Among early Christians, it was known as the manus obscena, or "obscene hand".
Recently, an Ukrainian word for this gesture "дуля" (dulya) has also become a jargon to refer to Control-Alt-Delete. ("...you need three fingers to press the buttons. So it's like telling somebody (a computer in this case) to get lost.") 
The letter "T" in the American manual alphabet is very similar to this gesture.
- In Italy this sign, known as mano in fica ("fig-hand"), or far le fiche (cunt gesture), for the resemblance to female genitalia, was a common and very rude gesture in past centuries, similar to the finger, but has long since fallen out of use. Notably, a remnant of its usage is found in Dante's Divine Comedy (Inferno, Canto XXV).
- In Greece and particularly in the Ionian Islands this gesture is still used as an alternative to the moutza. It is known as a "fist-phallus", and can be accompanied by extending the right hand while clasping the left hand under one's armpit in a derogatory manner.
- In Japan this sign is called セックス (sekkusu) and means sex. Since 1989, it has fallen into disuse.
- In Russia, it is used when denying a request. For example, when asked to hand something over, a child might make the gesture, thereby implying that they will not give it.
- In many countries, such as the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Denmark, and the Czech Republic, this sign has no obscene meaning and is instead used in a game where a player "steals" someone else's nose. This is usually done with small children where the player pretends to take their nose and then say "I've got your nose". The thumb represents the "stolen" nose held between the player's index and middle finger. This innocent meaning may exist alongside the obscene one, for example in Germany.
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- Hamilton, Terri. Skin Flutes & Velvet Gloves. 2007. pp.279-80.
- Adkins, Lesley (2004). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome: p317.
- Kleinman, Zoe (16 August 2010). "How the internet is changing language". BBC News. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
- Hamiru-aqui (2008). 70 Japanese Gestures. Translated by Aileen Chang. Stone Bridge Press. pp. 98–99. ISBN 978-1933330013. Retrieved June 19, 2013.