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GraphQL Logo.svg
Developer(s)Facebook, and community
Initial release2015 (2015)
Stable release
June 2018[1]
Written inImplementations in Java, JavaScript, Ruby, Scala, others.
Operating systemCross-platform

GraphQL is an open-source data query and manipulation language for APIs, and a runtime for fulfilling queries with existing data.[2] GraphQL was developed internally by Facebook in 2012 before being publicly released in 2015.[3] On 7 November 2018, the GraphQL project was moved from Facebook to the newly-established GraphQL Foundation, hosted by the non-profit Linux Foundation.[4][5]

It provides an efficient, powerful and flexible approach to developing web APIs, and has been compared and contrasted with REST and other web service architectures. It allows clients to define the structure of the data required, and exactly the same structure of the data is returned from the server, therefore preventing excessively large amounts of data from being returned, but this has implications for how effective web caching of query results can be. The flexibility and richness of the query language also adds complexity that may not be worthwhile for simple APIs.[6][7][8]. It consists of a type system, query language and execution semantics, static validation, and type introspection.

GraphQL supports reading, writing (mutating) and subscribing to changes to data (realtime updates).[9]

Major GraphQL clients include Apollo Client[10] and Relay.[11] GraphQL servers are available for multiple languages, including Haskell, JavaScript[12], Python,[13] Ruby, Java, C#, Scala, Go, Elixir,[14] Erlang, PHP, R, and Clojure.

On 9 February 2018, the GraphQL Schema Definition Language (SDL) was made part of the specification.[15]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "GraphQL June 2018 Release Notes". Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  2. ^ "GraphQL: A query language for APIs".
  3. ^ "GraphQL: A data query language".
  4. ^ "Facebook's GraphQL gets its own open-source foundation". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2018-11-07.
  5. ^ "The Linux Foundation Announces Intent to Form New Foundation to Support GraphQL - The Linux Foundation". The Linux Foundation. 2018-11-06. Retrieved 2018-11-07.
  6. ^ "GraphQL vs REST: Overview". Phil Sturgeon. Retrieved 2018-11-25.
  7. ^ "Why use GraphQL, good and bad reasons". Honest Engineering. 2018-08-04. Retrieved 2018-11-26.
  8. ^ "GraphQL Fundamentals". Howto GraphQL. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  9. ^ "GraphQL". Facebook. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  10. ^ "Apollo Client: The flexible, production ready GraphQL client for React, and all JavaScript and native apps".
  11. ^ "Relay: A JavaScript framework for building data-driven React applications".
  12. ^ "GraphQL js".
  13. ^ "Graphene". Retrieved 2017-06-18.
  14. ^ "Absinthe: The GraphQL toolkit for Elixir". Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  15. ^ "GraphQL SDL included in Github repository".

External links[edit]