ingested Microbeads from Personal Care Products Accumulate in Fish". Environmental Science & Technology. 50 (7): 4037–4044. Bibcode:2016EnST...50.4037W. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b06280. PMID 26963589.
  137. ^ Pazos, Rocío S.; Maiztegui, Tomás; Colautti, Darío C.; Paracampo, Ariel H.; Gómez, Nora (2017). "Microplastics in gut contents of coastal freshwater fish from Río de la Plata estuary". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 122 (1–2): 85–90. Bibcode:2017MarPB.122...85P. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.06.007. hdl:11336/41910. PMID 28633946. Archived from the original on 19 July 2022. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  138. ^ Wright, Stephanie L.; Thompson, Richard C.; Galloway, Tamara S. (2013). "The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: A review". Environmental Pollution. 178: 483–492. Bibcode:2013EPoll.178..483W. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2013.02.031. PMID 23545014. S2CID 17691860.
  139. ^ a b Tallec, Kevin; Huvet, Arnaud; Di Poi, Carole; González-Fernández, Carmen; Lambert, Christophe; Petton, Bruno; Le Goïc, Nelly; Berchel, Mathieu; Soudant, Philippe; Paul-Pont, Ika (November 2018). "Nanoplastics impaired oyster free living stages, gametes and embryos" (PDF). Environmental Pollution. 242 (Pt B): 1226–1235. Bibcode:2018EPoll.242.1226T. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2018.08.020. PMID 30118910. S2CID 52030350. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 December 2021. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  140. ^ a b Oliveira, Patrícia; Barboza, Luís Gabriel Antão; Branco, Vasco; Figueiredo, Neusa; Carvalho, Cristina; Guilhermino, Lúcia (2018). "Effects of microplastics and mercury in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774): Filtration rate, biochemical biomarkers and mercury bioconcentration". Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 164: 155–163. Bibcode:2018EcoES.164..155O. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.07.062. PMID 30107325.
  141. ^ a b c Tang, Yu; Rong, Jiahuan; Guan, Xiaofan; Zha, Shanjie; Shi, Wei; Han, Yu; Du, Xueying; Wu, Fangzhu; Huang, Wei; Liu, Guangxu (March 2020). "Immunotoxicity of microplastics and two persistent organic pollutants alone or in combination to a bivalve species". Environmental Pollution. 258: 113845. Bibcode:2020EPoll.25813845T. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113845. PMID 31883493. S2CID 209501817.
  142. ^ a b c Sun, Shuge; Shi, Wei; Tang, Yu; Han, Yu; Du, Xueying; Zhou, Weishang; Hu, Yuan; Zhou, Chaosheng; Liu, Guangxu (2020). "Immunotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons and microplastics alone or in combination to a bivalve species: Synergic impacts and potential toxication mechanisms". Science of the Total Environment. 728: 138852. Bibcode:2020ScTEn.728m8852S. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138852. PMID 32570313.
  143. ^ a b c Tang, Yu; Zhou, Weishang; Sun, Shuge; Du, Xueying; Han, Yu; Shi, Wei; Liu, Guangxu (October 2020). "Immunotoxicity and neurotoxicity of bisphenol A and microplastics alone or in combination to a bivalve species, Tegillarca granosa". Environmental Pollution. 265 (Pt A): 115115. Bibcode:2020EPoll.26515115T. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115115. PMID 32806413. S2CID 221166666.
  144. ^ Bringer, Arno; Thomas, Hélène; Prunier, Grégoire; Dubillot, Emmanuel; Bossut, Noémie; Churlaud, Carine; Clérandeau, Christelle; Le Bihanic, Florane; Cachot, Jérôme (2020). "High density polyethylene (HDPE) microplastics impair development and swimming activity of Pacific oyster D-larvae, Crassostrea gigas, depending on particle size". Environmental Pollution. 260: 113978. Bibcode:2020EPoll.26013978B. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2020.113978. PMID 31991353.
  145. ^ a b Hall, N.M.; Berry, K.L.E.; Rintoul, L.; Hoogenboom, M.O. (2015). "Microplastic ingestion by scleractinian corals". Marine Biology. 162 (3): 725–732. Bibcode:2015MarBi.162..725H. doi:10.1007/s00227-015-2619-7. S2CID 46302253.
  146. ^ Risk, Michael J.; Edinger, Evan (2011). "Impacts of Sediment on Coral Reefs". Encyclopedia of Modern Coral Reefs. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. pp. 575–586. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-2639-2_25. ISBN 978-9048126385.
  147. ^ McAlpine, Kat J. (2019). "Have Your Plastic and Eat It Too". Bostonia (Boston University Alumni): 36–37.
  148. ^ Hedrih, Vladimir (17 June 2023). "Exposure to microplastics impairs cognition in hermit crabs, study finds". PsyPost. Archived from the original on 17 June 2023. Retrieved 17 June 2023.
  149. ^ Wang, Fayuan; Feng, Xueying; Liu, Yingying; Adams, Catharine A.; Sun, Yuhuan; Zhang, Shuwu (2022). "Micro(nano)plastics and terrestrial plants: Up-to-date knowledge on uptake, translocation, and phytotoxicity". Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 185: 106503. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2022.106503. S2CID 250249963. Archived from the original on 2 November 2022. Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  150. ^ Boots, Bas; Russell, Connor William; Green, Danielle Senga (2019). "Effects of Microplastics in Soil Ecosystems: Above and Below Ground" (PDF). Environmental Science & Technology. 53 (19): 11496–11506. Bibcode:2019EnST...5311496B. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b03304. PMID 31509704. S2CID 202562395. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 July 2022. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
  151. ^ Huang, Fengyu; Hu, Jinzhao; Chen, Li; Wang, Zhe; Sun, Shiyong; Zhang, Wanming; Jiang, Hu; Luo, Ying; Wang, Lei; Zeng, Yi; Fang, Linchuan (2023). "Microplastics may increase the environmental risks of Cd via promoting Cd uptake by plants: A meta-analysis". Journal of Hazardous Materials. 448: 130887. Bibcode:2023JHzM..44830887H. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2023.130887. PMID 36731321. S2CID 256451571.
  152. ^ Wang, Fangli; Wang, Xuexia; Song, Ningning (2021). "Polyethylene microplastics increase cadmium uptake in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by altering the soil microenvironment". Science of the Total Environment. 784: 147133. Bibcode:2021ScTEn.784n7133W. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147133. PMID 33895518. S2CID 233398883. Archived from the original on 14 February 2023. Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  153. ^ Iannella, Mattia; Console, Giulia; D'Alessandro, Paola (2019). "Preliminary Analysis of the Diet of Triturus carnifex and Pollution in Mountain Karst Ponds in Central Apennines". Water. 44 (129): 11496–11506. doi:10.3390/w12010044.
  154. ^ Deoniziak, Krzysztof; Cichowska, Aleksandra; Niedźwiecki, Sławomir; Pol, Wojciech (20 December 2022). "Thrushes (Aves: Passeriformes) as indicators of microplastic pollution in terrestrial environments". Science of the Total Environment. 853: 158621. Bibcode:2022ScTEn.853o8621D. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.158621. ISSN 0048-9697. PMID 36084782. Archived from the original on 28 July 2023. Retrieved 28 July 2023.
  155. ^ a b Savoca, M. S.; Wohlfeil, M. E.; Ebeler, S. E.; Nevitt, G. A. (2016). "Marine plastic debris emits a keystone infochemical for olfactory foraging seabirds". Science Advances. 2 (11): e1600395. Bibcode:2016SciA....2E0395S. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1600395. PMC 5569953. PMID 28861463.
  156. ^ Dacey, J. W. H.; Wakeham, S. G. (1986). "Oceanic Dimethylsulfide: Production During Zooplankton Grazing on Phytoplankton". Science. 233 (4770): 1314–1316. Bibcode:1986Sci...233.1314D. doi:10.1126/science.233.4770.1314. PMID 17843360. S2CID 10872038.
  157. ^ "Plasticology 101". Container & Packaging Supply. Archived from the original on 16 November 2016.
  158. ^ Saley, A.M.; Smart, A.C.; Bezerra, M.F.; Burnham, T.L.U.; Capece, L.R.; Lima, L.F.O.; Carsh, A.C.; Williams, S.L.; Morgan, S.G. (September 2019). "Microplastic accumulation and biomagnification in a coastal marine reserve situated in a sparsely populated area". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 146: 54–59. Bibcode:2019MarPB.146...54S. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.05.065. PMID 31426191. S2CID 195403709. Archived from the original on 20 June 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  159. ^ a b Wu, Xiaojian; Pan, Jie; Li, Meng; Li, Yao; Bartlam, Mark; Wang, Yingying (2019). "Selective enrichment of bacterial pathogens by microplastic biofilm". Water Research. 165: 114979. Bibcode:2019WatRe.16514979W. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2019.114979. PMID 31445309. S2CID 201644342.
  160. ^ Mato, Yukie; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takada, Hideshige; Kanehiro, Haruyuki; Ohtake, Chiyoko; Kaminuma, Tsuguchika (2001). "Plastic Resin Pellets as a Transport Medium for Toxic Chemicals in the Marine Environment". Environmental Science & Technology. 35 (2): 318–324. Bibcode:2001EnST...35..318M. doi:10.1021/es0010498. PMID 11347604.
  161. ^ Zhang, Ming; Xu, Liheng (4 March 2022). "Transport of micro- and nanoplastics in the environment: Trojan-Horse effect for organic contaminants". Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 52 (5): 810–846. Bibcode:2022CREST..52..810Z. doi:10.1080/10643389.2020.1845531.
  162. ^ a b Arvaniti O.S., Antonopoulou G., Gatidou G., Frontistis Z., Mantzavinos D., Stasinakis A.S. (2022) Sorption of two common antihypertensive drugs onto polystyrene microplastics in water matrices. Science of the Total Environment 837, 155786, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155786 Archived 24 September 2022 at the Wayback Machine
  163. ^ Y.Li, M.Li, Z.Li, L.Yang, X. Liu (2019) Effects of particle size and solution chemistry on triclosan sorption on polystyrene microplastic Chemosphere, 231, pp. 308-314, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.05.116 Archived 24 September 2022 at the Wayback Machine
  164. ^ "New disease caused by plastics discovered in seabirds". The Guardian. 3 March 2023. Archived from the original on 3 March 2023. Retrieved 4 March 2023.
  165. ^ "New disease caused solely by plastics discovered in seabirds". Natural History Museum. 3 March 2023. Archived from the original on 3 March 2023. Retrieved 4 March 2023.
  166. ^ Allen, Steve; Allen, Deonie; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Le Roux, Gaël; Durántez Jiménez, Pilar; Simonneau, Anaëlle; Binet, Stéphane; Galop, Didier (2019). "Atmospheric transport and deposition of microplastics in a remote mountain catchment" (PDF). Nature Geoscience. 12 (5): 339–344. Bibcode:2019NatGe..12..339A. doi:10.1038/s41561-019-0335-5. S2CID 146492249. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  167. ^ Gasperi, Johnny; Wright, Stephanie L.; Dris, Rachid; Collard, France; Mandin, Corinne; Guerrouache, Mohamed; Langlois, Valérie; Kelly, Frank J.; Tassin, Bruno (2018). "Microplastics in air: Are we breathing it in?" (PDF). Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health. 1: 1–5. Bibcode:2018COESH...1....1G. doi:10.1016/j.coesh.2017.10.002. S2CID 133750509. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 March 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  168. ^ Dehghani, Sharareh; Moore, Farid; Akhbarizadeh, Razegheh (2017). "Microplastic pollution in deposited urban dust, Tehran metropolis, Iran". Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 24 (25): 20360–20371. Bibcode:2017ESPR...2420360D. doi:10.1007/s11356-017-9674-1. PMID 28707239. S2CID 37592689.
  169. ^ Bergmann, Melanie; Mützel, Sophia; Primpke, Sebastian; Tekman, Mine B.; Trachsel, Jürg; Gerdts, Gunnar (2019). "White and wonderful? Microplastics prevail in snow from the Alps to the Arctic". Science Advances. 5 (8): eaax1157. Bibcode:2019SciA....5.1157B. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aax1157. PMC 6693909. PMID 31453336.
  170. ^ Allen, S.; Allen, D.; Baladima, F.; Phoenix, V. R.; Thomas, J. L.; Le Roux, G.; Sonke, J. E. (21 December 2021). "Evidence of free tropospheric and long-range transport of microplastic at Pic du Midi Observatory". Nature Communications. 12 (1): 7242. Bibcode:2021NatCo..12.7242A. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-27454-7. PMC 8692471. PMID 34934062. S2CID 245385248.
  171. ^ Wiggin, K. J.; Holland, E. B. (June 2019). "Validation and application of cost and time effective methods for the detection of 3–500 μm sized microplastics in the urban marine and estuarine environments surrounding Long Beach, California". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 143: 152–162. Bibcode:2019MarPB.143..152W. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.03.060. ISSN 0025-326X. PMID 31789151. S2CID 150122831.
  172. ^ Fendall, Lisa S.; Sewell, Mary A. (2009). "Contributing to marine pollution by washing your face: Microplastics in facial cleansers". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 58 (8): 1225–1228. Bibcode:2009MarPB..58.1225F. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.04.025. PMID 19481226.
  173. ^ De-la-Torre, Gabriel E.; Dioses-Salinas, Diana C.; Castro, Jasmin M.; Antay, Rosabel; Fernández, Naomy Y.; Espinoza-Morriberón, D.; Saldaña-Serrano, Miguel (2020). "Abundance and distribution of microplastics on sandy beaches of Lima, Peru". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 151: 110877. Bibcode:2020MarPB.15110877D. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110877. PMID 32056653. S2CID 211112493.
  174. ^ Karlsson, Therese M.; Kärrman, Anna; Rotander, Anna; Hassellöv, Martin (2020). "Comparison between manta trawl and in situ pump filtration methods, and guidance for visual identification of microplastics in surface waters". Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 27 (5): 5559–5571. Bibcode:2020ESPR...27.5559K. doi:10.1007/s11356-019-07274-5. PMC 7028838. PMID 31853844.
  175. ^ Obbard, Rachel W.; Sadri, Saeed; Wong, Ying Qi; Khitun, Alexandra A.; Baker, Ian; Thompson, Richard C. (2014). "Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice". Earth's Future. 2 (6): 315–320. Bibcode:2014EaFut...2..315O. doi:10.1002/2014EF000240. ISSN 2328-4277.
  176. ^ Kelly, A.; Lannuzel, D.; Rodemann, T.; Meiners, K.M.; Auman, H.J. (2020). "Microplastic contamination in east Antarctic sea ice". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 154: 111130. Bibcode:2020MarPB.15411130K. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111130. PMID 32319937. S2CID 216072791.
  177. ^ Anderson, Julie C.; Park, Bradley J.; Palace, Vince P. (2016). "Microplastics in aquatic environments: Implications for Canadian ecosystems". Environmental Pollution. 218: 269–280. Bibcode:2016EPoll.218..269A. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2016.06.074. PMID 27431693.
  178. ^ Ivleva, Natalia P.; Wiesheu, Alexandra C.; Niessner, Reinhard (2017). "Microplastic in Aquatic Ecosystems". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 56 (7): 1720–1739. doi:10.1002/anie.201606957. PMID 27618688.
  179. ^ Pol, Wojciech; Stasińska, Emilia; Żmijewska, Angelika; Więcko, Adam; Zieliński, Piotr (10 July 2023). "Litter per liter – Lakes' morphology and shoreline urbanization index as factors of microplastic pollution: Study of 30 lakes in NE Poland". Science of the Total Environment. 881: 163426. Bibcode:2023ScTEn.881p3426P. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.163426. ISSN 0048-9697. PMID 37059153. S2CID 258147070.
  180. ^ Anderson, Philip J.; Warrack, Sarah; Langen, Victoria; Challis, Jonathan K.; Hanson, Mark L.; Rennie, Michael D. (June 2017). "Microplastic contamination in Lake Winnipeg, Canada". Environmental Pollution. 225: 223–231. Bibcode:2017EPoll.225..223A. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2017.02.072. PMID 28376390.
  181. ^ Redondo-Hasselerharm, Paula E.; Falahudin, Dede; Peeters, Edwin T. H. M.; Koelmans, Albert A. (2018). "Microplastic Effect Thresholds for Freshwater Benthic Macroinvertebrates". Environmental Science & Technology. 52 (4): 2278–2286. Bibcode:2018EnST...52.2278R. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b05367. PMC 5822217. PMID 29337537.
  182. ^ Rillig, Matthias C.; Ingraffia, Rosolino; De Souza Machado, Anderson A. (2017). "Microplastic Incorporation into Soil in Agroecosystems". Frontiers in Plant Science. 8: 1805. doi:10.3389/fpls.2017.01805. PMC 5651362. PMID 29093730.
  183. ^ Rillig, Matthias C. (2012). "Microplastic in Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Soil?". Environmental Science & Technology. 46 (12): 6453–6454. Bibcode:2012EnST...46.6453R. doi:10.1021/es302011r. PMID 22676039.
  184. ^ Zubris, Kimberly Ann V.; Richards, Brian K. (2005). "Synthetic fibers as an indicator of land application of sludge". Environmental Pollution. 138 (2): 201–211. Bibcode:2005EPoll.138..201Z. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.04.013. PMID 15967553.
  185. ^ Yang, Dongqi; Shi, Huahong; Li, Lan; Li, Jiana; Jabeen, Khalida; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu (20 October 2015). "Microplastic Pollution in Table Salts from China". Environmental Science & Technology. 49 (22): 13622–13627. Bibcode:2015EnST...4913622Y. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b03163. PMID 26486565. Archived from the original on 5 May 2024. Retrieved 23 November 2023 – via ACS Publications.
  186. ^ a b Bank, European Investment (27 February 2023). "Microplastics and Micropollutants in Water: Contaminants of Emerging Concern". Archived from the original on 28 March 2023. Retrieved 17 March 2023. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  187. ^ "Microplastics are in our bodies. How much do they harm us?". Environment. 25 April 2022. Archived from the original on 25 April 2022. Retrieved 17 March 2023.
  188. ^ Cox, Kieran D.; Covernton, Garth A.; Davies, Hailey L.; Dower, John F.; Juanes, Francis; Dudas, Sarah E. (18 June 2019). "Human Consumption of Microplastics". Environmental Science & Technology. 53 (12): 7068–7074. Bibcode:2019EnST...53.7068C. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b01517. ISSN 0013-936X. PMID 31184127. S2CID 184485087. Archived from the original on 18 November 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2023.
  189. ^ De-la-Torre, Gabriel E. (2019). "Microplastics: an emerging threat to food security and human health". Journal of Food Science and Technology. 57 (5): 1601–1608. doi:10.1007/s13197-019-04138-1. PMC 7171031. PMID 32327770.
  190. ^ "The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2010" (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization. 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 September 2018. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  191. ^ Prata, Joana Correia; da Costa, João P.; Lopes, Isabel; Duarte, Armando C.; Rocha-Santos, Teresa (February 2020). "Environmental exposure to microplastics: An overview on possible human health effects". Science of the Total Environment. 702: 134455. Bibcode:2020ScTEn.702m4455P. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134455. hdl:10773/37145. PMID 31733547. S2CID 208086488.
  192. ^ Author1, First1; Author2, First2 (2024). "Microplastic contamination in human testicles". Toxicological Sciences. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfae060. {{cite journal}}: |last1= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  193. ^ a b Auta, H.S.; Emenike, C.U; Fauziah, S.H (2017). "Distribution and importance of microplastics in the marine environment: A review of the sources, fate, effects, and potential solutions". Environment International. 102: 165–176. Bibcode:2017EnInt.102..165A. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2017.02.013. PMID 28284818.
  194. ^ "Irish Teen Wins 2019 Google Science Fair for Removing Microplastics from Water". Forbes. Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  195. ^ Connor, Steve (19 January 2016). "How scientists plan to clean up plastic waste in the oceans". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 14 May 2022.
  196. ^ www.theoceancleanup.com, The Ocean Cleanup. "System 001 has launched into the Pacific". The Ocean Cleanup. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  197. ^ www.theoceancleanup.com, The Ocean Cleanup. "The Ocean Cleanup Technology". The Ocean Cleanup. Archived from the original on 10 December 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  198. ^ Martini, Kim; Goldstein, Miriam (14 July 2014). "The Ocean Cleanup, Part 2: Technical review of the feasibility study". Deep Sea News. Archived from the original on 21 January 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  199. ^ Shiffman, David (13 June 2018). "I asked 15 ocean plastic pollution experts about the Ocean Cleanup project, and they have concerns". Southern Fried Science. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  200. ^ Kratochwill, Lindsey (26 March 2016). "Too good to be true? The Ocean Cleanup Project faces feasibility questions". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  201. ^ "Eating Away the World's Plastic Waste Problem". News; Natural Sciences. New York: American Associates, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. 23 January 2017. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  202. ^ Chan, Shepherd Yuen; Wong, Max Wang-Tang; Kwan, Bonnie Tsz Ching; Fang, James Kar-Hei; Chua, Song Lin (12 October 2022). "Microbial–Enzymatic Combinatorial Approach to Capture and Release Microplastics". Environmental Science & Technology Letters. 9 (11): 975–982. Bibcode:2022EnSTL...9..975C. doi:10.1021/acs.estlett.2c00558. ISSN 2328-8930. S2CID 252892619. Archived from the original on 5 May 2024. Retrieved 13 October 2022.
  203. ^ Yang Liu, Sylvia; Ming-Lok Leung, Matthew; Kar-Hei Fang, James; Lin Chua, Song (2020). "Engineering a microbial 'trap and release' mechanism for microplastics removal". Chemical Engineering Journal. 404: 127079. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2020.127079. hdl:10397/88307. S2CID 224972583.
  204. ^ Kershaw, Peter J. (2016). "Marine Plastic Debris and Microplastics" (PDF). United Nations Environment Programme. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 October 2017.
  205. ^ "The garbage patch territory turns into a new state". United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 22 May 2019. Archived from the original on 11 September 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  206. ^ "Rifiuti diventano stato, Unesco riconosce 'Garbage Patch'" (in Italian). Archived from the original on 14 July 2014.
  207. ^ Benson, Bob; Weiler, Katherine; Crawford, Cara (27 February 2013). "EPA National Trash Free Waters Program" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Presentation at Virginia Marine Debris Summit, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 August 2020. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  208. ^ "International Initiatives to Address Marine Debris". Trash-Free Waters. EPA. 18 April 2018. Archived from the original on 24 April 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  209. ^ "Trash-Free Waters Projects". EPA. 27 September 2017. Archived from the original on 22 April 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  210. ^ Communications, IFAS. "Microplastics – UF/IFAS Extension". sfyl.ifas.ufl.edu. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  211. ^ "Goal 14 targets". UNDP. Archived from the original on 30 September 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  212. ^ a b c Bank, European Investment (4 February 2022). The Clean Oceans Initiative. European Investment Bank. Archived from the original on 23 April 2022. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  213. ^ a b Bank, European Investment (23 February 2023). "The Clean Oceans Initiative". Archived from the original on 23 February 2023. Retrieved 23 February 2023. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  214. ^ "Clean Oceans Initiative". www.oneplanetsummit.fr. Archived from the original on 23 February 2023. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  215. ^ "Clean Oceans Initiative - AFD, EIB, KfW, CDP, ICO | Finance in common". financeincommon.org. Archived from the original on 23 February 2023. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  216. ^ "Ocean economy offers a $2.5 trillion export opportunity: UNCTAD report | UNCTAD". unctad.org. 26 October 2021. Archived from the original on 24 February 2023. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  217. ^ Bank, European Investment (25 April 2024). Clean oceans and the blue economy Overview 2024. European Investment Bank. ISBN 978-92-861-5754-7. Archived from the original on 30 April 2024. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  218. ^ Anyiego, Beldine (15 August 2022). "AFRICA: The Clean Oceans initiative will fund twice as many projects as expected?". COPIP. Archived from the original on 31 January 2023. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  219. ^ Bank, European Investment (17 August 2023). Clean oceans and the blue economy Overview 2023. European Investment Bank. ISBN 978-92-861-5518-5. Archived from the original on 27 December 2023. Retrieved 24 August 2023.
  220. ^ breezy (20 January 2023). "Healthy Oceans and Sustainable Blue Economies". Asian Development Bank. Archived from the original on 24 August 2023. Retrieved 24 August 2023.
  221. ^ Schnurr, Riley E.J.; Alboiu, Vanessa; Chaudhary, Meenakshi; Corbett, Roan A.; Quanz, Meaghan E.; Sankar, Karthikeshwar; Srain, Harveer S.; Thavarajah, Venukasan; Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R. (2018). "Reducing marine pollution from single-use plastics (SUPs): A review". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 137: 157–171. Bibcode:2018MarPB.137..157S. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.10.001. PMID 30503422. S2CID 54522420.
  222. ^ "Global Microplastics Initiative". Adventure Scientists. Archived from the original on 8 May 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  223. ^ Morris and Chapman: "Marine Litter", "Green Facts: Facts on Health and the Environment", 2001–2015
  224. ^ Ross, Philip: "'Microplastics' In Great Lakes Pose 'Very Real Threat' To Humans and Animals", International Business Times, 29 October 2013
  225. ^ "World Oceans Day: Is the planet overdosing on the "miracle" product?". blogs.worldbank.org. 7 June 2019. Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  226. ^ Grace Dobush (7 March 2019). "Microplastic Polluting Rivers and Seas Across the Globe, Says New Research". Fortune. Archived from the original on 31 July 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  227. ^ Will Dunham (12 February 2019). "World's Oceans Clogged by Millions of Tons of Plastic Trash". Scientific American. Archived from the original on 16 November 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2019. China was responsible for the most ocean plastic pollution per year with an estimated 2.4 million tons, about 30 percent of the global total, followed by Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria and Bangladesh.
  228. ^ Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R. (2017). "International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 118 (1–2): 17–26. Bibcode:2017MarPB.118...17X. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.02.048. PMID 28238328.
  229. ^ United States. Microbead-Free Waters Act of 2015. Pub. L.Tooltip Public Law (United States) 114–114 (text) (PDF). Approved 28 December 2015.
  230. ^ "State Water Board addresses microplastics in drinking water to encourage public water system awareness" (PDF). waterboards.ca.gov (Media release). SWRCB. 16 June 2020. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 June 2020.
  231. ^ a b Dan, Sullivan (26 July 2018). "Text – S.756 – 115th Congress (2017–2018): Save Our Seas Act of 2018". www.congress.gov. Archived from the original on 26 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  232. ^ a b c d "Bill to reduce microplastics released into the environment passed by Japan's Upper House". The Japan Times. 15 June 2018. Archived from the original on 26 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  233. ^ "Recommendations by Experts on the Required Parameters for Microplastics Monitoring in the Ocean" (PDF). Ministry of Environment, Japan. 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 September 2018. Retrieved 26 September 2018.
  234. ^ a b "Microplastic Pollution | SAM – Research and Innovation – European Commission". ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 22 January 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  235. ^ "A scientific perspective on microplastics in nature and society". www.sapea.info. Archived from the original on 28 March 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  236. ^ "Environmental and Health Risks of Microplastic Pollution". ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 9 May 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  237. ^ "ECHA proposes to restrict intentionally added microplastics". echa.europa.eu. 30 January 2019. Archived from the original on 2 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  238. ^ "Microplastics - ECHA". echa.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 17 March 2021. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
  239. ^ "New Circular Economy Strategy – Environment – European Commission". ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 13 August 2020. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  240. ^ "Commission Regulation (EU) 2023/2055 of 25 September 2023 amending Annex XVII to Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) as regards synthetic polymer microparticles". eur-lex.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 20 November 2023. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
  241. ^ "Use of Microplastics to be Restricted by the EU". mhc.ie. Mason Hayes & Curran. Archived from the original on 30 January 2024. Retrieved 30 January 2024.
  242. ^ a b "The Environmental Protection (Microbeads) (England) Regulations 2017" (PDF). Cabinet of the United Kingdom. 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 March 2022. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  243. ^ Balthazard-Accou, Ketty; Millien, Max François; Michel, Daphnée; Jean, Gaston; Telcy, David; Emmanuel, Evens (19 April 2021), "Vector-Borne Diseases and Climate Change in the Environmental Context in Haiti", Environmental Health, IntechOpen, doi:10.5772/intechopen.96037, ISBN 978-1-83968-721-1, retrieved 4 May 2024
  244. ^ Louis, Daphenide St; Apply, Ammcise; Michel, Daphnée; Emmanuel, Evens (23 July 2021), "Microplastics and Environmental Health: Assessing Environmental Hazards in Haiti", Environmental Health, IntechOpen, doi:10.5772/intechopen.98371, ISBN 978-1-83968-721-1, retrieved 4 May 2024
  245. ^ St. Louis, Daphenide; Apply, Ammcise; Michel, Daphnée; Emmanuel, Evens (15 December 2021), Otsuki, Takemi (ed.), "Microplastics and Environmental Health: Assessing Environmental Hazards in Haiti", Environmental Health, IntechOpen, doi:10.5772/intechopen.98371, ISBN 978-1-83968-720-4, retrieved 25 April 2024

Sources[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under Cc BY-SA 3.0 IGO (license statement/permission). Text taken from Drowning in Plastics – Marine Litter and Plastic Waste Vital Graphics​, United Nations Environment Programme.

External links[edit]