Vice-Chancellor of Germany

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Vice-Chancellor of Germany
Bundesadler Bundesorgane.svg
Coat of arms of the German Government
SPD Bundesparteitag Leipzig 2013 by Moritz Kosinsky 021.jpg
Incumbent
Sigmar Gabriel

since 17 December 2013
Inaugural holder Otto of Stolberg-Wernigerode
Formation 1 June 1878
Coat of arms of Germany.svg
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The Deputy to the Federal Chancellor (German: Stellvertreter des Bundeskanzlers), widely known as the Vice-Chancellor (German: Vizekanzler) of Germany[1] is, according to protocol, the second highest position in the Cabinet of Germany. He is the equivalent of a deputy prime minister in other parliamentary systems. The current Vice-Chancellor is Sigmar Gabriel, who is the president of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and also serves as Federal Minister for the Economy and Energy.[2]

Office[edit]

As provided by the Basic Law (Constitution), Vice-Chancellor is not an independent office, but a position held by one of the ministers; since 1966, it has often been held by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. It is the Chancellor who chooses which minister serves as Vice-Chancellor, although the appointment is formally done by the Federal President.

Since coalition governments are common in German politics, the Vice-Chancellor is in most cases the president of the junior coalition partner.

In case of the Chancellor's absence, the Vice-Chancellor acts in his or her place, for instance by heading Cabinet meetings.

The Vice-Chancellor will not automatically become Chancellor for the rest of the term if the Chancellor dies or becomes unable to fulfill his or her duties in any other way. It is the Federal President who asks a minister to fulfill the Chancellor's duties until the Bundestag elects a new Chancellor. This has happened only once: Vice-Chancellor Walter Scheel was acting Chancellor for a few days in May 1974 between Chancellor Willy Brandt’s resignation and Helmut Schmidt’s election.

History[edit]

The office was initially established by the 1878 Stellvertretungsgesetz (Deputation Act), which provided for the Imperial Chancellor appointing a deputy, officially known as Allgemeiner Stellvertreter des Reichskanzlers (General Deputy to the Imperial Chancellor). In addition to the general deputy, who would be responsible for all the affairs of the Chancellor, the Chancellor could appoint deputies with limited responsibilities. The act was revised on 28 October 1918, when the possibility of appointing deputies with limited responsibilities was removed and the Vice-Chancellor was given the right to appear before parliament.[3]

Lists of Vice-Chancellors[edit]

German Empire (Allgemeiner Stellvertreter des Reichskanzler)[edit]

Political Party:       FKP       FVP

# Portrait Name Birth Death Term start Age start Term end Age end Days Party Portfolio Cabinet
1 Ottosw.jpg of Stolberg-Wernigerode, OttoOtto of Stolberg-Wernigerode 30 October 1837 19 November 1896 1 June 1878 40 20 June 1881 43 1115 FKP Bismarck
2 Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1981-127-06A, Karl-Heinrich von Boetticher.jpg von Boetticher, Karl HeinrichKarl Heinrich von Boetticher 6 January 1833 6 March 1907 20 June 1881 48 1 July 1897 64 5855 FKP Secretary of State for the Interior Bismarck
Caprivi
Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst
3 Nicola Perscheid - Arthur von Posadowsky-Wehner.jpg von Posadowsky-Wehner, ArthurArthur von Posadowsky-Wehner 3 June 1845 23 October 1932 1 July 1897 52 24 June 1907 62 3644 FKP Secretary of State for the Interior Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst
Bülow
4 Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg.jpg von Bethmann-Hollweg, TheobaldTheobald von Bethmann-Hollweg 29 November 1856 1 January 1921 24 June 1907 50 14 July 1909 52 751 Independent Secretary of State for the Interior Bülow
5 Delbrück, Clemens von (1856-1921).jpg von Delbrück, ClemensClemens von Delbrück 19 January 1856 17 December 1921 14 July 1909 53 22 May 1916 60 2501 Independent Secretary of State for the Interior Bethmann-Hollweg
7 Karl Helfferich.jpg Helfferich, KarlKarl Helfferich 22 July 1872 23 April 1924 22 May 1916 43 9 November 1917 45 536 Independent Secretary of State for the Interior (until 23 October 1917) Bethmann-Hollweg
Michaelis
Hertling
8 Friedrich von Payer.jpg von Payer, FriedrichFriedrich von Payer 12 June 1847 14 July 1931 9 November 1917 70 10 November 1918 71 366 FVP Hertling
Baden
Ebert

Weimar Republic (Reichvizekanzler)[edit]

Political Party:       DDP       Centre       DVP       SPD       DNVP

# Portrait Name Birth Death Term start Age start Term end Age end Days Party Portfolio Cabinet
1 Eugen Schiffer (1919).jpg Schiffer, EugenEugen Schiffer 14 February 1860 5 September 1954 13 February 1919 58 19 April 1919 59 65 DDP Deputy Minister-President / Minister of Finance Scheidemann
2 Bundesarchiv Bild 102-12088, Bernhard Dernburg.jpg Dernburg, BernhardBernhard Dernburg 17 July 1865 14 October 1937 30 April 1919 53 20 June 1919 53 51 DDP Deputy Minister-President / Minister of Finance Scheidemann
3 Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-072-16, Matthias Erzberger.jpg Erzberger, MatthiasMatthias Erzberger 20 September 1875 26 August 1921 21 June 1919 43 3 October 1919 44 104 Centre Deputy Minister-President (until 14 August 1919) / Minister of Finance Bauer
4 Eugen Schiffer (1919).jpg Schiffer, EugenEugen Schiffer 14 February 1860 5 September 1954 3 October 1919 59 27 March 1920 60 176 DDP Minister of Justice Bauer
5 Erich Koch-Weser, Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1986-014-10, Kabinett Müller (cropped).jpg Koch-Weser, ErichErich Koch-Weser 26 February 1875 19 October 1944 27 March 1920 45 21 June 1920 45 86 DDP Minister of the Interior Müller I
6 Heinze, RudolfRudolf Heinze 22 July 1865 26 May 1928 25 June 1920 54 4 May 1921 55 313 DVP Minister of Justice Fehrenbach
7 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-J0113-0500-001, Gustav Bauer.jpg Bauer, GustavGustav Bauer 6 January 1870 16 September 1944 10 May 1921 51 14 November 1922 52 553 SPD Minister of Finance Wirth I
Wirth II
Vacant (14 November 1922 – 13 August 1923)
8 Robert Schmidt (politician).jpg Schmidt, RobertRobert Schmidt 15 May 1864 16 September 1943 13 August 1923 59 3 November 1923 59 82 SPD Minister for Reconstruction Stresemann I
9 Bundesarchiv Bild 102-01175, Karl Jarres.jpg Jarres, KarlKarl Jarres 21 September 1874 20 October 1951 30 November 1923 49 15 December 1924 50 381 DVP Minister of the Interior Marx I
Marx II
Vacant (15 December 1924 – 28 January 1927)
10 Oskar Hergt.jpg Hergt, OskarOskar Hergt 22 October 1869 9 May 1967 28 January 1927 57 12 June 1928 58 501 DNVP Minister of Justice Marx IV
Vacant (12 June 1928 – 30 March 1930)
11 Bundesarchiv Bild 102-10015, Robert Hermann Dietrich.jpg Dietrich, HermannHermann Dietrich 14 December 1879 6 March 1954 30 March 1930 50 30 May 1932 52 792 DDP Minister of Finance (from 26 June 1930) Brüning I
Brüning II
Vacant (30 May 1932 – 30 January 1933)

Nazi Germany (Reichvizekanzler)[edit]

Political Party:       NSDAP

# Portrait Name Birth Death Term start Age start Term end Age end Days Party Portfolio Other positions Cabinet
1 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S00017, Franz von Papen crop.jpg von Papen, FranzFranz von Papen 29 October 1879 2 May 1969 30 January 1933 53 7 August 1934 54 554 Non-partisan Minister President of Prussia (until 10 April 1933) Hitler
Vacant (7 August 1934 – 10 February 1941)
2 Bundesarchiv Bild 102-13805, Hermann Göring.jpg Göring, HermannHermann Göring 12 January 1893 15 October 1946 10 February 1941 48 23 April 1945 52 1533 NSDAP Minister of Aviation / Minister of Forestry President of the Reichstag / Minister President of Prussia / Commander-in-Chief of the Luftwaffe Hitler

Federal Republic of Germany[edit]

Political Party:       FDP       CDU       SPD       Green

# Portrait Name Birth Death Term start Age start Term end Age end Days Party Portfolio Cabinet
1 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-P001512, Franz Blücher 2.jpg Blücher, FranzFranz Blücher 24 March 1896 26 March 1959 20 September 1949 53 29 October 1957 61 2961 FDP/FVP Marshall Plan / Economic Cooperation Adenauer I • II
2 Ludwig Erhard 916-1330.jpg Erhard, LudwigLudwig Erhard 4 February 1897 5 May 1977 29 October 1957 60 16 October 1963 66 2178 CDU Economics Adenauer III • IV • V
3 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-87989-0060, Erich Mende.jpg Mende, ErichErich Mende 28 October 1916 6 May 1998 17 October 1963 46 28 October 1966 50 1107 FDP Intra-German Relations Erhard I • II
4 HCSeebohm.jpg Seebohm, Hans-ChristophHans-Christoph Seebohm 4 August 1903 17 September 1967 8 November 1966 63 30 November 1966 63 22 CDU Transport Erhard II
5 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F057884-0009, Willy Brandt.jpg Brandt, WillyWilly Brandt 18 December 1913 8 October 1992 1 December 1966 52 20 October 1969 55 1054 SPD Foreign Minister Kiesinger I
6 Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-047-20, Walter Scheel.jpg Scheel, WalterWalter Scheel 8 July 1919 21 October 1969 50 16 May 1974 54 1668 FDP Foreign Minister Brandt III
7 Hans-Dietrich Genscher (1989).jpg Genscher, Hans-DietrichHans-Dietrich Genscher 21 March 1927 31 March 2016 17 May 1974 47 17 September 1982 55 3045 FDP Foreign Minister Schmidt III • III
8 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F048636-0022, Dortmund, SPD-Parteitag, Egon Franke.jpg Franke, EgonEgon Franke 11 April 1913 26 April 1995 17 September 1982 69 1 October 1982 69 14 SPD Intra-German Relations Schmidt III
9 Hans-Dietrich Genscher (1989).jpg Genscher, Hans-DietrichHans-Dietrich Genscher 21 March 1927 31 March 2016 1 October 1982 55 17 May 1992 65 3516 FDP Foreign Minister Kohl IIIIIIIV
10 Jürgen Möllemann 2002 (cropped).jpeg Möllemann, JürgenJürgen Möllemann 15 July 1945 5 June 2003 18 May 1992 46 21 January 1993 47 248 FDP Economics Kohl IV
11 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F063645-0024, Pullach, Besuch Carstens beim BND.jpg Kinkel, KlausKlaus Kinkel 17 December 1936 21 January 1993 56 26 October 1998 61 2104 FDP Foreign Minister Kohl IVV
12 Joschka Fischer.jpg Fischer, JoschkaJoschka Fischer 12 April 1948 27 October 1998 50 22 November 2005 57 2583 Green Foreign Minister Schröder III
13 FranzMüntefering mw1.jpg Müntefering, FranzFranz Müntefering 16 January 1940 22 November 2005 65 21 November 2007 67 729 SPD Labour and Social Affairs Merkel I
14 Frank-Walter Steinmeier 20090902-DSCF9761.jpg Steinmeier, Frank-WalterFrank-Walter Steinmeier 5 January 1956 21 November 2007 51 27 October 2009 53 706 SPD Foreign Minister Merkel I
15 Guido westerwelle.jpg Westerwelle, GuidoGuido Westerwelle 27 December 1961 18 March 2016 28 October 2009 47 16 May 2011 49 565 FDP Foreign Minister Merkel II
16 Roesler-klein.jpg Rösler, PhilippPhilipp Rösler 24 February 1973 16 May 2011 38 17 December 2013 40 946 FDP Economics and Technology Merkel II
17 Sigmar Gabriel (2013).jpg Gabriel, SigmarSigmar Gabriel 12 September 1959 17 December 2013 54 Incumbent Incumbent 954 SPD Economics and Energy Merkel III

References[edit]

  1. ^ The prefix "Vize-" is derived from the Latin "vicis" meaning "in place of". "Kanzler" (Chancellor) is the traditional title of the head of government in Germany. Although the office has always been widely known as Vizekanzler, this has never been the official title. The official title since 1949 is seldom used outside very formal contexts.
  2. ^ http://racers-republic.com/world-news124/germany-social-democratic-rival-merkel-appointed-vice-chancellor-940
  3. ^ (in German) http://www.documentarchiv.de/ksr/1878/reichskanzler-stellvertretung_ges.html