Glashtyn (Manx: glashtin, glashan, glaistyn, glastyn; pronounced //) is a legendary creature from Manx folklore. The word glashtin is thought to derive from Celtic Old Irish: glais, glaise, glas, meaning "stream", or sometimes even the sea.
By some accounts, the glashtin is a goblin that appears out of its aquatic habitat, to come in contact with the island folk; others equate it to the water horse known locally as "cabyll-ushtey".
The two conflicting accounts above can be reconciled by the trick of regarding the Manx glashtin as a shape-shifter. Recent literature embracing this notion claims that the equine glashtin assumes human form at times, but betrays his identity when he fails to conceal his ears, which are pointed like a horse's. One modern tale relates how a fisherman's daughter outwitted the glashtyn whom she recognized by his horse's ears, resisting his temptation of a strand of pearls dangled in front of her, and holding out till the red cockerel crowed to announce (prematurely) the break of dawn (Matthews & Matthews 2006). Here it is said that the glashtyn can transform whenever upon a dunghill.
Modern conceptions tend to portray the glashtin as "a handsome, dark man with curly hair and flashing eyes," capable of alluring women with his attractive appearance.
The creature, known under the variant form Glashan, was known to have great curiosity for women and pester them in rather picaresque manner, and would grab hold and tear off pieces of women's attire.
Earlier folklore collections
The shapeshifter rationalization notwithstanding, early collectors of Manx folklore were only able to gather disparate, inconsistent accounts of the glashtin from different sources (exemplified below, under #Joseph Train, #Cabyll ushtey), some making him out to be like the Fenodyree or kindred spirits, while others insisted it was a water-horse. A similar dichotomy is applicable to the Scandinavian nykken.
Train's History of the island represents one of the early commentary on the glashtin. In one passage, he claims that the glashtin was a water-horse, and this sea-glashtin would emerge from his marine habitat, mingle with the local land-roving ponies and cross breed to produce foal. An earlier historian George Waldron records such behaviour for the water-bull (see #taroo ushtey below), but makes no endorsement for any water-horses doing the same.
Train also alleged that the renowned Hom Mooar (which signifies "Big Tom", a name of a fairy fiddler, as explained by "A Vocabulary of the Anglo-Manx Dialect"), was a glashtin. He goes on to supply as an example a tale taken from Waldron, describing a man was lured by invisible musicians to a strange banquet, and obtained the silver cup that came to be used for the "consecrated Wine in Kirk-Merlugh (Malew Church), even though Waldron never refers to the enchanted musicians as glashtin or "Big Tom".
Train claimed he used as his source an MS Account of Manks Superstition, which was a study on folklore he commissioned specifically for his work from an island native.
The 18th century Manx local historian George Waldron records the superstition about the Water-Bull, an "amphibious creature" with every semblance of a natural bull, but a cow mating with it calves only a misshapen "lump of flesh and skin without bones" and often dies giving birth. He also tells that a neighbor detected a stray bull in his herd, and suspecting it to be a Water-Bull, rounded up a group of men with pitchforks to give it chase, but the beast dove into a river and eluded them, bobbing its head up in mockery. It was Train who later supplied the equivalent name in the Manx language (possibly from his native reporter).
Manx folklorist and historian Arthur William Moore was also unable to avoid the dichotomy regarding the glashtin. In one instance, Moore represents the glashtin as "a hairy goblin or sprite". But in another instance, he says glashtin was another name for the "Cabbyl-Ushtey", the "water-horse".
Moore says there was a sighting of the horse in 1859 at Ballure Glen, and after being spotted people from nearby Ramsey flocked to see, but no one caught sight of it. The glen beneath the Glen Meay Waterfall (near Peel; see Morrison's tale below) was haunted by the ghost of a man who unwittingly rode on the horseback of the glashtin or cabbyl-ushtey, and was drowned at sea. (Moore took both these stories Jenkinson's book published in 1874, whose source for the first sighting was a "respectable farmer's wife from Ramsey" who told Jenkinson about an occurrence reaching 15 years back)
Nevertheless, recent literature makes the cabyll-ushtey as being more benign than the Scottish Gaelic each-uisge.
Scottish folklorist J. F. Campbell collected from a woman living on the Calf of Man the southern Manx lore concerning the glashan. She describes a being who assists as a farmhand, performing tasks of rounding up sheep from the fold, or thresh stalks of corn if left unbundled – qualities elsewhere ascribed to the fenodyree.
One intriguing anecdote is of a glashan who caught a girl by getting a tight griphold of her dress. But while he slept, she cut away the dress and escaped, making him cast away the cloth, uttering something in Manx unintelligible to Campbell. Roeder records a similar tale of a woman who loosened her apron-string to rid herself of the glashtin clung on her apron, and he spoke the words: 'Rumbyl, rumbyl, cha vel ayms agh yn sampyl' (The edge or skirt of the garment, I have but the sample.). Morrison's tale gives a bastard version of this in her "The Buggane of the Glen Meay Waterfall".
In closing, Rhys too reports that his "informants" were at odds, some of them regarding the "glastyn" as the Manx version of the brownie, while others were adamant it was "a sort of grey colt, frequenting the banks of lakes at night".
- Cregeen 1835, Dict., p. 79, "Glashtin, sm a goblin, a sprite"
- Train 1845,p. 147
- Moore 1891,p. 52
- Roeder 1895–1901, Contribb. to Mx. Folk Lore, p.?
- Campbell 1860, vol.1,p.liii-liv
- Mackillop 1998 Dict. Celtic Mythology
- glais, glaise, glas "a stream, streamlet, rivulet, current : common in place-names" eDIL
- Blind 1881, p. 204 "In the Isle of Man.. the Water-Horse under the name of Glashtin, Glashtan, or Glashan (glaise, glais, or glas in Keltic speech, signifies a small stream; glas also the sea)
- Kneen 1925, "Chapter:Parish of Kirk Lonan", entry for Mullenbeg "little mill", which had an alternate name Nikkesen [nikasan] derived from the Scandinavian nykr. Kneen explains the Manx counterpart was glashan, or glashtin (from glas, 'a stream.')
- Cregeen 1866, Dict.: Kelly has "it a goblin, an imaginary animal which rises out of the water" (quoted in Roeder 1895–1901)
- Mackillop 1998, "(in) human form ... could not hide his horse's ears."
- John and Caitlin Matthews, Element Enc. of Mag. Creatures: "A girl was left alone in her cottage when her father went to market to sell his fish. He told her to fasten the door and not to open it until he knocked three times"... (late at night, there were three knocks and she let in a stranger, "speaking a foreign language, but through gestures" asked to be near fire for warmth. When the lamp faded, she blew to make the fire glow and saw "the fine pointed ears of the stranger", and knew "he was the dreaded Glashtyn, who might at any moment take upon him his horse's form and drag her out to sea and devour her". The creature dangled pearls before her as enticement, but she screamed, causing the red cockerel to crow at the dunghill, to announce the break of morning. This broke the spell and the Glashtyn was forced to flee, making sounds of galloping hooves.)
- Conway, Deanna J. (1996), Magickal, mythical, mystical beasts, Llewellyn Publications, p. 46, ISBN 9781567181760
- Train 1845, p. 142 gives the heading "the Sea-Glashtin"
- Moore & Morrison 1924,p.83, under "Hom"
- Waldron 1744 (2nd ed.), pp. 54–55
- Also reprinted in Keitley, Fairy Mythology", p. 399, "The Fairy Banquet"
- Train 1845, p. 147, n1.
- John Joseph Kneen (1931), A grammar of the Manx language (snippet), p. 46
- Waldron (1744), pp. 84–86
- Jennifer Draskau (2008), Practical Manx (preview), p. 223, ISBN 9781846311314
- Moore 1891,Folk-lore", p. 52, "..they combine the attributes.. of..Brownie, and.. and Troll, though the Glashtin seems to be a water-horse, also"
- Moore 1891, p. 53
- Jenkinson 1874, pp. 151-2
- Mackillop 1998, cabyll-ushtey "The Manx *each uisce or water-horse. Not as dangerous or greedy as its Highland counterpart.. appears in relatively few folk narratives. It might seize cows and tear them.. stampede horses, or steal children. Folk motif B17.2.1 (Hostile sea-beasts)
- Campbell 1860, p.liii-v
- Rhys effectively says so by transitive logic. This woman's account closely resembles Roeder's account for the Glashtin, and it is Rhys 1901's assessment that Roeder speaks "about the fenodyree under the name of glashtyn".
- Roeder 1895–1901, in Yn Lior Manninagh
- Morrison 1911
- Rhys (1901), p. 286.
- Cregeen, Archibald (1835), A dictionary of the Manks language, Douglas: J.Quiggin
- Jenkinson, Henry Irwin (1874), Jenkinson's practical guide to the Isle of Man, London: Edward Stanford, pp. 151–152,
- Kelly, John (1866), Fockleyr Gailckagh as Baarlagh (Manx-English & English-Manx Dictionary), Douglas: Manx Society
- Matthews, John; Matthews, Caitlin (2005), The Element Encyclopaedia of Magical Creatures, Sterling, ISBN 978-1-4027-3543-1
- McCoy, Edain (1994), A witch's guide to faery folk: reclaiming our working relationship, p. 232, ISBN 9780875427331
- Moore, Arthur William; Morrison, Sophia (1924), A Vocabulary of the Anglo-Manx Dialect
- Letter H
- (etymology citations)
- Blind, Karl (1881), "Scottish, Shetlandic, and Germanic Water Tales(1)", The Contemporary Review, Douglas: Strahan, 40
- Kneen, J. J. (1925), "Parish of Kirk Lonan", The Place-Names of the Isle of Man with their Origin and History, Douglas: Yn Cheshaght Ghailckagh (The Manx Society), pp. 241–, under entry for Mullenbeg.
- (early works containing tales)
- Campbell, J. F. (John Francis), 1822–1885 (1860), Popular Tales of the West Highlands, orally collected (New edition), 1, Paisley: Alexander Gardener, pp. liii–lv
- Campbell, J. F. (1890), Popular Tales of the West Highlands, orally collected (New edition), 1, Paisley: Alexander Gardener, pp. xlvi–xlvii
- Moore, Arthur William (1891), "Chapter IV: Hobgoblins, monsters, giants, mermaids, apparitions, &c.", The Folk-Lore of the Isle of Man, Douglas: Brown & Son, pp. 52–
- Moore, Arthur William (January 1895), "Further Notes on Manx Folklore", The Antiquary, London: Elliot Stock, XXXI: 5–9, 72–76, 106–109
- Moore, Arthur William (1896), Manx ballads & music, Doublas: G. &R. Johnson; p.xxxii
- Morrison, Sophia (1911), "The Buggane of Glen Meay Waterfall", Manx Fairy Tales, London: David Nutt, p. 8–13 www.isle-of-man
- Rhys, John (1901), "Chapter IV:Manx Folklore", Celtic folklore: Welsh and Manx, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1, pp. 284–53
- Roeder, C (1895–1901), "Contributions to the Folk Lore of the Isle of Man", Yn Lior Manninagh, Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society, 3
- Train, Joseph (1845), An historical and statistical account of the Isle of Man, 2, Douglas: Mary A.Quiggin, Chapter XVIII, Popular Superstions, p. 142–184
- Train commissioned a MS Account of Manks Superstition "collected for this work by a native of the Island", p. 147n, which he uses as reference.
- Waldron, George (1744), The History and Description of the Isle of Man: Viz. Its Antiquity, History, Laws, Customs, Religion and Manners of Its Inhabitants, ..., W. Bickerton