Encrypted Media Extensions
|Encrypted Media Extensions|
Encrypted Media Extensions
|First published||May 10, 2013|
September 18, 2017
|Preview version||Editor's Draft|
March 20, 2021
|Domain||Digital rights management|
Encrypted Media Extensions (EME) is a W3C specification for providing a communication channel between web browsers and the Content Decryption Module (CDM) software which implements digital rights management (DRM). This allows the use of HTML5 video to play back DRM-wrapped content such as streaming video services without the use of heavy third-party media plugins like Adobe Flash or Microsoft Silverlight. The use of a third-party key management system may be required, depending on whether the publisher chooses to scramble the keys.
EME has been highly controversial because it places a necessarily proprietary, closed decryption component which requires per-browser licensing fees into what might otherwise be an entirely open and free software ecosystem. On July 6, 2017, W3C publicly announced its intention to publish an EME web standard, and did so on September 18. On the same day, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, who joined in 2014 to participate in the decision making, published an open letter resigning from W3C.
While backers and the developers of the Firefox web browser were hesitant in implementing the protocol for ethical reasons due to its dependency on proprietary code, Firefox introduced EME support on Windows platforms in May 2015, originally using Adobe's Primetime DRM library, later replaced with the Widevine library (CDM). Firefox's implementation of EME uses an open-source sandbox to load the proprietary DRM modules, which are treated as plug-ins that are loaded when EME-encrypted content is requested. The sandbox was also designed to frustrate the ability for services and the DRM to uniquely track and identify devices. Additionally, it is always possible to disable DRM in Firefox, which then not only disables EME, but also uninstalls the Widevine DRM libraries.
Netflix supports HTML5 video using EME with a supported web browser: Chrome, Firefox, Microsoft Edge, Internet Explorer (on Windows 8.1 or newer), or Safari (on OS X Yosemite or newer). YouTube supports the HTML5 MSE. Available players supporting MPEG-DASH using the HTML5 MSE and EME are NexPlayer, THEOplayer by OpenTelly, the bitdash MPEG-DASH player, dash.js by DASH-IF or rx-player.
Note that certainly in Firefox and Chrome, EME does not work unless the media is supplied via Media Source Extensions.
Content Decryption Modules
- Adobe Primetime CDM (used by old Firefox versions 47 to 51)
- Widevine (used in Chrome and Firefox + their derivatives, including Opera and newest versions of Microsoft Edge)
- PlayReady (used in EdgeHTML-based Microsoft Edge on Windows 10 and Internet Explorer 11 for Windows 8.1 and 10)
- FairPlay (used in Safari since OS X Yosemite)
EME has faced strong criticism from both inside and outside W3C. The major issues for criticism are implementation issues for open-source browsers, entry barriers for new browsers, lack of interoperability, concerns about security, privacy and accessibility, and possibility of legal trouble in the United States due to Chapter 12 of the DMCA.
In July 2020, Reddit started using a fingerprinting mechanism that involves loading every DRM module that browsers can support, and logs what ends up loading as part of the data collected. Users noticed this when Firefox began alerting them that Reddit "required" them to load DRM software to play media, although none of the media on the page actually needed it.
As of 2020, the ways in which EME interferes with open source have become concrete. None of the widely used CDMs is being licensed to independent open-source browser providers without paying a per-browser licensing fee (particularly to Google - for their Widevine CDM, which is used in nearly all recently developed web browsers), likely due to their nature - these CDMs are used to protect other copyrighted works.
- Media Source Extensions
- HTML5 § Digital rights management
- World Wide Web Consortium
- Digital rights management
- Defective by Design
- Electronic Frontier Foundation
- Digital Millennium Copyright Act
- Project DReaM
- "Encrypted Media Extensions Publication History - W3C". W3C. n.d. Retrieved 2021-04-20.
- HTML Media Extensions Working Group (18 September 2017). Dorwin, David; Smith, Jerry; Watson, Mark; Bateman, Adrian (eds.). "Encrypted Media Extensions W3C Recommendation". W3C. Retrieved 2021-04-20.
- Media Working Group; et al. (Media Working Group) (2021-03-20). Parrish, Joey; Freedman, Greg; Dorwin, David; Smith, Jerry; Watson, Mark; Bateman, Adrian (eds.). "Encrypted Media Extensions". w3c.github.io. Editor's Draft. Retrieved 2021-04-20.
- "Media Source Extensions™". w3c.github.io. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
- David Dorwin. "ISO Common Encryption EME Stream Format and Initialization Data". W3C. Archived from the original on 2015-02-19.
- Lederer, Stefan (February 2, 2015). "Why YouTube & Netflix use MPEG-DASH in HTML5". Bitmovin.
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- Doctorow, Cory (18 September 2017). "An open letter to the W3C Director, CEO, team and membership". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
- Anthony Park and Mark Watson (April 15, 2013). "HTML5 Video at Netflix". Netflix.
- Weinstein, Rafael (26 February 2013). "Chrome 26 Beta: Template Element & Unprefixed CSS Transitions". Chromium Blog. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
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- Netflix system requirements for HTML5 Player and Silverlight
- Anthony Park and Mark Watson (26 June 2013). "HTML5 Video in IE 11 on Windows 8.1". Netflix.
- Anthony Park and Mark Watson (3 June 2014). "HTML5 Video in Safari on OS X Yosemite". Netflix.
- "The Status of MPEG-DASH today, and why Youtube & Netflix use it in HTML5". bitmovin GmbH. 2 Feb 2015.
- NexPlayer: Passion for High Quality Video Services
- THEOplayer by OpenTelly: HLS and MPEG-DASH player for HTML5 MSE and EME
- bitdash MPEG-DASH player for HTML5 MSE and EME
- bitdash HTML5 EME DRM demo area
Ozer, Jan (July–August 2015). "HTML5 Comes of Age: It's Finally Time to Tell Flash Good-bye". Streaming Media Magazine. StreamingMedia.com. Retrieved 2016-01-12.
In mobile markets [...] Android has supported MSE since version 4.1, and EME since version 4.3.
- "THEOplayer Supports All Platforms". theoplayer.com. 2017.
Note that IE10 and IE11 on Windows 7 do not have the MSE/EME API available which is required to playback DRM protected video content in HTML5. As a consequence, it is technically not possible for any HTML5-based video player to playback DRM protected content on these browsers in Windows 7.
- "Boris Zabrasky opposing EME". Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "Ian Hickson opposing EME". Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "Richard Stallman Braved a Winter Storm Last Night to March Against DRM". 21 March 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- Stallman, Richard (Nov 18, 2016). "Can you trust your computer?". Free Software, Free Society. GNU. Retrieved 2018-02-08.
- "4K Netflix arrives on Windows 10, but probably not for your PC". 21 November 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
- "Title 17, Circular 92, Chapter 12 - Copyright.gov". Retrieved 25 July 2016.
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- "Save Firefox". 11 May 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "Open Letter to W3C". 12 May 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "Interoperability and the W3C: Defending the Future from the Present". 30 March 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "Reddit's website uses DRM for fingerprinting". smitop.com. Retrieved 2020-07-12.