Hugo Award for Best Fanzine

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Hugo Award for Best Fanzine
Awarded for The best non-professional magazine devoted primarily to science fiction or fantasy
Presented by World Science Fiction Society
First awarded 1955
Most recent winner Lady Business (Clare, Ira, Jodie, KJ, Renay, and Susan)
Website thehugoawards.org
Ira and Susan accepting the 2017 Hugo Award for Best Fanzine for Lady Business

The Hugo Awards are given every year by the World Science Fiction Society for the best science fiction or fantasy works and achievements of the previous year. The award is named after Hugo Gernsback, the founder of the pioneering science fiction magazine Amazing Stories, and was once officially known as the Science Fiction Achievement Award.[1] The award has been described as "a fine showcase for speculative fiction" and "the best known literary award for science fiction writing".[2][3] The Hugo Award for Best Fanzine was given each year for non professionally edited magazines, or "fanzines", related to science fiction or fantasy, published in English, and which has published four or more issues with at least one issue appearing in the previous calendar year.[4] Awards were also once given out for professional magazines in the professional magazine category, and since 1984 have been awarded for semi-professional magazines in the semiprozine category; several magazines that were nominated for or won the fanzine category have gone on to be nominated for or win the semiprozine category since it was established.

The award was first presented in 1955, and has been given annually since except for in 1958. A "fanzine" is defined for the award as a magazine that does not meet the Hugo award's criteria for a professional or semi-professional magazine. Specifically, it must meet less than two of the five Hugo criteria for consideration as a semiprozine: that the magazine had an average press run of at least one thousand copies per issue, paid its contributors and/or staff in other than copies of the publication, provided at least half the income of any one person, had at least fifteen percent of its total space occupied by advertising, and announced itself to be a semiprozine.[5] This is the oldest long-running Hugo award for fan activity; in 1967 Hugo Awards were added specifically for fan writing and fan art. In addition to the regular Hugo awards, beginning in 1996 Retrospective Hugo Awards, or "Retro Hugos", have been available to be awarded for years 50, 75, or 100 years prior in which no awards were given.[6] To date, Retro Hugo awards have been awarded for 1939, 1941, 1946, 1951, and 1954, and the fanzine category has been included each year.[7]

Hugo Award nominees and winners are chosen by supporting or attending members of the annual World Science Fiction Convention (Worldcon), and the presentation evening constitutes its central event. The selection process is defined in the World Science Fiction Society Constitution as instant-runoff voting with six nominees, except in the case of a tie. The works on the ballot are the six most-nominated by members that year, with no limit on the number of works that can be nominated. The 1955 and 1956 awards did not include any recognition of runner-up magazines, but since 1957 all of the candidates were recorded.[6] Initial nominations are made by members in January through March, while voting on the ballot of six nominations is performed roughly in April through July, subject to change depending on when that year's Worldcon is held.[8] Prior to 2017, the final ballot was five works; it was changed that year to six, with each initial nominator limited to five nominations.[9] Worldcons are generally held near the start of September, and are held in a different city around the world each year.[1][10]

During the 69 nomination years, including Retro Hugo years, 128 magazines run by 177 editors have been nominated. Of these, 39 magazines run by 67 editors have won, including ties. Locus has won 8 times out of 13 nominations, the most wins of any magazine. Mimosa has won 6 of 14 nominations and File 770 has won 6 of 31, the most nominations of any magazine. Ansible has won 5 out of 11 and Science Fiction Review has won 4 of 12; they are the only other magazines to win more than twice. Challenger has the most nominations without winning at 12; the next highest is FOSFAX with 7. As editor of Locus Charles N. Brown has won 8 of 13 nominations, though he shared 8 of those awards with Dena Brown. Richard E. Geis has won 6 of 15 nominations for his work on Science Fiction Review, Psychotic, and The Alien Critic; Mike Glyer has won 7 of 31 for editing File 770; David Langford has won 5 of 12 for work on Ansible and Twil-Ddu; and Richard Lynch and Nicki Lynch have both won 6 of 14 nominations for Mimosa. Guy H. Lillian III has the most nominations without winning at 12 for Challenger.

Winners and nominees[edit]

In the following table, the years correspond to the date of the ceremony, rather than when the work was first published. Each date links to the "year in literature" article corresponding with when the work was eligible. Entries with a blue background won the award for that year; those with a white background are the other nominees on the short-list. Note that five magazines are listed under multiple names: Psychotic was later renamed to Science Fiction Review, Zenith was renamed to Zenith Speculation and later to Speculation, Algol was renamed to Starship, Tangent was renamed to Tangent Online when it switched from a print magazine to an online one, and Cry of the Nameless, a club bulletin for "The Nameless Ones", was renamed to Cry when it began publishing more general material. No other magazines have been nominated under multiple names.[11][12][13] Those magazines are sorted under the first name they were nominated as.

  *   Winners and joint winners

Year Work Editor(s) Ref.
1955 Fantasy-Times* James V. Taurasi, Sr. and Ray Van Houten [14]
1956 Inside* Ron Smith [15]
Science Fiction Advertiser* Ron Smith [15]
A Bas Boyd Raeburn [15]
Fantasy-Times James V. Taurasi, Sr. and Ray Van Houten [15]
Grue Peggy Nadramia [15]
Hyphen Walt Willis and Chuck Harris [15]
Oblique Cliff Gould [15]
Peon Charles Lee Riddle [15]
Psychotic Richard E. Geis [15]
Sky Hook Redd Boggs [15]
1957 Science-Fiction Times* James V. Taurasi, Sr., Ray Van Houten and Frank R. Prieto, Jr. [16]
Hyphen Walt Willis and Chuck Harris [16]
Inside Ron Smith [16]
1959 Fanac* Terry Carr and Ron Ellik [17]
Cry of the Nameless F. M. Busby, Elinor Busby, Burnett Toskey and Wally Weber [17]
Hyphen Walt Willis and Chuck Harris [17]
JD-Argassy Lynn A. Hickman [17]
Science-Fiction Times James V. Taurasi, Sr., Ray Van Houten and Frank R. Prieto, Jr. [17]
Yandro Robert Coulson and Juanita Coulson [17]
1960 Cry of the Nameless* F. M. Busby, Elinor Busby, Burnett Toskey and Wally Weber [18]
Fanac Terry Carr and Ron Ellik [18]
JD-Argassy Lynn A. Hickman [18]
Science-Fiction Times James V. Taurasi, Sr., Ray Van Houten and Frank R. Prieto, Jr. [18]
Yandro Robert Coulson and Juanita Coulson [18]
1961 Who Killed Science Fiction?* Earl Kemp [19]
Discord Redd Boggs [19]
Fanac Terry Carr and Ron Ellik [19]
Habakkuk Bill Donaho [19]
Shangri L'Affaires Bjo Trimble and John Trimble [19]
Yandro Robert Coulson and Juanita Coulson [19]
1962 Warhoon* Richard Bergeron [20]
Amra George H. Scithers [20]
Axe Larry T. Shaw and Noreen Shaw [20]
Cry F. M. Busby, Elinor Busby, and Wally Weber [20]
Yandro Robert Coulson and Juanita Coulson [20]
1963 Xero* Richard A. Lupoff and Pat Lupoff [21]
Mirage Jack L. Chalker [21]
Shangri L'Affaires Fred Patten, Albert Lewis, Bjo Trimble, and John Trimble [21]
Warhoon Richard Bergeron [21]
Yandro Robert Coulson and Juanita Coulson [21]
1964 Amra* George H. Scithers [22]
ERB-dom Camille Cazedessus, Jr. [22]
Starspinkle Ron Ellik [22]
Yandro Robert Coulson and Juanita Coulson [22]
1965 Yandro* Robert Coulson and Juanita Coulson [23]
Double: Bill Bill Bowers and Bill Mallardi [23]
Zenith Peter R. Weston [23]
1966 ERB-dom* Camille Cazedessus, Jr. [24]
Double: Bill Bill Bowers and Bill Mallardi [24]
Niekas Edmund R. Meskys and Felice Rolfe [24]
Yandro Robert Coulson and Juanita Coulson [24]
Zenith Speculation Peter R. Weston [24]
1967 Niekas* Edmund R. Meskys and Felice Rolfe [25]
Australian SF Review John Bangsund [25]
Lighthouse Terry Carr [25]
Habakkuk Bill Donaho [25]
Riverside Quarterly Leland Sapiro [25]
Trumpet Tom Reamy [25]
Yandro Robert Coulson and Juanita Coulson [25]
1968 Amra* George H. Scithers [26]
Australian SF Review John Bangsund [26]
Lighthouse Terry Carr [26]
ODD Raymond Fisher [26]
Psychotic Richard E. Geis [26]
Yandro Robert Coulson and Juanita Coulson [26]
1969 Science Fiction Review* Richard E. Geis [27]
Riverside Quarterly Leland Sapiro [27]
Shangri L'Affaires Ken Rudolph [27]
Trumpet Tom Reamy [27]
Warhoon Richard Bergeron [27]
1970 Science Fiction Review* Richard E. Geis [28]
BeABohema Frank Lunney [28]
Locus Charles N. Brown [28]
Riverside Quarterly Leland Sapiro [28]
Speculation Peter R. Weston [28]
1971 Locus* Charles N. Brown and Dena Brown [29]
Energumen Michael Glicksohn and Susan Wood Glicksohn [29]
Outworlds Bill Bowers and Joan Bowers [29]
Science Fiction Review Richard E. Geis [29]
Speculation Peter R. Weston [29]
1972 Locus* Charles N. Brown and Dena Brown [30]
Energumen Michael Glicksohn and Susan Wood Glicksohn [30]
Granfalloon Ron Bushyager and Linda Bushyager [30]
SF Commentary Bruce Gillespie [30]
1973 Energumen* Michael Glicksohn and Susan Wood Glicksohn [31]
Algol Andrew I. Porter [31]
Granfalloon Ron Bushyager and Linda Bushyager [31]
Locus Charles N. Brown and Dena Brown [31]
SF Commentary Bruce Gillespie [31]
1974 The Alien Critic* Richard E. Geis [32]
Algol* Andrew I. Porter [32]
Locus Charles N. Brown and Dena Brown [32]
Outworlds Bill Bowers and Joan Bowers [32]
1975 The Alien Critic* Richard E. Geis [33]
Algol Andrew I. Porter [33]
Locus Charles N. Brown and Dena Brown [33]
Outworlds Bill Bowers and Joan Bowers [33]
SF Commentary Bruce Gillespie [33]
Starling Hank Luttrell and Lesleigh Luttrell [33]
1976 Locus* Charles N. Brown and Dena Brown [34]
Algol Andrew I. Porter [34]
Don-O-Saur Don C. Thompson [34]
Outworlds Bill Bowers [34]
Science Fiction Review Richard E. Geis [34]
1977 Science Fiction Review* Richard E. Geis [35]
Locus Charles N. Brown and Dena Brown [35]
Mythologies Don D'Ammassa [35]
Outworlds Bill Bowers [35]
The Spanish Inquisition Suzanne Tompkins and Jerry Kaufman [35]
1978 Locus* Charles N. Brown and Dena Brown [36]
Don-O-Saur Don C. Thompson [36]
Janus Janice Bogstad and Jeanne Gomoll [36]
Maya Rob Jackson [36]
Science Fiction Review Richard E. Geis [36]
1979 Science Fiction Review* Richard E. Geis [37]
Janus Janice Bogstad and Jeanne Gomoll [37]
Maya Rob Jackson [37]
Mota Terry Hughes [37]
Twll-Ddu David Langford [37]
1980 Locus* Charles N. Brown [38]
File 770 Mike Glyer [38]
Janus Janice Bogstad and Jeanne Gomoll [38]
Science Fiction Review Richard E. Geis [38]
Thrust Doug Fratz [38]
1981 Locus* Charles N. Brown [39]
File 770 Mike Glyer [39]
Science Fiction Chronicle Andrew I. Porter [39]
Science Fiction Review Richard E. Geis [39]
Starship Andrew I. Porter [39]
1982 Locus* Charles N. Brown [40]
File 770 Mike Glyer [40]
Science Fiction Chronicle Andrew I. Porter [40]
Science Fiction Review Richard E. Geis [40]
1983 Locus* Charles N. Brown [41]
Fantasy Newsletter Robert A. Collins [41]
File 770 Mike Glyer [41]
Science Fiction Chronicle Andrew I. Porter [41]
Science Fiction Review Richard E. Geis [41]
1984 File 770* Mike Glyer [42]
Ansible David Langford [42]
Holier Than Thou Marty Cantor and Robbie Cantor [42]
Izzard Patrick Nielsen Hayden and Teresa Nielsen Hayden [42]
The Philk Fee-Nom-Ee-Non Paul J. Willett [42]
1985 File 770* Mike Glyer [43]
Ansible David Langford [43]
Holier Than Thou Marty Cantor and Robbie Cantor [43]
Mythologies Don D'Ammassa [43]
Rataplan Leigh Edmonds [43]
1986 Lan's Lantern* George "Lan" Laskowski [44]
Anvil Charlotte Proctor [44]
Greater Columbia Fantasy Costumers Guild Newsletter Bobby Gear [44]
Holier Than Thou Marty Cantor and Robbie Cantor [44]
Universal Translator Susan Bridges [44]
1987 Ansible* David Langford [45]
File 770 Mike Glyer [45]
Lan's Lantern George "Lan" Laskowski [45]
Texas SF Inquirer Pat Mueller [45]
Trap Door Robert Lichtman [45]
1988 Texas SF Inquirer* Pat Mueller [46]
File 770 Mike Glyer [46]
FOSFAX Timothy Lane [46]
Lan's Lantern George "Lan" Laskowski [46]
The Mad 3 Party Leslie Turek [46]
1989 File 770* Mike Glyer [47]
FOSFAX Timothy Lane [47]
Lan's Lantern George "Lan" Laskowski [47]
Niekas Edmund R. Meskys [47]
OtherRealms Chuq Von Rospach [47]
1990 The Mad 3 Party* Leslie Turek [48]
File 770 Mike Glyer [48]
FOSFAX Timothy Lane [48]
Lan's Lantern George "Lan" Laskowski [48]
Pirate Jenny Pat Mueller [48]
1991 Lan's Lantern* George "Lan" Laskowski [49]
File 770 Mike Glyer [49]
FOSFAX Timothy Lane and Janice Moore [49]
Mainstream Jerry Kaufman and Suzanne Tompkins [49]
Mimosa Richard Lynch and Nicki Lynch [49]
1992 Mimosa* Richard Lynch and Nicki Lynch [50]
File 770 Mike Glyer [50]
FOSFAX Timothy Lane and Janice Moore [50]
Lan's Lantern George "Lan" Laskowski [50]
Trap Door Robert Lichtman [50]
1993 Mimosa* Richard Lynch and Nicki Lynch [51]
File 770 Mike Glyer [51]
FOSFAX Timothy Lane and Janice Moore [51]
Lan's Lantern George "Lan" Laskowski [51]
STET Leah Zeldes Smith and Dick Smith [51]
1994 Mimosa* Richard Lynch and Nicki Lynch [52]
Ansible David Langford [52]
File 770 Mike Glyer [52]
Lan's Lantern George "Lan" Laskowski [52]
STET Leah Zeldes Smith and Dick Smith [52]
1995 Ansible* David Langford [53]
File 770 Mike Glyer [53]
Habakkuk Bill Donaho [53]
Lan's Lantern George "Lan" Laskowski [53]
Mimosa Richard Lynch and Nicki Lynch [53]
1996 Ansible* David Langford [54]
Apparatchik Andrew Hooper and Victor Gonzalez [54]
Attitude Michael Abbott, John Dallman, and Pam Wells [54]
FOSFAX Timothy Lane and Elizabeth Garrott [54]
Lan's Lantern George "Lan" Laskowski [54]
Mimosa Richard Lynch and Nicki Lynch [54]
1997 Mimosa* Richard Lynch and Nicki Lynch [55]
Ansible David Langford [55]
File 770 Mike Glyer [55]
Nova Express Lawrence Person [55]
Tangent David Truesdale [55]
1998 Mimosa* Richard Lynch and Nicki Lynch [56]
Ansible David Langford [56]
Attitude Michael Abbott, John Dallman, and Pam Wells [56]
File 770 Mike Glyer [56]
Tangent David Truesdale [56]
1999 Ansible* David Langford [57]
File 770 Mike Glyer [57]
Mimosa Richard Lynch and Nicki Lynch [57]
Plokta Alison Scott, Steve Davies, and Mike Scott [57]
Tangent David Truesdale [57]
Thyme Alan Stewart [57]
2000 File 770* Mike Glyer [58]
Ansible David Langford [58]
Challenger Guy H. Lillian III [58]
Mimosa Richard Lynch and Nicki Lynch [58]
Plokta Alison Scott, Steve Davies, and Mike Scott [58]
2001 File 770* Mike Glyer [59]
Challenger Guy H. Lillian III [59]
Mimosa Richard Lynch and Nicki Lynch [59]
Plokta Alison Scott, Steve Davies, and Mike Scott [59]
STET Leah Zeldes Smith and Dick Smith [59]
2002 Ansible* David Langford [60]
Challenger Guy H. Lillian III [60]
File 770 Mike Glyer [60]
Mimosa Richard Lynch and Nicki Lynch [60]
Plokta Alison Scott, Steve Davies, and Mike Scott [60]
2003 Mimosa* Richard Lynch and Nicki Lynch [61]
Challenger Guy H. Lillian III [61]
Emerald City Cheryl Morgan [61]
File 770 Mike Glyer [61]
Plokta Alison Scott, Steve Davies, and Mike Scott [61]
2004 Emerald City* Cheryl Morgan [62]
Challenger Guy H. Lillian III [62]
File 770 Mike Glyer [62]
Mimosa Richard Lynch and Nicki Lynch [62]
Plokta Alison Scott, Steve Davies, and Mike Scott [62]
2005 Plokta* Alison Scott, Steve Davies, and Mike Scott [63]
Banana Wings Claire Brialey and Mark Plummer [63]
Challenger Guy H. Lillian III [63]
Chunga Randy Byers, Andy Hooper, and Carl Juarez [63]
Emerald City Cheryl Morgan [63]
2006 Plokta* Alison Scott, Steve Davies, and Mike Scott [64]
Banana Wings Claire Brialey and Mark Plummer [64]
Challenger Guy H. Lillian III [64]
Chunga Randy Byers, Andy Hooper, and Carl Juarez [64]
File 770 Mike Glyer [64]
2007 Science-Fiction Five-Yearly* Lee Hoffman, Geri Sullivan, and Randy Byers [65]
Banana Wings Claire Brialey and Mark Plummer [65]
Challenger Guy H. Lillian III [65]
The Drink Tank Christopher Garcia [65]
Plokta Alison Scott, Steve Davies, and Mike Scott [65]
2008 File 770* Mike Glyer [66]
Argentus Steven H Silver [66]
Challenger Guy H. Lillian III [66]
The Drink Tank Christopher Garcia [66]
Plokta Alison Scott, Steve Davies, and Mike Scott [66]
2009 Electric Velocipede* John Klima [67]
Argentus Steven H Silver [67]
Banana Wings Claire Brialey and Mark Plummer [67]
Challenger Guy H. Lillian III [67]
The Drink Tank Christopher Garcia [67]
File 770 Mike Glyer [67]
2010 StarShipSofa* Tony C. Smith [68]
Argentus Steven H Silver [68]
Banana Wings Claire Brialey and Mark Plummer [68]
Challenger Guy H. Lillian III [68]
The Drink Tank Christopher Garcia and James Bacon [68]
File 770 Mike Glyer [68]
2011 The Drink Tank* Christopher Garcia and James Bacon [69]
Banana Wings Claire Brialey and Mark Plummer [69]
Challenger Guy H. Lillian III [69]
File 770 Mike Glyer [69]
StarShipSofa Tony C. Smith [69]
2012 SF Signal* John DeNardo [70]
Banana Wings Claire Brialey and Mark Plummer [70]
The Drink Tank Christopher Garcia and James Bacon [70]
File 770 Mike Glyer [70]
Journey Planet James Bacon and Christopher Garcia [70]
2013 SF Signal* John DeNardo, JP Frantz, and Patrick Hester [71]
Banana Wings Claire Brialey and Mark Plummer [71]
The Drink Tank Christopher Garcia and James Bacon [71]
Elitist Book Reviews Steven Diamond [71]
Journey Planet James Bacon, Christopher Garcia, Emma J. King, Helen J. Montgomery, and Pete Young [71]
2014 A Dribble of Ink* Aidan Moher [72]
The Book Smugglers Ana Grilo and Thea James [72]
Elitist Book Reviews Steven Diamond [72]
Journey Planet James Bacon, Christopher Garcia, Lynda E. Rucker, Pete Young, Colin Harris, and Helen J. Montgomery [72]
Pornokitsch Anne C. Perry and Jared Shurin [72]
2015 Journey Planet* James Bacon, Christopher J Garcia, Colin Harris, Alissa McKersie, and Helen J. Montgomery [73]
Black Gate[Note 1] John O'Neill [73]
Elitist Book Reviews Steven Diamond [73]
The Revenge of Hump Day Tim Bolgeo [73]
Tangent Online Dave Truesdale [73]
2016 File 770* Mike Glyer [74]
Castalia House Blog Jeffro Johnson [74]
Lady Business Clare, Ira, Jodie, KJ, Renay, and Susan [74]
Superversive SF Jason Rennie [74]
Tangent Online Dave Truesdale [74]
2017 Lady Business* Clare, Ira, Jodie, KJ, Renay, and Susan [75]
Castalia House Blog Jeffro Johnson [75]
Journey Planet James Bacon, Christopher J Garcia, Esther MacCallum-Stewart, Helena Nash, Errick Nunnally, Pádraig Ó Méalóid, Chuck Serface, and Erin Underwood [75]
Nerds of a feather, flock together The G, Vance Kotrla, and Joe Sherry [75]
Rocket Stack Rank Greg Hullender and Eric Wong [75]
SF Bluestocking Bridget McKinney [75]
2018 File 770 Mike Glyer [76]
Galactic Journey Gideon Marcus [76]
Journey Planet Team Journey Planet [76]
Nerds of a feather, flock together The G, Vance Kotrla, and Joe Sherry [76]
Rocket Stack Rank Greg Hullender and Eric Wong [76]
SF Bluestocking Bridget McKinney [76]

Retro Hugos[edit]

Beginning with the 1996 Worldcon, the World Science Fiction Society created the concept of "Retro Hugos", in which the Hugo award could be retroactively awarded for years 50, 75, or 100 years before the current year, if no awards were originally given that year.[6] Retro Hugos have been awarded five times, for 1939, 1941, 1943, 1946, 1951, and 1954.[Note 2] The 1939, 1941, and 1943 Retro Hugos were awarded 75 years later; the other three were given 50 years later.[7]>

Year Year awarded Work Editor(s) Ref.
1939 2014 Imagination!* Forrest J Ackerman, Morojo, and T. Bruce Yerke [77]
Fantascience Digest Robert A. Madle [77]
Fantasy News James V. Taurasi [77]
Novae Terrae Maurice K. Hanson [77]
Tomorrow Douglas W. F. Mayer [77]
1941 2016 Futuria Fantasia* Ray Bradbury [78]
Le Zombie Wilson Tucker [78]
Novacious Forrest J Ackerman, Morojo [78]
Spaceways Harry Warner, Jr. [78]
Voice of the Imagi-Nation Forrest J Ackerman, Morojo [78]
1943 2018 Futurian War Digest J. Michael Rosenblum [79]
Inspiration Lynn Bridges [79]
The Phantagraph Donald A. Wollheim [79]
Spaceways Harry Warner, Jr. [79]
Voice of the Imagi-Nation Forrest J Ackerman, Morojo [79]
Le Zombie Wilson Tucker [79]
1946 1996 Voice of the Imagi-Nation* Forrest J Ackerman [80]
The Acolyte Francis Towner Laney [80]
Chanticleer Walt Liebscher [80]
Fantasy Commentator A. Langley Searles [80]
Shangri L'Affaires Charles E. Burbee and Gerald Hewitt [80]
1951 2001 Science Fiction Newsletter* Wilson Tucker [81]
The Fanscient Donald B. Day [81]
Quandry Lee Hoffman [81]
Sky Hook Redd Boggs [81]
Slant Walt Willis and James White [81]
Spacewarp Art Rapp [81]
1954 2004 Slant* Walt Willis and James White [82]
Hyphen Walt Willis and Chuck Harris [82]
Quandry Lee Hoffman [82]
Science Fiction Newsletter Wilson Tucker [82]
Sky Hook Redd Boggs [82]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Black Gate attempted to withdraw themselves from the 2015 ballot, stating that the prevalence of nominees that year from voting slates, including one which the fanzine had been on, de-legitimized the nominations. While other nominees that year in other categories also withdrew for the same reason, Black Gate's request came after the ballot was finalized and was not accepted, though a note of their intention to withdraw was made on the ballot itself.
  2. ^ Although no "Best Fanzine" Hugo was awarded at the 1958 convention, Hugos were awarded in other categories, hence there was no "Retro Hugo" for 1958 awarded in 2008.

References[edit]

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  3. ^ Cleaver, Emily (2010-04-20). "Hugo Awards Announced". Litro Magazine. London, England: Ocean Media. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-21. 
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  11. ^ Sanders, J. L. (1985). "Zenith Science Fiction/Zenith Speculation/Speculation". In Tymn, M. B.; Ashley, Mike. Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Weird Fiction Magazines. Westport, CT: Greenwood. p. 886. ISBN 0-313-21221-X. 
  12. ^ Ashley, Michael (2007). Gateways to Forever: The Story of the Science-Fiction Magazines from 1970 to 1980 Volume 3. Liverpool, England: Liverpool University Press. p. xix. ISBN 1-84631-002-4. 
  13. ^ "Cry of the Nameless". Retrieved 2015-06-26. 
  14. ^ "1955 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
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External links[edit]