German federal election, 1930
All 577 seats in the Reichstag
289 seats needed for a majority
Seats in the Reichstag after 1930 federal election.
The German federal election occurred on 14 September 1930. Despite losing 10 seats, the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) remained the largest party in the Reichstag, winning 143 of the 577 seats, whilst the Nazi Party (NSDAP) dramatically increased its number of seats from 12 to 107.
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
The two major parties of the Weimar Coalition, the SPD and Zentrum (Centre Party) had no high gains or losses – in contrast to their partner DVP, but the two results of the elections seen as dramatic were the NSDAP reaching more than 100 seats, and big gains for the Communists (KPD) – an additional 23 seats.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) had won the most votes and had led the ruling coalition in every previous post-World War I election before the election of 1930.
In the 1924 elections, the Social Democratic Party (SPD) received 26% of the popular vote, securing 131 parliamentary seats, an increase of 31 seats over the previous election. In the 1928 election, the SPD secured 29.8% of the vote and 153 seats, up 22 from the 1924 federal election. In 1928 the only other party that gained seats was the Communist Party, led by Ernst Thalmann, which received 10.6% of the vote count while securing 54 seats, up nine from the previous election. The National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) won just 2.6% of the vote, which equated to a loss of 2 seats.
In 1930 the German government was a multi-party parliamentary democracy, led by Paul von Hindenburg (1925-1933). The parliamentary democracy awarded one seat in the Reichstag per 60,000 votes. All citizens over 21 could vote, and through a system of proportional representation, a new parliament was elected every four years to deal with issues related to taxes, trade, defense, etc. The Executive was elected every seven years and was primarily in control of the armed forces, however, they also had significant powers to dissolve the Reichstag, nominate a Chancellor, veto laws, and utilize article 48.
In 1930 there were 37 individual parties running for office. Of these parties, only ten secured over 3% of the popular vote. The broad range of parties led to many wasted votes. This electoral paradigm made it difficult to secure an absolute majority, and as a result, Germany suffered through multiple polarized coalition governments during the Weimar Republic. In fact, the frequent and drastic changes in government left many Germans distrustful of democracy. The top five political parties participating in the 1930’s election held drastically polarized ideologies. Three of the main five parties leaned to the right: The NSDAP, the Center Party, and the DNVP. The SDP and Communist Party leaned left.
|Social Democrat Party||Social Democracy||Center-left|
|National Socialist German Workers Party||Nazism||Far-right|
|Communist Party of Germany||Marxism / Communism||Far-left|
|Centre Party||Political Catholicism||Center-right|
|German National People's Party||Conservatism / Nationalism||Right-wing|
The 1930 German election drew 82% voter turn-out, an unprecedented event. The incumbent political party, the Social Democratic Party (SPD), lead in the popular vote and won 143 seats, a loss of 10 seats from the previous election. The National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) rose to the second largest party with 18.25% of the vote and took home 107 seats, a remarkable additional 95 seats over the last election. The only other party to gain seats was the Communist Party, which won 13.13% of the vote, securing 77 seats, a gain of 23 additional seats than the last election. 34 other political parties shared the remainder of the votes. The excessive amount of small political parties created vast amounts of wasted votes in the previous election of 1928, however, in the 1930 election there were fewer political parties on the ballot; therefore, there were less wasted votes. Parties that did not secure a seat acquired 413,000 wasted votes. This broad-based coalition government with polarized political ideologies created inefficiency within the Weimar Republic.
|Social Democratic Party||8,575,244||24.53||143||–10|
|National Socialist German Workers Party||6,379,672||18.25||107||+95|
|Communist Party of Germany||4,590,160||13.13||77||+23|
|German National People's Party||2,457,686||7.03||41||–32|
|German People's Party||1,577,365||4.51||30||–15|
|German State Party||1,322,034||3.78||20||–5|
|Reich Party of the German Middle Class||1,361,762||3.90||23||0|
|Christian-National Peasants' and Farmers' Party||1,108,043||3.17||19||+10|
|Bavarian People's Party||1,058,637||3.03||19||+2|
|Christian Social People's Service||868,269||2.48||14||New|
|German Farmers' Party||339,434||0.97||6||–2|
|Conservative People's Party||290,579||0.83||4||New|
|Reich Party for Civil Rights and Deflation/Christian Social Reich Party||271,291||0.78||0||–2|
|Christian Social Peoples Community||81,550||0.23||0||New|
|Polish People's Party||72,913||0.21||0||0|
|Schmalix Greater German List||26,707||0.08||0||New|
|House and Property Owners||25,530||0.07||0||0|
|Conservative People's Party/German-Hanoverian Party||22,218||0.06||0||–|
|Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany||11,690||0.03||0||0|
|Freibund des Handwerks, Kleinhandels und Gewerbes||9,531||0.03||0||New|
|Radical German State Party||8,841||0.03||0||New|
|Deutsche Einheitspartei für wahre Volkswirtschaft||6,915||0.02||0||New|
|Kriegsbeschädigten- und Hinterbliebenenpartei der deutschen Mannschaft einschließlich der Abgefundenen||6,704||0.02||0||New|
|Deutsche Kulturpartei der geistigen Berufe, Angestellten und Beamten||6,181||0.02||0||New|
|Handel, Handwerk, Hausbesitz||3,644||0.01||0||New|
|Menschheitspartei und neue Volksgemeinschaft||1,626||0.0||0||New|
|Party against Alcohol||1,171||0.0||0||New|
|Workers Party for Creative Workers||907||0.0||0||New|
|Prussian-Lithunanian People's Party||666||0.0||0||New|
|Renter and People's Reich Party||653||0.0||0||New|
|People's Party of the Lusatian Sorbs||288||0.0||0||New|