Haplogroup Q-M120

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Haplogroup Q-M120
Possible time of origin Insufficient Data
Possible place of origin Asia
Ancestor Q1a1a (F746/NWT01)
Defining mutations M120 and M265 (AKA N14)

Haplogroup Q-M120, also known as Q1a1a1, is a Y-DNA haplogroup. It is the only primary branch of haplogroup Q1a1a (F746/NWT01). The lineage is most common amongst modern populations in north-east Eurasia.


Q-M120 has descendants in modern populations across eastern Eurasia.

The Americas[edit]

One of the 1K Genomes samples, HG01944, from Peruvians in Lima, Peru belongs to Q-M120. Q-M120 is the other branch under Q-F746. It is best known as an East Asian branch of Q. This is intriguing, if it is not post colonial admixture, it will mark a fourth or fifth Q lineage in the Americas.


Q-M120 is present in Eastern Asia and may trace its origin to East Asia.[1][2] It has been found at low frequency among Han Chinese,[1][2] Dungans,[3] Japanese,[4] Koreans,[3] Mongols,[5] Uygurs,[6] and Tibetans.[2][7] Although it was reported in the Hazaras.[8]

Population Paper N Percentage SNP Tested
Dungan (Kyrgyzstan) Wells 2001[3] 3/40 ~7.5% M120
Han (Henan) Su 2000[2] 2/28 ~7.1% M120
Han (Anhui) Su 2000[2] 1/22 ~4.6% M120
Northern Han Su 2000[2] 1/22 ~4.5% M120
Han (Shanghai) Su 2000[2] 1/30 ~3.3% M120
Han (Shandong) Su 2000[2] 1/32 ~3.1% M120
Korea Wells 2001[3] 1/45 ~2.2% M120
Tibetan-Lhasa Su 2000[2] 1/46 ~2.2% M120
Tibet Gayden 2007[7] 2/156 ~1.3% M120
Han (Shanxi) Zhong 2010[6] 1/56 ~1.8% M120
Uygur (Xingjiang) Zhong 2010[6] 1/71 ~1.4% M120
Uygur (Xingjiang) Zhong 2010[6] 1/50 ~2.0% M120
Han (Jiangsu) Su 2000[2] 1/55 ~1.8% M120
Mongolia Di Cristofaro 2013[5] 2/160 ~1.25% M120
Japan Nonaka 2007[4] 1/165 ~0.61% M120


To date, Q-M120 has hardly been detected in European populations.

Associated SNPs[edit]

Haplogroup Q-M120 is defined by the presence of the M120 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) as well as the M265 (AKA N14) SNP.

Phylogenetic tree[edit]

This is Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center's Draft Tree for haplogroup Q-M120.

  • Q-MEH2 MEH2, L472, L528
    • Q-M120 M120, N14/M265

See also[edit]

Y-DNA Q-M242 subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
IJ   K
I J     LT [χ 5]  K2
L     T [χ 6] K2a [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]   K2c   K2d  K2e [χ 9]  
K2a1                    K2b1 [χ 10]    P [χ 11]
NO    S [χ 12]  M [χ 13]    P1     P2
NO1    Q   R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. PMID 24166809. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T (M184) was known as "Haplogroup K2" – that name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and the new subclade K2a1 (M2313) were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of: Poznik GD, Xue Y, Mendez FL, et al. (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 48 (6): 593–9. PMC 4884158Freely accessible. PMID 27111036. doi:10.1038/ng.3559.  In the past, other haplogroups, including NO1 (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
  10. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  11. ^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
  12. ^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
  13. ^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)


  1. ^ a b Wen B; Li H; Lu D; et al. (September 2004). "Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han culture". Nature. 431 (7006): 302–5. PMID 15372031. doi:10.1038/nature02878. Supplementary Table 2: NRY haplogroup distribution in Han populations 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Su, Bing; Xiao, Chunjie; Deka, Ranjan; Seielstad, Mark T.; Kangwanpong, Daoroong; Xiao, Junhua; Lu, Daru; Underhill, Peter; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca (2000). "Y chromosome haplotypes reveal prehistorical migrations to the Himalayas". Human Genetics. 107 (6): 582–90. PMID 11153912. doi:10.1007/s004390000406. 
  3. ^ a b c d Wells RS; Yuldasheva N; Ruzibakiev R; et al. (August 2001). "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (18): 10244–9. PMC 56946Freely accessible. PMID 11526236. doi:10.1073/pnas.171305098. Table 1: Y-chromosome haplotype frequencies in 49 Eurasian populations, listed according to geographic region 
  4. ^ a b Nonaka, I.; Minaguchi, K.; Takezaki, N. (2007). "Y-chromosomal Binary Haplogroups in the Japanese Population and their Relationship to 16 Y-STR Polymorphisms". Annals of Human Genetics. 71 (4): 480–95. PMID 17274803. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2006.00343.x. 
  5. ^ a b Di Cristofaro J, Pennarun E, Mazières S, Myres NM, Lin AA, et al. (2013) "Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge." PLoS ONE 8(10): e76748. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076748
  6. ^ a b c d Zhong, H.; Shi, H.; Qi, X.-B.; Duan, Z.-Y.; Tan, P.-P.; Jin, L.; Su, B.; Ma, R. Z. (2010). "Extended Y Chromosome Investigation Suggests Postglacial Migrations of Modern Humans into East Asia via the Northern Route". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 28 (1): 717–27. PMID 20837606. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq247. 
  7. ^ a b Gayden T; Cadenas AM; Regueiro M; et al. (May 2007). "The Himalayas as a Directional Barrier to Gene Flow". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 80 (5): 884–94. PMC 1852741Freely accessible. PMID 17436243. doi:10.1086/516757. 
  8. ^ Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; King, Roy; Mehdi, S.Q.; Edmonds, Christopher A.; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T.; Lin, Alice A.; Mitra, Mitashree; Sil, Samir K. (2006). "Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 78 (2): 202–21. PMC 1380230Freely accessible. PMID 16400607. doi:10.1086/499411. 

External links[edit]