Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Auch

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Archdiocese of Auch-Condom-Lectoure-Lombez
Archidioecesis Auxitanus-Condomiensis-Lectoriensis-Lomberiensis
Archidiocèse d'Auch-Condom-Lectoure-Lombez
Cathédrale d'Auch 01.jpg
Location
Ecclesiastical province Toulouse
Metropolitan Archdiocese of Toulouse
Statistics
Area 6,171 km2 (2,383 sq mi)
Population
- Total
- Catholics
(as of 2015)
196,800 (est.)
168,500 (est.) (85.6%)
Parishes 26
Information
Denomination Roman Catholic
Sui iuris church Latin Church
Rite Roman Rite
Established 5th Century (Diocese)
9th century (Archdiocese)
29 June 1908 (Archdiocese of Auch-Condom-Lectoure-Lombez)
Cathedral Cathedral Basilica of Saint Mary in Auch
Patron saint Nativity of Our Lady
Secular priests 71
8 Permanent Deacons
Current leadership
Pope Francis
Archbishop Maurice Marcel Gardès
Metropolitan Archbishop Robert Jean Louis Le Gall
Emeritus Bishops Maurice Lucien Fréchard Archbishop Emeritus (1996-2004)
Map
Locator map of France for archdiocese of Auch
Website
Website of the Archdiocese

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Auch-Condom-Lectoure-Lombez (Latin: Archidioecesis Auxitanus-Condomiensis-Lectoriensis-Lomberiensis; French: Archidiocèse d'Auch-Condom-Lectoure-Lombez), more commonly known as the Archdiocese of Auch, is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church in France. The archdiocese now comprises the department of Gers in south-west France. The archdiocese is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Toulouse, and the current bishop, who therefore does not wear the pallium, is Maurice Marcel Gardès, appointed in 2004.

History[edit]

Originally erected in the 5th century as the diocese of Auch, the first Bishop of Auch known to history is the poet Orientius (first half of the fifth century), in honor of whom a famous abbey was founded in the seventh century.[1] A local legend of the 13th century attributes to King Clovis (c. 466–511) the promotion of Auch to the status of an archbishopric, and also its status as primate of "Gascony".[2]

Up to 1789 the Archbishops of Auch bore the title of Aquitaine, though for centuries there had been no Aquitaine. The archbishop enjoyed the primacy of Novempopulania and both Navarres, though Navarre became part of France when Henri IV acceded to the throne (1589).

A local tradition that dates back to the beginning of the twelfth century tells us that Taurinus, fifth Bishop of Eauze (Elusa), abandoned his episcopal city, which was destroyed by the Vandals, and transferred his see to Auch. Eauze, in fact, probably remained a metropolitan see till about the middle of the ninth century, at which time, owing to the invasions of the Vikings, it was reunited, to the Diocese of Auch, which had existed since the fifth century at and then became an archdiocese. The first bishop of Auch to be accorded the title Archbishop in the surviving evidence is Archbishop Airardus in 879. He was the recipient, along with his three suffragan bishops Involatus of Comminges, Wainard of Couserans, and Garston of Tarbes (Bigorre), of a letter of Pope John VIII, in which the Pope complained that their parishioners were a people heavy with iniquity; that they were marrying without regard to church rules or public decency (including incest); that people were appropriating church goods for their own private use; and that priest, clerics, and laity were failing to obey their bishops.[3]

As a metropolitan see by the 9th century, it had ten suffragan sees: Acqs (Dax) and Aire; Lectoure; Couserans; Oloron, Lescar, and Bayonne; Bazas; Comminges; and Tarbes.

Bishop Bernard and Pope Innocent[edit]

On 1 April 1198, less than three months after his election, Pope Innocent III sent a series of mandates to the Archbishop of Auch. In one, the Pope complained that unworthy persons were being intruded, sometimes by secular persons, into psrishes in the dioceses of the ecclesiastical Province of Auch, for which tasks they were unfit and had been rejected by their bishops; the Archbishop was authorized to warn the bishops, to take am appeal, and if they do not obey to issue canonical censures and remove the offending clergy from their churches. Another mandate complained that reports had reached the Pope that, in the Province of Auch, monks, canons and other religious had left their cloisters and were visiting the courts of local magnates in neglect of their vows and monastic discipline, and their superiors; the Archbishop was ordered to give them a warning and then, if they disobeyed, to suspend them from their offices and benefices. In a third mandate, the Pope advised the Archbishop that in his Province there were clergy who were accumulating dignities and other benefices, including Archdeaconries and Cathedral dignities; the Archbishop was granted special powers to advise the persons affected of their transgression, and invite them to choose one of the benefices and surrender the rest, and, if they do not cooperate, to apply ecclesiastical censures. Finally, in yet another letter, Innocent III reminds the Archbishop of Auch that he was well advised by him and by his fellow bishops that Gascony was overrun by heretics, and he encourages and authorizes the Archbishop to pursue them until they are cleared from his Province, by whatever effective measures he can muster, and suspending the right of appeal; and if necessary he may use the civil authorities (principes) and the people, and to coerce the heretics by the use of the material sword (si necesse fuerit, per principes et populum eosdem facias virtute materialis gladii coerceri).[4]

Evidently unsatisfied with Archbishop Bernard's performance as Archbishop, Pope Innocent sent him a letter on 15 April 1212, remarking that when a bishop feels himself to be unequal to the task of governing his diocese, he should ask himself whether he ought to put down his burden. He then pointed out that the diocese of Auch had fallen on bad times during Bernard's administration, or rather maladministration, and that it might be appropriate for him to consider a spontaneous resignation.[5] On May 1213, the Pope commissioned the Archbishop of Bordeaux, the Bishop of Agen, and the Abbot of Clariacensis (Agen), to investigate the many complaints about Archbishop Bernard which had come to the Pope's notice, and which had led to serious lapses in the temporal and spiritual administration of his diocese; there were also serious questions of his personal conduct. He was even said to be a harborer and favorer of heretics. The procurator which he had sent to the papal court had not settled the Pope's concerns, and the Archbishop was suspended. The Commission was authorized to determine the truth of the charges, and if appropriate to depose the Archbishop and select some other suitable person to succeed him. [6]

On 4 April 1218 Pope Honorius III confirmed the decision of Pope Paschal II (1099–1118) that the Archbishop of Bourges enjoyed the primacy over the Archbishop of Auch.[7]

Cathedral and Chapter[edit]

The current cathedral of the diocese of Auch, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, is a Gothic structure with a neo-classical Renaissance façade, but imposing in spite of this incongruity; its fifteenth-century windows are said to be[by whom?] the most beautiful in France.[citation needed] An imaginative and entirely unverified story of the earlier cathedrals, one founded by Clovis himself, is given by Abbé François Caneto.[8]

The Chapter of the Cathedral was the largest in France. It was composed of fifteen dignities (not dignitaries), twenty ecclesiastical Canons, and five secular Canons. The dignities included: the Provost, the Abbot of Faget, the Abbot of Idrac, the Abbot of Sere; the eight Archdeacons (Angles, Sabanes, Sos, Vic, Armagnac, Magnoac, Astarac, and Pardaillan); the Prior of Montequivo, and the Prior of Beata Maria de Nivibus, the Sacristan, and the Canon theologicus. All the dignities were appointees of the Archbishop, except the Prior de Niviis. The five secular Canons were: the Count of Armagnac, the Baron de Montaut, the Baron de Pardillan, the Baron de Montesquiou, and the Baron de l'Isle. There were also 36 semiprebendarii and 38 chaplains, in addition to other clergy.[9]

In 1436 the first Archbishop Philippe de Levis received a bull from Pope Eugene IV which forbade the installation of anyone as a Canon of the Cathedral Chapter of Auch who was not noble by blood or by education; or to appoint anyone to a dignity in the Chapter who was not already a Canon.[10]

There were also eight Collegiate Churches, with chapters of Canons. These included: Baranum (Dean and 12 Canons), Castrum novum [Castelnau de Magnoac] (10 Canons, 2 prebendiaries), Jégun (8 Canons), Nogaroli (12 Canons, 5 prebendaries, and other members), Tria (6 Canons), Vic-Fézenac (12 Canons and 6 prebendiaries), Bassous (10 Canons), and Sauciate [Sos] (6 Canons, 4 prebendaries).[11]

Seminary[edit]

The Council of Trent, in its 23rd session, on 15 July 1563, published a decree requiring all dioceses to have and maintain a seminary for youth studying for the priesthood. Cardinal Luigi d'Este (died 1586) did not carry out the decree, due to non-residence, but he allocated funds in his Last Will and Testament, which his sister, Antoinette d' Este, the Duchesse de Nemours, was to use for the founding of a seminary in Auch. She failed to do so, and it was her heir, Henri de Savoie, Duc de Nemours, who finally made the funds available in 1603.[12] It was the next Archbishop, Léonard de Trapes, who began to acquire property for building a seminary in 1609. The thirty-five year reign of his successor, Dominique de Vic, produced few results and no seminary. It was Archbishop Henri de la Mothe-Houdancourt who finally chartered the seminary on 29 April 1667.[13] In 1687, Archbishop La Baume de Suze invited the Jesuits to take charge of the Seminary of Auch.[14] The building which was finally constructed is now the Maison Diocésaine of the diocese of Auch.

Revolution[edit]

In 1790 the National Constituent Assembly decided to bring the French church under the control of the State. Civil government of the provinces was to be reorganized into new units called 'départements', originally intended to be 83 or 84 in number. The dioceses of the Roman Catholic Church were to be reduced in number, to coincide as much as possible with the new departments. Since there were more than 130 bishoprics at the time of the Revolution, more than fifty dioceses needed to be suppressed and their territories consolidated.[15] Clergy would need to take an oath of allegiance to the State and its Constitution, specified by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, and they would become salaried officials of the State. Both bishops and priests would be elected by special 'electors' in each department. This meant schism, since bishops would no longer need to be approved (preconised) by the Papacy; the transfer of bishops, likewise, which had formerly been the exclusive prerogative of the pope in canon law, would be the privilege of the State; the election of bishops no longer lay with the Cathedral Chapters (which were all abolished), or other responsible clergy, or the Pope, but with electors who did not even have to be Catholics or Christians.[16]

A new civil department, called "Gers", was created by the French Legislative Assembly. The old diocese of Auch was suppressed, and a new "Diocese of Gers" was created, with its center at Auch. It was assigned as a suffragan to the "Metropole du Sud". Archbishop La Tour du Pin-Montauban of Auch refused to take the oath to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, and therefore his See was declared by the Legislative Assembly to be vacant. The electors of Gers chose in his place the Dean of the Faculty at Toulouse, Canon Paul-Benoit Barthe, who was also President of the Amis de la Constitution. He was consecrated a Constitutional Bishop in Paris on 13 March 1791 by Constitutuonal Bishop Jean-Pierre Saurine. The consecration was valid, but canonically irregular, schismatic, and blasphemous (as a parody of genuine Catholic sacraments). Barthe took possession of the diocese of Gers on 10 April 1791. In order to fill vacancies in parish churches where priests had refused the oath, Barthe consecrated 44 priests between December 1791 and September 1793. He was arrested on suspicion in July 1793 and sent to Paris, where he had to appear before the Committee of Public Safety, but he was acquitted and allowed to return to Auch. On 27 November, again the subject of accusations, he was arrested, forced to apostasize, and imprisoned at Mont-de-Marsan. In December 1794 he was again sent to Paris, where he was again released. He again returned to Auch, in May 1795, and regained possession of his cathedral in August. He resigned on 16 October 1801.[17]

After the Restoration[edit]

After the signing of the Concordat of 1801 with First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte, Pope Pius VII demanded the resignation of all bishops in France, in order to leave no doubt as to who was a legitimate bishop and who was a Constitutional imposter.[18] He then immediately abolished all of the dioceses in France, for the same reason. Then he began to restore the old Ancien Régime dioceses, or most of them, though not with the same boundaries as before the Revolution, but instead taking into account the new political structure of France with its departments instead of provinces. The diocese of Auch was not one of those revived by Pope Pius VII in his bull Qui Christi Domini of 29 November 1801. Its territory was assigned to the Archdiocese of Agen, which also received the territory of the suppressed dioceses of Condom, Lescar, Lectoure and Tarbes.[19]

It was not until 6 October 1822 that the diocese of Auch was reestablished.

The Archdiocese of Auch, re-established as a metropolitanate in 1882, was made up of the former archdiocese of the same name and the former Dioceses of Lectoure, Condom, and Lombez. Lombez was previously a suffragan of Toulouse; thenceforth the suffragans of Auch were Aire, Tarbes, and Bayonne.

In World War I, 218 clergy from the diocese of Auch were mobilized into the French army. 15 died, three won the Legion of Honor, one won the Medaille militaire, 40 won the Croix de guerre, and 40 won the Medaille d'honneur.[20]

Current statistics (2017) reported by the Église Catholique en France indicate that there are 59 priests incardinated (given official credentials) in the diocese, 35 of whom are active. There are 10 Permanent Deacons.

Bishops and Archbishops[edit]

ca. 400 to 1200[edit]

...
  • Orientius (c. 439)[21]
  • Nicetius (c. 506 – 511)[22]
  • Proculeianus (c. 533 – 551)[23]
  • Faustus (c. 585)[24]
  • Saius (c. 585)[25]
  • Dracoaldus (before 616)[26]
  • Audericus (c. 627)[27]
  • Leutadas (c. 673 – 675)[28]
 ? Leotadus (770 – 796)[29]
  • Izimbardus (before 836)[30]
  • Airardus (c. 879)[31]
  • Odilus[32]
  • Bernardus[33]
  • Hidulfus[34]
  • Seguinus[35]
  • Adulfus[36]
  • Garsias (c. 980)
  • Odo (c. 988 – c. 1020)[37]
  • Garsias de la Barthe (c. 1030 – )[38]
  • Raimundus de Copa[39]
  • Austendus (1050/1055 – 1068)[40]
  • Guillaume de Montaut (1068 – 17 April 1096)[41]
  • Raimundus de Pardiac (1096–1118)[42]
  • Bernard de Sainte-Christine
  • Guillaume Dandozile[43]
  • Gerard de la Bothe (1173 – 1192)[44]

from 1200 to 1500[edit]

  • Bernardus (c. 1201)[45]
  • Garsias de l'Ort (l'Hort) (c. 1215 – 1226)[46]
  • Amanevus de Grisinhac (c. 1226 – 1241)[47]
  • Hispanus de Massanc (21 December 1244 – 1261 ?)[48]
  • Amanevus (1262 – 11 May 1318)[49]
Sede Vacante (1318 – 1323)
  • Guillaume de Flavacourt (26 August 1323 – 18 January 1357)[50]
  • Arnaud Aubert (18 January 1357 – 11 June 1371)[51]
  • Jean Roger (27 July 1371 – 27 August 1375)[52]
  • Philippe d'Alençon (1375 – 1379) (Administrator)[53]
  • Jean de Cardaillac (24 January 1379 – 20 May 1379) (Administrator)[54]
  • Jean Flandrin (20 May 1379 – 1390) (Avignon Obedience)[55]
  • Jean d'Armagnac (17 October 1390 – 8 October 1408) (Avignon Obedience)[56]
  • Berengarius Guilhot (10 December 1408 – 14 February 1425) (Avignon Obedience)[57]
  • Philippe de Levis (14 February 1425 – 1454)[58]
  • Philippe de Levis (29 March 1454 – 24 March 1463)[59]
  • Jean de Lascur (14 March 1463 – 28 August 1483)[60]
  • François de Savoie (20 October 1483 – 6 October 1490)[61]
  • Jean de la Tremouille (5 November 1490 – 1507)[62]

from 1500 to 1800[edit]

Henri de Savoie (Archbishop-elect)[67]
  • Léonard de Trapes (3 November 1597 – 29 October 1629)[68]
  • Dominique de Vic (27 January 1625 – 21 December 1660)[69]
  • Henri de la Mothe-Houdancourt (1662 – 24 February 1684)[70]
Sede Vacante (1684–1693)[71]
  • Armand-Anne-Tristan de la Baume de Suze (1693 – 4 March 1705)[72]
  • Augustin de Maupeou (1705 - 12 June 1712)[73]
  • Jacques Desmaretz (26 February 1714 - 25 November 1725)[74]
  • Melchior de Polignac (December 1725 - 20 November 1741 died)[75]
  • Jean-François de Montillet de Grenaud (9 July 1742 - 7 February 1776)[76]
  • Claude-Marc-Antoine d'Apchon (20 May 1776 - 21 May 1783)[77]
  • Louis-Apolinaire de La Tour du Pin-Montauban (18 July 1783 - 24 October 1801)[78]
Paul-Benoît Barthe (1791 – 1801) (Constitutional Bishop; schismatic)[79]

after the Restoration[edit]

  • André-Etienne-Antoine de Morlhon (13 Jan 1823 - 14 Jan 1828)[80]
  • Louis-François-Auguste de Rohan-Chabot (27 Apr 1828 - 6 Jul 1828)[81]
  • Joachim-Jean-Xavier d'Isoard (6 Jul 1828 appointed - 13 Jun 1839)[82]
  • Nicolas-Augustin de la Croix d'Azolette (4 Dec 1839 - Jan 1856)[83]
  • Louis-Antoine de Salinis (12 Feb 1856 - 30 Jan 1861)[84]
  • François-Augustin Delamare (20 Feb 1861 - 26 Jul 1871)[85]
  • Pierre-Henri Gérault de Langalerie (30 Sep 1871 - 13 Feb 1886)[86]
  • Louis-Joseph-Jean-Baptiste-Léon Gouzot (16 Apr 1887 - 20 Aug 1895)[87]
  • Matthieu-Victor-Félicien Balaïn, O.M.I. (30 May 1896 - 13 May 1905)[88]
  • Emile-Christophe Enard (21 February 1906 - 13 Mar 1907)[89]
  • Joseph-François-Ernest Ricard (15 Apr 1907 appointed - 18 Sep 1934 retired)[90]
  • Virgile-Joseph Béguin (24 Dec 1934 appointed - 2 Mar 1955 died)
  • Henri Audrain (2 Mar 1955 succeeded - 16 Apr 1968 resigned)
  • Maurice-Mathieu-Louis Rigaud (16 Apr 1968 appointed - 29 Dec 1984 died)
  • Gabriel Vanel (21 Jun 1985 appointed - 1 Mar 1996 resigned)
  • Maurice Lucien Fréchard, C.S.Sp. (6 Sep 1996 appointed - 21 Dec 2004 retired)
  • Maurice Marcel Gardès (21 Dec 2004 appointed - )[91]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Louis Bellanger (1903). Recherches sur Saint Orens, évêque d'Auch (in French). Auch: Imprimerie L. Cocharaux. p. 18. 
  2. ^ Amy Goodrich Remensnyder (1995). Remembering Kings Past: Monastic Foundation Legends in Medieval Southern France. Ithaca NY USA: Cornell University Press. pp. 124–125. ISBN 0-8014-2954-4. 
  3. ^ Jacques-Paul Migne, ed. (1852). Patrologiae cursus completus: Patrologiae Latinae Tomus CXXVI (in Latin). Volume 126. Paris: J.-P. Migne. pp. 844–846.  P. Jaffé and S. Loewenfeld, Regesta pontificum Romanorum, editio altera, Tomus primus (Leipzig 1885), p. 410 no. 3263.
  4. ^ J. P. Migne, Patrologiae Latinae cursus completus Tomus CCXIV (Paris 1890), p. 70-72.
  5. ^ J. P. Migne, Patrologiae Latinae cursus completus Tomus CCXVI, p. 408-409.
  6. ^ Migne, Tomus CCXVI (Paris 1891), pp. 789-790. Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, pp. 989-990.
  7. ^ John W. Baldwin (1991). The Government of Philip Augustus: Foundations of French Royal Power in the Middle Ages. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. p. 313. ISBN 978-0-520-07391-3.  A. Potthast, Regesta pontificum Romanorum I p. 505, no. 5745.
  8. ^ Caneto, pp. 1-6.
  9. ^ Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, pp. 971-972.
  10. ^ Brugeles, p. 141-142.
  11. ^ Sainte-Marthe, p. 972. Jean, p. 67.
  12. ^ Benac (1906), pp. 547-548.
  13. ^ Banac (1907), pp. 69-72.
  14. ^ Banac (1907), p. 135; 179-183.
  15. ^ Louis Marie Prudhomme (1793). La République française en quatre-vingt-quatre départements, dictionnaire géographique et méthodique (in French). Paris: Chez l'éditeur, rue des Marais. pp. 7–11. 
  16. ^ Ludovic Sciout (1872). Historie de la constitution civile du clergé (1790-1801) .. (in French). Tome I. Paris: Firmin Didot frères, fils et cie. pp. 204–208. 
  17. ^ Paul Pisani (1907). Répertoire biographique de l'épiscopat constitutionnel (1791-1802) (in French). Paris: A. Picard et fils. pp. 385–387, 455. 
  18. ^ Em Sevestre; Émile Sévestre (1905). L'histoire, le texte et la destinée du Concordat de 1801 (in French). Paris: Lethielleux. pp. 238–249, 488, 496. 
  19. ^ Pius VI; Pius VII (1821). Collectio (per epitomen facta,) Bullarum, Brevium, Allocutionum, Epistolarumque, ... Pii VI., contra constitutionem civilem Cleri Gallicani, ejusque authores et fautores; item, Concordatorum inter ... Pium VII. et Gubernium Rei publicae, in Galliis, atque alia varia regimina, post modum in hac regione, sibi succedentia; tum expostulationum ... apud ... Pium Papam VII., Contra varia Acta, ad Ecclesiam Gallicanam, spectantia, a triginta et octo Episcopis, Archiepiscop. et Cardinal. antiquae Ecclesiae Gallicanae, subscriptarum, etc. 6 Avril, 1803 (in Latin). London: Cox & Baylis. pp. 111–121. 
  20. ^ Almanach catholique français (in French). Paris. 1920. p. 71. 
  21. ^ Duchesne, p. 96 no. 1.
  22. ^ Bishop Nicetius attended the Council of Agde in 506 and the Council of Orléans in 511. Duchesne, p. 96 no. 2. C. Munier, Concilia Galliae, A. 314 – A. 506 (Turnholt: Brepols 1963), p. 213. C. De Clercq, Concilia Galliae, A. 511 – A. 695 (Turnhout: Brepols 1963), p. 19.
  23. ^ Bishop Proculeianus was present at the Councils of Orléans in 533, 541 and 549, and the Council of Eauze in 551. Duchesne, p. 96 no. 3. De Clercq, pp. 103, 144, 159, 165.
  24. ^ Bishop Faustus attended the Council of Mâcon in October 585. Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum Book VIII, chapter 22. Duchesne, p. 96 no. 4. De Clercq, p. 248.
  25. ^ Saius succeeded Faustus immediately after the Council of Mâcon. Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum Book VIII, chapter 22. Duchesne, p. 96 no. 5.
  26. ^ Duchesne, p. 96 no. 6.
  27. ^ Bishop Audericus attended the Council of Clichy (Clippiacense) on 27 September 626 or 627. Duchesne, p. 96 no. 7. De Clercq, p. 297.
  28. ^ Bishop Leutadas was present at the Council of Bordeaux (Modogarnomense). Duchesne, p. 96 no. 8. De Clercq, p. 313, who dates the Council between 662 and 675. Cf. F. Ganeto (1857). Tombeau roman de Saint Léothade, évêque d'Auch de 691 à 718. Notice historique et descriptive (in French). Paris: Victor Didron. pp. 6–13. 
  29. ^ F. Caneto, p. 255, reports an inscription found on a reliquary stand in the current Cathedral: S·LEOTAD·ARC·AVX|SEDIT AN·26·OBIT|SVB ADRIA PP·TPE|CARO·MAG·AN·796. ['Saint Leotadus, Archbishop of Auch, ruled 26 years, died under Pope Adrian, in the time of Charlemagne, in the year 796.') His name does not appear, however, in the list of Archbishops of Aux in Duchesne, pp. 92-93; and the inscription is obviously much later. The pope was Hadrian I (772–795).
  30. ^ Bishop Izimbardus is mentioned as deceased in a charter dated 836. Duchesne, p. 97 no. 9, with note 1.
  31. ^ Archbishop Airardus was the addressee of a letter of Pope John VIII, dated 13 June 879. Duchesne, p. 97 no. 10. He is the first bishop of Auch named with the title of Archbishop. Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, p. 977. Gams, p. 497 column 2.
  32. ^ Hidulfus: Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, p. 978. Gams, p. 497 column 2.
  33. ^ Hidulfus: Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, p. 978. Gams, p. 497 column 2.
  34. ^ Hidulfus: Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, p. 978. Gams, p. 497 column 2.
  35. ^ Seguinus: Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, p. 978. Gams, p. 497 column 2.
  36. ^ Adulfus: Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, p. 978. Gams, p. 497 column 2.
  37. ^ Odo (Ado, Otto, Eudes) had been a monk and then Abbot of the monstery of Simorra (Auch). Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, p. 979.
  38. ^ Garsias (or Garsianus): Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, pp. 979-980. Gams, p. 498.
  39. ^ Raimundus was excommunicated on a charge of simony, c. 1045. Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, p. 979.
  40. ^ Austindus attended a council in Jacca in Spain in 1060. In 1068, in company with the Papal Legate Hugues de Die, he held a council at Auch. According to Brugeles (p. 94), he died on 27 July 1068. Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, pp. 980-981. Gams, p. 498 column 1.
  41. ^ Guilelmus Bernardi de Monte-Alto had previously been Prior of Saint-Oriens. He had been deposed at a provincial council held by Cardinal Geraldus, Bishop of Ostia, in 1073, for having communicated with an excommunicated person. and was censured by Pope Alexander II (1061–1073). He was still awaiting having his name cleared in 1074, when Pope Gregory VII wrote a letter of inquiry and admonition to the suffragan bishops of the Province of Auch. According to Brugeles (p. 100), he died on 17 April 1096. H. E. J. Cowdrey (1998). Pope Gregory VII, 1073-1085. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 394. ISBN 978-0-19-158459-6.  Brugeles, p. 95. Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, pp. 981-982. Gams, p. 498 column 1.
  42. ^ Raimundus had been a monk of the monastery of Saint-Orientius. He was present at the Council of Saintes in 1096. He died on 1 October 1118. Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, p. 983. Gams, p. 498, has him die on 10 October 1118 (a misprint?).
  43. ^ D'Andozille: One baronial family, de Montaut, provided a bishop for Comminges, Roger de Noe (1125-52), and an archbishop of Auch, William d'Andozille (1126-70), while Bertrand de Montaut was bishop of Lectoure (1162-3) and archbishop of Bordeaux (1163-70). David Walker, "Crown and Episcopacy under the Normans and Angevins." Anglo-Norman Studies: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1982 (Woodbridge Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer 1983), p. 226. Gams, p. 498 column 1.
  44. ^ Bishop Gerard of Auch was transferred to Auch from the diocese of Toulouse. He was one of the bishops placed in charge of his fleet by Richard the Lionheart in 1190. Jay Williams (1967). Life in the Middle Ages. Cambridge: CUP Archive. p. 8. GGKEY:BSDUSAB3C33.  Gams, p. 498 column 1.
  45. ^ Gams, p. 489. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica I, p. 121.
  46. ^ Garsias de Horto had been Abbot of Saint-Pierre de Generez, and then Bishop of Comminges (attested 1210, 1213). He witnessed a treaty in 1217 and consecrated a church in 1218. In 1223 he was executor of the Testament of Count Guillaume-Raymond, Vicomte de Béarn. He was present at the Council of Bourges on 30 November 1225, presided over by the Papal Legate Cardinal Romanus. He died on 12 May 1226. Brugeles, pp. 116-117. Eubel, I, p. 121, 207.
  47. ^ Amanevus (Amanieu) had been Dean of the Chapter of Angoulême and then Bishop of Tarbes (1224-1226). In 1241 he was summoned to Rome by Pope Gregory IX for a general council to be held at Easter, but was captured en route in the naval battle of Giglio, and imprisoned by the Emperor Frederick II at Capua. He died in Capua in 1241. Brugeles, pp. 117-121; Preuves, p. 45 (his epitaph). Gams, p. 489. Eubel, I, p. 121, 474.
  48. ^ Brugeles calls him Hyspan de Massas or Massac. Bishop R. (as he is called by Eubel) had previously been Bishop of Oloron. He left funds to found eight prebends for the Cathedral Chapter, but his wishes were not carried out until 1342. Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, Instrumenta, p. 168. Brugeles, p. 122. Eubel, I, p. 121.
  49. ^ Amanevus: Eubel, I, p. 121.
  50. ^ Guillaume had previously been Archdeacon of Rouen, then Bishop of Viviers (1319–1322), and Bishop of Carcassone (1322–1323). He was appointed Bishop of Auch by Pope John XXII on 26 August 1323. He was transferred to the diocese of Rouen by Pope Innocent VI on 18 January 1357. He died before 3 July 1359. Eubel, I, pp. 121, 166, 426. Clergeac, p. 1. Daniel Williman (1988). The Right of Spoil of the Popes of Avignon, 1316-1415. Philadelphia PA USA: American Philosophical Society. pp. 130, no. 460. ISBN 978-0-87169-786-8. 
  51. ^ Aubert was the nephew of Pope Innocent VI, and actually served in Avignon as Chamberlain of the Pope (Camerlengo). He had been Bishop-elect of Agde (1354), and then Bishop of Carcassone (1354–1357). Clergeac, p. 1. Daniel Williman (1988). The Right of Spoil of the Popes of Avignon, 1316-1415. Philadelphia PA USA: American Philosophical Society. p. 58, no. 64. ISBN 978-0-87169-786-8. 
  52. ^ Roger was the nephew of Pope Clement VI. He had been Bishop of Carpentras before being named to the See of Auch. Clergeac, p. 1.
  53. ^ Alençon, the son of Count Charles of Chartres and cousin of King Charles V, was the titular Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. He had earlier been Archdeacon of Brie (Mende), Bishop of Beauvais (1356–1359), and Archbishop of Rouen (1359–1375). He accepted a cardinalate from Urban VI (Roman Obedience), and was dismissed by Clement VII (Avignon Obedience). Eubel, I, p. 121. Clergeac, p. 1. Daniel Williman (1988). The Right of Spoil of the Popes of Avignon, 1316-1415. Philadelphia PA USA: American Philosophical Society. p. 216, no. 984. ISBN 978-0-87169-786-8. 
  54. ^ Jean de Cardaillac, the titular Latin Patriarch of Alexandria, served as nominal administrator of Auch for four months, until the choice of a new Archbishop could be made. Eubel, I, p. 121. Clergeac, p. 2.
  55. ^ Jean Flandrini, Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law) and Dean of Laon, was appointed Archbishop of Auch by Pope Clement VII on 20 May 1379. He was named a cardinal by Clement VII on 17 October 1390. He died on 8 July 1415. Eubel, I, pp. 28 no. 31; 121. Clergeac, p. 2.
  56. ^ Jean d'Armagnac was the illegitimate son of Count Jean II d'Armagnac. He had been Archdeacon of Lomagne (diocese of Lectoure), and was transferred from the diocese of Mende to Auch by Pope Clement VII on 17 October 1390. He was named a cardinal by Pope Benedict XIII at Perpignan on 22 September 1408, but it seems that he did not accept the title, and in any case died on 8 October 1408. Eubel, I, pp. 30 no. 11; 121. Clergeac, p. 2.
  57. ^ Berengar had been Archdeacon of Comminges when elected by the Chapter of Auch. He was, however, provided by Pope Benedict XIII on 10 December 1408. He was named titular Archbishop of Tyre (Syria-Lebanon) on 14 February 1425. Eubel, I, pp. 121, 506. Clergeac, p. 2.
  58. ^ Philippe de Levis took possession of the diocese by proxy on 14 February 1425, and in person on 11 August 1425. He attended the Council of Basel in 1434, and obtained several judgments against Count Jean d'Astarac. In 1436 he received a bull from Pope Eugene IV which forbade the installation of anyone as a Canon of the Cathedral Chapter of Auch who was not noble by blood or by education; or to appoint anyone to a dignity in the Chapter who was not already a Canon. Brugeles, p. 141-142. Eubel, I, p. 121. Clergeac, p. 2.
  59. ^ Born in 1435, Philippe de Levis II, a papal notary, was the nephew of Philippe de Levis I. His uncle resigned in his favor when the younger Philippe had reached the age of 27 and could be consecrated a bishop canonically. He was transferred to the diocese of Arles on 24 March 1463. Eubel, II, pp. 93, 100. Clergeac, p. 2. The documents cited by Albanes, however, are dated 11 February 1463. Joseph Hyacinthe Albanès; Ulysse Chevalier (1901). Gallia christiana novissima: Arles (in French and Latin). Montbéliard: Soc. anonyme d'imprimerie montbéliardasie. pp. 870–871. 
  60. ^ De Lascur: Eubel, II, p. 100.
  61. ^ François de Savoie: Eubel, II, p. 100.
  62. ^ De la Tremouille was named a Cardinal by Pope Julius II on 18 December 1506, but died before he could receive his red hat. Eubel, II, p. 100; III, p. 11 no. 14.
  63. ^ Eubel, Hierarchia catholica III, p. 125. Clergeac, p. 4.
  64. ^ Eubel, Hierarchia catholica III, p. 125. Clergeac, p. 4.
  65. ^ Cardinal d'Este was not consecrated a bishop. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica III, p. 125. Clergeac, p. 4. A. Degert, "Hippolyte et Louis d'Este: Archêveques d'Auch," Revue de Gascogne 41 (1900), pp. 471-472.
  66. ^ Luigi d'Este, a grandson of Louis XII through his mother, visited the diocese of Auch only once during his term as its Archbishop: Benac, p. 547. He visited France twice, in 1576 and in 1582: Lorenzo Cardella, Memorie de'Cardinali Tomo V (Roma: Pagliarini 1793), p. 36. He died in Rome on 30 December 1586. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica III, p. 126. Clergeac, p. 4.
  67. ^ Henri de Savoie never took possession of the diocese. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica III, p. 126. Clergeac, p. 5. See Joseph Bergin (1996). The Making of the French Episcopate, 1589-1661. New Haven CT USA: Yale University Press. p. 372. ISBN 978-0-300-06751-4. 
  68. ^ Trapes was granted the pallium on 23 November 1599. In 1604 he was indebted to the Duc de Nemours for the payment of the sum of 24,000 livres per annum, and was successfuly sued; he was threated by the King's conseil privé with being made to resign unless he paid. Joseph Bergin (1996). The Making of the French Episcopate, 1589-1661. New Haven CT USA: Yale University Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-300-06751-4.  Jean, p. 63. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 105 with note 2. Clergeac, p. 5.
  69. ^ In 1622 the Papal Nuncio in France, Ottavio Corsini, conducted the usual investigation of the activities and character of a prospective appointment to the hierarchy. He wrote the papal Secretary of State that De Vic had kept and might still be keeping a mistress. Bergin, p. 62. De Vic, son of the former Garde de Sceaux was preconised (approved) in Consistory by Pope Urban VIII on 27 January 1625. Jean, p. 63. Gauchat, p. 105. Clergeac, p. 5.
  70. ^ La Mothe had previously been Bishop of Rennes (1641–1662). He died at Mazères on 14 February 1684. Jean, pp. 63-64. Clergeac, p. 5.
  71. ^ Due to the publication of the Four Gallican Articles of the Declaration of the Clergy of France in 1681, the so-called "regale", Pope Innocent XI and Pope Alexander VIII refused to ratify the nominations of the king of France to French dioceses. It was not until after Louis XIV's recantation on 14 September 1693 that regular appointments began to be made again.
  72. ^ De la Baume had previously been Bishop of Tarbes-Saint Omer. During the Sede Vacante he held the temporalities of the diocese, and served as Vicar General. Jean, p. 64. Clergeac, p. 5.
  73. ^ Maupeou had previously been Bishop of Castres. Jean, pp. 64-65. Clergeac, p. 5.
  74. ^ Desmaretz had been Bishop of Riez: Clergeac, p. 6. Jean, p. 63.
  75. ^ Polignac was consecrated in Rome on 19 March 1726. He died in Paris on 20 November 1741. Jean, pp. 65-66. Clergeac, p. 6.
  76. ^ Montillet was Bishop of Oloron when nominated Archbishop of Auch by King Louis XV on 2 April 1742. He was transferred by Pope Benedict XIV on 9 July 1742. He died on 7 February 1776. Clergeac, p. 6. Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica VI, p. 110 with note 2.
  77. ^ Apchon had previously been Vicar General of Dijon and then Bishop of Dijon (1755–1776). He was nominated by King Louis XVI on 18 February 1776, and preconised (approved) by Pope Pius VI on 20 May 1776. Clergeac, p. 6. Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica VI, pp. 110 with note 3; 198 with note 4.
  78. ^ La Tour du Pin had previously been bishop of Nancy (1777–1783). He was nominated by King Louis XVI on 15 June 1783, and preconised (approved) by Pope Pius VI on 18 July 1783. In 1790 he refused to take the oath required by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, and his See was declared vacant. He emigrated to Montserrat in Catalonia, and resigned on 24 October 1801 at the demand of Pope Pius VII. He was then named Archbishop of Troyes and Auxerre. Clergeac, p. 6. Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica VI, pp. 110 with note 4; 300.
  79. ^ Pisani, pp. 385, 387.
  80. ^ Morlhon: A. Degert, in: Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français..., p. 77.
  81. ^ Rohan-Chabot was appointed Archbishop of Besançon.
  82. ^ Isoard was appointed Archbishop of Lyon. Fisquet, Honore (1864). La France pontificale (Gallia Christiana): Metropole de Lyon et Vienne: Lyon (in French). Paris: Etienne Repos. pp. 621–622.  Degert, p. 78.
  83. ^ La Croix d'Azolette: Degert, in Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français... , p. 79.
  84. ^ Salinis: Thomas Casimir François de LADOUE (Bishop of Nevers.) (1864). Vie de Monseigneur de Salinis, Évêque d'Amiens, Archevêque d'Auch (in French). Paris: Tolra et Hatin.  Degert, in Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français... , pp. 79-80.
  85. ^ Delamare: Degert, in Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français... , pp. 80-81.
  86. ^ Gérault de Langalerie: Degert, in Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français... , p. 81.
  87. ^ Gouzot: Degert, in Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français... , pp. 81-82.
  88. ^ Balain had previously been Bishop of Nice (1877–1896). Degert, in Société bibliographique (France) (1907), L'épiscopat français... , p. 82. Ritzler-Sefrin, VIII, pp. 135, 412.
  89. ^ Enard had previously been Bishop of Cahors (1896-1906). He was transferred to Auch by Pope Pius X on 21 February 1906. He died on 13 Mar 1907. J. P. Poey (1907). Nos évêques en 1907: Photographies et biographies (in French). Lille: La Croix du Nord. p. 15.  Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica VIII, p. 193. Pięta, Hierarchia catholica IX, p. 75.
  90. ^ Ricard had previously been Bishop of Angoulême (1901–1907). Almanach catholique français (in French). Paris. 1920. p. 71.  Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica VIII, p. 260. Pięta, Hierarchia catholica IX, p. 75.
  91. ^ Diocèse d'Auch, Biographie de l'Archevêque; retrieved: 2017-12-05. (in French)

Bibliography[edit]

Reference works[edit]

Studies[edit]

External links[edit]

  • (in French) Centre national des Archives de l'Église de France, L’Épiscopat francais depuis 1919, retrieved: 2016-12-24.
  • Goyau, Georges. "Auch." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. Retrieved: 2017-04-12

Acknowledgment[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Auch". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. 

Coordinates: 43°38′55″N 0°34′52″E / 43.64861°N 0.58111°E / 43.64861; 0.58111