Dinophysis is a dinoflagellate genus with more than 200 recognised species found in coastal and oceanic waters throughout the world. Cell densities are usually negligible, but favourable conditions can result in massive blooms also known as red tides. Attention to Dinophysis greatly increased as several species of the genus were linked to the toxin including okadaic acid responsible for the toxic syndrome diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), a gastrointestinal illness causing huge economical losses for the mussel industry, especially around Europe and Japan.
The first culture of Dinophysis was established by feeding the photosynthetic Dinophysis acuminata with the ciliate Myrionecta rubra.
Dinophysis includes heterotrophic and photosynthetic species. Only photosynthetic species (mixotrophic) have been linked to DSP.
^G. M. Hallegraeff & I. A. N. Lucas (1988). "The marine dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae): photosynthetic, neritic and non-photosynthetic, oceanic species". Phycologia27 (1): 25–42. doi:10.2216/i0031-8884-27-1-25.1.
^Takeshi Yasumoto, Yasukatsu Oshima, Wataru Sugawara, Yasuwo Fukuyo, Hajime Oguri, Teruo Igarashi & Noritaka Fujita (1980). "Identification of Dinophysis fortii as the causative organism of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning". Bulletin of the Japanese Society for the Science of Fish46 (11): 1405–1411. doi:10.2331/suisan.46.1405.
^Jong-Soo Lee, Teruo Igarashi, Santiago Fraga, Einal Dahl, Peter Hovgaard & Takeshi Yasumoto (1989). "Determination of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in various dinoflagellate species". Journal of Applied Phycology1 (2): 147–152. doi:10.1007/BF00003877.
^Myung Gil Park, Sunju Kim, Hyung Seop Kim, Geumog Myung, Yi Gu Kang & Wonho Yih (2006). "First successful culture of the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata". Aquatic Microbial Ecology45 (2): 101–106. doi:10.3354/ame045101.
Aissaoui, A; Reguera, B; Dhib, A (October 2014). "First evidence of cell deformation occurrence during a Dinophysis bloom along the shores of the Gulf of Tunis (SW Mediterranean Sea)". Harmful Algae39: 191-201.
Harred, Laura Brooke; Campbell, Lisa (27 July 2014). "Predicting harmful algal blooms: a case study with Dinophysis ovum in the Gulf of Mexico". Journal of Plankton Research36 (6): 1434–1445. doi:10.1093/plankt/fbu070.|access-date= requires |url= (help)
McCarthy, Moira; O'Halloran, John; O'Brien, Nora M.; van Pelt, Frank F.N.A.M. (October 2014). "Does the marine biotoxin okadaic acid cause DNA fragmentation in the blue mussel and the pacific oyster?". Marine Environmental Research101: 153–160. doi:10.1016/j.marenvres.2014.09.009.|access-date= requires |url= (help)
Reguera, Beatriz; Riobó, Pilar; Rodríguez, Francisco; Díaz, Patricio A.; Pizarro, Gemita; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, José M.; Blanco, Juan (20 January 2014). "Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish". Marine Drugs12 (1): 396-461. doi:10.3390/md12010394.|access-date= requires |url= (help)
Vlamis, Aristidis; Katikou, Panagiota (March 2014). "Climate influence on Dinophysis spp. spatial and temporal distributions in Greek coastal water". Plankton & Benthos Research9 (1): 15–31. doi:10.3800/pbr.9.15.|access-date= requires |url= (help)
Whyte, Callum; Swan, Sarah; Davidson, Keith (October 2014). "Changing wind patterns linked to unusually high Dinophysis blooms around the Shetland Islands, Scotland". Harmful Algae39: 365–373. doi:10.1016/j.hal.2014.09.006.|access-date= requires |url= (help)