Haplogroup BT M91, also known as Haplogroup A1b2 (and formerly as A4, BR and BCDEF), is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. BT is a subclade of haplogroup A1b (P108) and a sibling of the haplogroup A1b1 (L419/PF712).
Macrohaplogroup BT has been found in populations on every continent, since prehistoric times. It is the progenitor clade of the paternal haplogroups B and CT.
Haplogroup BT has been found in various fossils that were analysed for ancient DNA. Individuals excavated in Malawi at Fingira Rock, which have been dated to 6175-5923 years ago, carried BT (2/2 males; 100%). This paragroup was also observed in a Later Stone Age skeleton at Hora (1/1 males; 100%), dated to 10000-5000 years before present.
Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use.
The revised y-chromosome family tree by Cruciani et al. (2011) compared with the family tree from Karafet et al. (2008). Cruciani et al. (2011) define BT via M91 and P97, and as a consequence, ISOGG has listed BT since February 2012, and treated M91 as defining mutation for BT since 2014.
^Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID24166809.
^ISOGG Haplogroup A (2012): "BT is shown on this tree, though it is not considered to be a part of Haplogroup A, in order to make it clear that, as a sibling clade of A1b1, BT and all other haplogroups are downstream of A1b. Listed 15 February 2012." (also note that the group labelled "A1b" in the image is the "A0" of ISOGG (2012)).