Castletown, Isle of Man
|Manx: Balley Chashtal|
Castle Rushen seen across Castletown Harbour at low tide
Castletown shown within the Isle of Man
|Population||3,109 (Isle of Man census 2006)|
|OS grid reference|
|– Douglas||8.9 miles (14 km) ENE|
|Crown dependency||Isle of Man|
|Post town||ISLE OF MAN|
|Police||Isle of Man|
|Fire||Isle of Man|
|Ambulance||Isle of Man|
|House of Keys||Castletown|
Castletown (Manx: Balley Chashtal, pronounced [ˈbalʲə ˈxaʃtʃəl]) is a town geographically within the Malew parish of the Isle of Man but administered separately. Lying at the south of the island, it was the Manx capital until 1869. The centre of town is dominated by Castle Rushen, a well-preserved medieval castle, originally built for a Viking king.
- 1 History
- 2 Politics
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Geography and Geology
- 5 Transport
- 6 Education
- 7 Religion
- 8 Sport
- 9 Landmarks
- 10 Architecture
- 11 Notable people
- 12 Members of the House of Keys and elections
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Castletown is the former capital of the Isle of Man and site of Tynwald, and can trace its roots back to 1090. The town has narrow streets and small fishing cottages. Castle Rushen (at the centre of the town) was originally built in 1265 for a Norse king, then fortified and added to by successive rulers between the 13th and 16th centuries. The Castle has been used as a fortress, a residence for the Kings and Lords of Mann, as the site for a mint and even a prison (past prisoners include a bishop and two newspaper editors). The town and castle were the site of a number of sieges and battles, especially during the years when control of the Island passed between the Norse, Scots and English. Robert the Bruce laid siege to and captured the Castle three times.
The history of the town and Island are illustrated in four Manx National Heritage sites in the centre of Castletown: Castle Rushen, the Nautical Museum (in the secret passage-filled home of inventor, politician and probable smuggler George Quayle), the Old Grammar School (originally a medieval church from AD 1200) and the old House of Keys.
Fishing boats still continue to go out to fish from the harbour. Commercial traffic to the port ended in the 1970s, although there has been an ongoing expansion of finance and industrial businesses in the area. The first telephones appeared in Castletown in 1901.
Castletown is, along with Douglas, Peel and Ramsey, one of four town local authorities. They were all designated as towns by the Town Act 1852. Castletown became a local authority in 1883. It is also a House of Keys constituency, electing one Member of the House of Keys (MHK). The town's representative until 2011 was Tony Brown who was the Chief Minister of the Isle of Man after the Manx general election, 2006. He retired in 2011 and was replaced as MHK for Castletown by Richard Ronan. In 1874, the House of Keys moved from Castletown to Douglas.
The Isle of Man Census 2011 lists the town's population as 3,097 (2006: 3,109) It is the fourth largest town on the island, after Douglas, Ramsey and Peel, but is also smaller than Onchan and Port Erin, which have the status of villages.
Geography and Geology
The town lies on the northwest side of Castletown Bay. The opposite shore of the bay is the west coast of the distinctively-shaped Langness Peninsula.
To the north-east are Ronaldsway Airport and industrial zone, and the village of Ballasalla; to the north-west the villages of Ballabeg and Colby; and to the west Port St Mary and Port Erin. The A3 road connects Castletown with Ramsey via St John's, while the A5 road (also known as New Castletown Road as opposed to the Old Castletown Road which takes a more rural route nearer the coast) connects the town with Douglas to the north-east and Port Erin to the west.
The A25 road was the historical route to Douglas and is now bypassed by the A5. There are free electric car charging stations available in a car park in the centre of the town. The town has several car parks including one above the harbour close to the old school house, to the rear of the Castle Arms and off Victoria Road as well as dedicated parking for the local bank, supermarkets and the railway station. The southern end of the Millennium Way long-distance footpath is at Castletown.
The older parts of the town are largely built of local grey limestone. At Scarlett, on the southern coast of the town, there is the remains of an ancient volcano and various other features such as fossils and thick sheets of limestone.
Castle Rushen and the town have long been said to have networks of tunnels. In 1938 tunnels under the town square were found (by Ramsey Quayle, the local baker, who was replacing an oven in his basement) leading to the Castle from nearby houses. Bagnio House (which was originally the Lord of Mann's bathhouse and brothel) also had a tunnel leading from it. The legend of Ivar and Matilda tells how in 1249 the knight Ivar saved his betrothed Matilda from the attentions of King Reginald, (Rögnvaldr Óláfsson) and killed the king, after discovering a tunnel to the Castle, where Matilda was being kept prisoner. The killing continued an ongoing struggle between different factions of the royal family of Mann. There are also legends of giants in the tunnels under the Castle.
Bus services operate through the town to Douglas, Port St Mary and Port Erin using route numbers 1, 2, 11 and 12; these run about every twenty minutes on weekdays and Saturdays with a less frequent service at weekends and after 6.00pm. Some of these services (1c and 11b) do not run through the town but use the bypass road. The route is the island's busiest, in part because it also serves Ronaldsway Airport just outside the town. A late evening service also operates on Friday and Saturday evenings, called the Hullaid Oie (Night Owl) which charges premium fare rates. There are also occasional buses to Peel (Service No. 8) via Foxdale; all these buses are within the island's transport network Bus Vannin, a government-run service which replaced the railway-operated Isle of Man Road Services in 1976.
The town is also served by Castletown railway station, on the sole remaining section of the Isle of Man Railway, a 3 ft narrow gauge steam-operated railway which now runs 15 miles from Douglas to Port Erin. The railway station is on the northeasterly edge of the town next to Poulsom Park and playing fields, and was at one time used to transport beer from the Castletown Brewery as well as cattle and other livestock; remnants of the cattle dock are still visible at the railway station, which is open seasonally between March and November as well as weekends around Christmas; there is a small volunteer group, the Friends of Castletown Railway Station, who tend to the area in association with the Isle of Man Steam Railway Supporters' Association, a local charity.
The island's only commercial airport, Ronaldsway Airport, is just over one mile northeast of the town and is served by both Bus Vannin and Castletown railway station as well as local taxi services. The airport runways and aprons spread over the area to the edge of the grounds of King William's College and close to the Janet's Corner local authority housing estate. The airport was first used as an airfield in 1928, with passenger services to the mainland commencing in 1933.
King William's College is an independent school. Founded in 1668 with funds from the Bishop Barrow Trust, it opened in 1833 with 46 boys. It is now co-educational, with about 500 pupils. The college has two sites in the town: the main estate is near the shore of Castletown Bay at the end of the main airport runway, and the Buchan School, the college's junior school, is in the Westhill area of Castletown, about 2 km (1.2 mi) from the main campus.
Other schools are: Castle Rushen High School, a co-educational secondary state school in the south-west of the town; and one primary school, Victoria Road School, originally opened as a boys' school in 1895, with a girls' school in Hope Street. The old grammar school in the town, which later became a chapel, is now an exhibit of a Victorian period schoolroom, part of the Story of Mann. This is open to the public between Easter and November and can be found close to the castle and the Old House of Keys.
There are three churches in the town. Castletown Methodist Church on Arbory Street, founded in 1932, is part of the Methodist Church in the Isle of Man, which in turn is part of the British Methodist Connexion. It can trace its story back to the visits of the founder of Methodism John Wesley to the town in the 18th century. It is sometimes known locally as Arbory Street to distinguish it from Malew Street when the former was the Wesleyan Methodist and the latter the Primitive Methodist Chapel.
On the town square is Old St Mary's Church, which is now office accommodation. It once had a spire, but this was lost in the early 1900s. The "new" St Mary's on the harbour replaced this church and can be found in Hope Street, to the side of Thirtle Bridge. Known as St Mary's on the Harbour, it is the Anglican parish church. The church building was consecrated as a church in 1985 when the congregation moved from the Garrison (Old St Mary's) Church in Castletown Square.
St Mary's Roman Catholic Church is on Bowling Green Road, near Janet's Corner. It was built in the 1820s: it was the first post-Reformation Catholic Church to be built on the island. It is the third church in the town to be dedicated to Mary, after[clarification needed] the title of the Rushen Abbey of St Mary. It has two intricate and colourful Celtic Revival/Art Nouveau windows, which depict the Annunciation and the Resurrection. These were made by the Clarke Brothers of Dublin.
Further afield is Malew Church, just over a mile north of the town on the A4 road towards St John's, a road which forms part of the Billown Circuit. The Church's name is from its original dedication to the early Celtic Saint, Saint Moluag, who is said to have converted the Picts to Christianity in the west of Scotland. Malew Church has its own graveyard, unlike the churches in the town; the road which doglegs around the church grounds has the title Church Bends on the racing circuit.
There is a private chapel at King William's College, which was built in 1878, and consecrated on 28 January 1879. Designed by local architect James Cowle, it features a scissor-braced roof with canopied stalls. Windows commemorate T. E. Brown, an old boy of the college.
Castletown Metropolitan F.C. play in the Isle of Man Football League and are based at the Castletown Football Stadium, Malew Road. Formed in 1904, the club is one of the most successful on the Isle of Man. They have been champions of the Isle of Man League eight times, including three consecutive seasons from 1922-23 to 1924-25 and won the Manx F.A. Cup seven times.
Castletown R.U.F.C. are based at Poulsom Park. The club now has permanent changing facilities. These were officially opened in October 2006 and built with the support of the Rugby Football Union (RFU), Manx Lottery Trust, Manx Sports Council, Castletown Commissioners and the members of the team. With the newly formed Castletown Rugby Union Football Club Limited, the club has secured the tenure on the pitch at Poulsom Park, having taken on a lease from the Castletown Commissioners.
Southern Nomads R.U.F.C. are based at King William's College.
Castletown Golf & Country Club is located on the Langness Peninsula. It is a tournament golf course, and is a Top 100 course designed by Old Tom Morris and redesigned by Mackenzie Ross. The 17th hole has the unusual feature of a drive over the Irish Sea. The links has hosted, among other events, the PGA Cup (1979), Europro Tour 2002, Manx Classic Pro Am and the Duke of York Young Champions Trophy in 2003 and again in 2005.
The Billown Circuit motor cycling course has its start line in the town. The course is home to the Southern 100, a motorcycle racing event held on the Isle of Man in July of each year. The event was first held in 1955, when there were three races for different classes of motorcycles; the current calendar includes twelve races for various classes. The paddock, clubhouse and race control are all located on the outskirts of the town.
Next to the bowling green is Castletown Lawn Tennis Club, probably the most successful tennis club on the Isle of Man. With teams in all local leagues. The club has recently won 6 leagues in the 2010-11 season.
World Championship Tin Bath Races
This annual event takes place in the middle harbour; it is organised by the Castletown Ale Drinkers' Society and sponsored by local breweries, with support from the Isle of Man Department of Community, Culture and Leisure and further sponsorship from local radio station Three FM. It raises money for local charities. Each year there are over 100 competitors and teams from the Isle of Man and elsewhere. In 2011 the event celebrated its 40th anniversary.
2011 Commonwealth Youth Games
The "culture day" prior to the closing ceremony of the 2011 Commonwealth Youth Games was held in Castletown on 12 September 2011 with competitors all travelling by steam train to the town square, where a number of attractions were laid on.
- Castle Rushen is a medieval castle which towers over the Market Square to the south-east and the harbour to the north-east. HMS Rushen Castle (K372), a former Castle-class corvette of the Royal Navy, was named after the castle. It is the focal point of the town and is open to the public seasonally between Easter and October.
- Old House of Keys was the location of Tynwald, the Manx parliament, until it moved in 1874 to Douglas. The house was renovated in 2000 and is run as a museum by Manx National Heritage. Tynwald used to meet in Castletown except on Tynwald Day, when it traditionally met (and still meets) on Tynwald Hill in St John's.
- Old Grammar School was originally built as a chapel about 1190-1230 and is located in the harbour to the rear of the town square at the side of a large car park. The building stopped being a school in the 1930s and is now a museum exhibit open seasonally in connection with the other Story of Mann sites in the town.
- Nautical Museum (also known as the Peggy Story in recent times) opened in 1951; the main focus of the museum is an 18th-century yacht, the Peggy (Peggy of Castletown), housed in the boat cellar, where she has been since the 19th century. She had been bricked up and forgotten before being rediscovered by workmen. In early 2015, Peggy was moved to Douglas for conservation in a climate controlled facility. The Nautical Museum is based in the house of local inventor (and politician, trader and possible smuggler) George Quayle, who had the house built with secret passages, doorways, and a replica of a captain's cabin. George had a bank next door. Opening the safe involved posting a series of cannonballs, which ran through a mechanism invented by Mr Quayle.
- Castletown Police Station (by the Castle entrance) was designed by the noted Arts & Crafts architect Bailley Scott.
- Museum of Witchcraft was in existence in the town for a short period at the Witches Mill which has since been redeveloped as flats. It was operated by the self-proclaimed witch Gerald Gardner who ran it under the title Folklore Centre of Superstition and Witchcraft, becoming a familiar figure in the town.
- The railway station was constructed in 1902 from locally sourced limestone from Scarlett Point and has been extensively refurbished in recent times, notably being overhauled in 1994 to original form[clarification needed]. It is open seasonally and many people's first encounter with the town is their arrival at the railway station, which is a short walk from the centre.
- Scarlett Point Visitor Centre is at the south-western tip of Castletown Bay. The Raad ny Foillan long distance coastal footpath opened in 1986 runs along the coast in the town.
Much of the attraction of Castletown is in the quality of its many 18th-century and early 19-century buildings, many constructed of the local silver-grey limestone. The layout of the town centre still retains its early arrangement, echoing the cluster of houses around the Castle, the harbour and the military parade ground, which still has its alternative use as market place. The interested visitor can still identify the original building plots, and the crofts attached to them, which have given their name to a residential area close to the town centre.
The old Castletown Police Station building, next to the entrance to the Castle, was designed by the noted Arts & Crafts architect Baillie Scott.
- John Christian, a Justice of the Peace, was born in Castletown in 1776, and was a First Deemster of the island
- Sir Joseph Qualtrough was born in Castletown in 1885. He was Speaker of the House of Keys from 1937 to 1960.
- Tony Brown, former chief minister of the island (1996–2011) still resides in the town.
- John Ready, British army officer who served as Lieutenant Governor of the island (1832–1845), died in the town and was buried on the island with full military honours.
- Captain John Quilliam RN, Naval officer, steered 'HMS Victory' during the Battle of Trafalgar.
- Robert Henry Cain VC, first Manxman to earn the Victoria Cross, grew up in Castletown and attended King William's College.
- Jeremy Clarkson, journalist and television personality, has a property on the outskirts of the town.
- Bishop Thomas Wilson was imprisoned at Castle Rushen during his tenure as the island's bishop.
- Illiam Dhone was a local nationalist and politician, executed at Hango Hill outside the town.
- George Quayle (1751–1835), inventor, 'colourful character', international trader, possible smuggler, prominent MHK and politician and banker. His home is now the Nautical Museum. This was also the home of George's 18th century yacht Peggy of Castletown, which is currently undergoing conservation.
- John Kewish was the last person to be hanged on the island, in Castle Rushen on 1 August 1872.
Members of the House of Keys and elections
||Colonel George Moore|
|1919||By election||Unknown||Sir Joseph Davidson Qualtrough CBE|
|1919||General election||Unopposed||Sir Joseph Davidson Qualtrough CBE|
|1924||General election||Unopposed||Sir Joseph Davidson Qualtrough CBE|
|1929||General election||Unopposed||Sir Joseph Davidson Qualtrough CBE|
|1934||General election||Unopposed||Sir Joseph Davidson Qualtrough CBE|
|1946||General election||Unknown||Sir Joseph Davidson Qualtrough CBE|
|1951||General election||Unknown||Sir Joseph Davidson Qualtrough CBE|
|1956||General election||Unknown||Sir Joseph Davidson Qualtrough CBE|
|1960||17th February||73,4%||Death of Sir Joseph David Qualtrough CBE|
|1962||General election||83.3%||Thomas Harold Colebourn|
|1966||General election||74.1%||Viscount Gort|
|1971||General election||81.3%||Elspeth Quayle|
|1976||General election||80.2%||Elspeth Quayle|
|1981||General election||68.7%||Tony Brown OBE|
|1986||General election||67.3%||Tony Brown OBE|
|1991||General election||Elected unopposed||Tony Brown OBE|
||Tony Brown OBE|
|2001||General election||Elected unopposed||Tony Brown OBE|
|2006||General election||62.2%||Tony Brown OBE|
|2011||General election||65.7%||Richard Ronan|
- "Isle of Man Census 2006 Summary Results" (PDF). Economic Affairs Division, Isle of Man Treasury. 2006. p. 3. Retrieved 28 September 2008.
- "Castletown". Isle of Man Guide. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
- "Old House of Keys". Isle of Man Guide. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
- "Victoria Road School". castletown.org. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
- "Castletown Parish Church St. Mary's on the Harbour". castletown.org. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
- "St Mary's Catholic Church". castletown.org. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
- "Isle of Man 1897/98 and 1970/71-1994/95". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 29 May 2007. Retrieved 8 September 2008.
- "Isle of Man List of Cup Winners". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 8 June 2008. Retrieved 10 September 2008.
- "IOMCA Member Clubs". Isle of Man Cricket Association. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
- "Castletown Bowling Club". castletown.org. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
- "Castletown Lawn Tennis Club". castletown.org. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
- It is situated in the same grounds as Castle Rushen High School. "Southern Swimming Pool". castletown.org. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
- "2011 venues". 2011 Commonwealth Youth Games. Retrieved 21 September 2008.
- "Old Grammar School". castletown.org. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
- "Nautical museum". castletown.org. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
- Archaeologists move 'Britain's oldest yacht', BBC News Isle of Man/Ellan Vannin, 29 January, 2015
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