Discontinued Hugo Awards

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The Hugo Awards are presented every year by the World Science Fiction Society for the best science fiction or fantasy works and achievements of the previous year. The award is named after Hugo Gernsback, the founder of the pioneering science fiction magazine Amazing Stories, and was once officially known as the Science Fiction Achievement Award.[1] The award has been described as "a fine showcase for speculative fiction" and "the best known literary award for science fiction writing".[2][3] In addition to the regular awards that have been given in most years that the awards have been active, several discontinued Hugo Awards have been presented throughout the years, only to be removed after a few years.

When the Hugo awards were begun in 1953, each Worldcon organizing committee decided what awards they would give. Several awards were presented over the next few years which were not repeated in later conventions, unlike the primary categories which are still presented—such as Best Novel. These awards were the Best Cover Artist, Best Interior Illustrator, Excellence in Fact Articles, Best New SF Author or Artist, and #1 Fan Personality Hugos at the initial 1953 awards ceremony, the Best Feature Writer, Best Book Reviewer, and Most Promising New Author awards in 1956, the Outstanding Actifan award in 1958, and the Best New Author of 1958 award in 1959.[4][5][6][7]

In 1961, however, formal rules were set down for which categories would be awarded, which could only be changed by the World Science Fiction Society membership through the annual Business Meeting.[8] Despite this, the 1964 convention awarded a Hugo Award for the Best SF Book Publisher, which was not on that list.[8] Immediately afterward the guidelines were changed to allow individual conventions to create additional categories, which was codified as up to two categories for that year. These additional awards were officially designated as Hugo Awards, but were not required to be repeated by future conventions.[9] This was later adjusted to only allow one additional category.[10] The Best SF Book Publisher award was repeated in 1965, and the Best All-Time Series award was given in 1966.[11][12] No other additional categories were added by 1974, when the guidelines were changed again to allow up to ten categories which would be chosen by each convention, though they were expected to be similar to those presented in the year before. Despite this change no new awards were added or previous awards removed before the guidelines were changed back to listing specific categories.[13][14]

The next discontinued Hugo award was the Other Forms award, given in 1988.[15] It was followed in 1990 by the Best Original Art Work award, which was listed again as a special award in 1991, though not actually awarded, and instated afterward as an official Hugo Award.[16][17] It was then removed from this status in 1996, and has not been awarded since.[18] The Best Web Site special Hugo award was given in 2002 and 2005,[19][20] and was followed by the Best Series special award, given in 2017 in advance of it being ratified as a permanent category for the following year.[21] The latest special Hugo is the Best Young Adult Book, given in 2018.[22]

Hugo Award nominees and winners are chosen by supporting or attending members of the annual World Science Fiction Convention, or Worldcon, and the presentation evening constitutes its central event. The selection process is defined in the World Science Fiction Society Constitution as instant-runoff voting with five nominees, except in the case of a tie. These five works on the ballot are those most-nominated by members that year, with no limit on the number of works that can be nominated. The 1953 and 1958 awards did not include any recognition of runner-up nominees, but since 1959 all five candidates have been recorded.[23] Initial nominations are made by members in January through March, while voting on the ballot of five nominations is performed roughly in April through July, subject to change depending on when that year's Worldcon is held.[24] Worldcons are generally held near Labor Day, and in a different city around the world each year.[1][25] Members are permitted to vote "no award", if they feel that none of the nominees is deserving of the award that year, and in the case that "no award" takes the majority the Hugo is not given in that category. The only time this has happened in the discontinued awards was in the 1959 Best New Author category.[7]

Winners and nominees[edit]

  *   Winners and joint winners   +   No winner selected

Best Cover Artist[edit]

Year Artist Ref.
1953 Hannes Bok and Ed Emshwiller* [4]

Best Interior Illustrator[edit]

Year Artist Ref.
1953 Virgil Finlay* [4]

Excellence in Fact Articles[edit]

Year Author Ref.
1953 Willy Ley* [4]

Best New SF Author or Artist[edit]

Year Author/Artist Ref.
1953 Philip José Farmer* [4]

#1 Fan Personality[edit]

Year Fan Ref.
1953 Forrest J Ackerman* [4]

Sometimes referred to as the "BNF Award". According to an interim report issued by the Philcon II convention committee while voting was still going on, the next most popular candidate to Ackerman at the time was Harlan Ellison. When Ackerman was handed the trophy at Philcon II (by Isaac Asimov), he actually physically declined, saying it should go to Ken Slater, to whom the trophy was later forwarded by the con committee.[26]

Best Feature Writer[edit]

Year Writer Ref.
1956 Willy Ley* [5]
L. Sprague de Camp [5]
Robert A. Madle [5]
Rog Phillips [5]
Robert S. Richardson [5]

Best Book Reviewer[edit]

Year Reviewer Ref.
1956 Damon Knight* [5]
Henry Bott [5]
P. Schuyler Miller [5]
Anthony Boucher [5]
Groff Conklin [5]
Villers Gerson [5]
Floyd Gale [5]
Hans Stefan Santesson [5]

Most Promising New Author[edit]

Year Author Ref.
1956 Robert Silverberg* [5]
Harlan Ellison [5]
Frank Herbert [5]
Henry Still [5]

Outstanding Actifan[edit]

Year Fan Ref.
1958 Walt Willis* [6]

Best New Author[edit]

Year Author Ref.
1959 (no award)+ [7]
Brian Aldiss [7]
Pauline Ashwell [7]
Rosel George Brown [7]
Louis Charbonneau [7]
Kit Reed [7]

Best SF Book Publisher[edit]

Year Publisher Ref.
1964 Ace Books* [27]
Pyramid Books [27]
Ballantine Books [27]
Doubleday [27]
1965 Ballantine Books* [11]
Ace Books [11]
Victor Gollancz Ltd [11]
Pyramid Books [11]

Best All-Time Series[edit]

Year Series Author Ref.
1966 Foundation* Isaac Asimov [12]
Barsoom Edgar Rice Burroughs [12]
Future History Robert A. Heinlein [12]
Lensmen E. E. Smith [12]
The Lord of the Rings J. R. R. Tolkien [12]

Other Forms[edit]

Year Work Creator(s) Publisher Ref.
1988 Watchmen* Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons DC Comics [15]
Wild Cards George R. R. Martin Bantam Spectra [15]
I, Robot: The Movie Harlan Ellison Asimov's Science Fiction [15]
The Essential Ellison: A 35-Year Retrospective Harlan Ellison, Terry Dowling, Richard Delap, and Gil Lamont Nemo Press [15]
Cvltvre Made Stvpid Tom Weller Houghton Mifflin [15]

Best Original Art Work[edit]

Year Artwork Artist(s) Publisher Ref.
1990 Cover of Rimrunners* Don Maitz Questar [28]
Cover of Hyperion Gary Ruddell Doubleday [28]
Cover of Paradise Michael Whelan Tor Books [28]
Cover of The Renegades of Pern Michael Whelan Del Rey Books [28]
Cover of Quozl James Gurney Ace Books [28]
Cover of The Stress of Her Regard James Gurney Ace Books [28]
1992 Cover of The Summer Queen* Michael Whelan Warner Books [29]
Cover of Stations of the Tide Bob Eggleton Asimov's Science Fiction [29]
Cover of The White Mists of Power Thomas Canty Roc Books [29]
Cover of Heavy Time Don Maitz Questar [29]
Cover of Lunar Descent Bob Eggleton Ace Books [29]
1993 Dinotopia* James Gurney Turner Publishing Company [30]
Cover of Aristoi Jim Burns Tor Books [30]
Portrait of Isaac Asimov Michael Whelan Asimov's Science Fiction [30]
Cover of Bridges Ron Walotsky Fantasy & Science Fiction [30]
Cover of Illusion Michael Whelan Bantam Spectra [30]
1994 Space Fantasy Commemorative Stamp Booklet* Stephen Hickman United States Postal Service [31]
Cover of The Little Things Thomas Canty Fantasy & Science Fiction [31]
Cover of Cold Iron Keith Parkinson Asimov's Science Fiction [31]
1995 Lady Cottington's Pressed Fairy Book* Brian Froud and Terry Jones Pavilion Books [32]
Cover of Foreigner Michael Whelan DAW Books [32]
Cover of Gun, with Occasional Music Michael Koelsch Harcourt Brace [32]
1996 Dinotopia: The World Beneath* James Gurney Turner Publishing Company [33]
Cover of Tide of Stars Bob Eggleton Analog Science Fiction and Fact [33]
Cover of Tea and Hamsters Gary Lippincott Fantasy & Science Fiction [33]
Cover of Dankden Bob Eggleton Fantasy & Science Fiction [33]
Cover of Renascence George H. Krauter Analog Science Fiction and Fact [33]

Best Web Site[edit]

Year Website Editor(s) Ref.
2002 Locus Online (www.locusmag.com)* Mark R. Kelly [19]
Sci Fiction (www.scifi.com) Craig Engler [19]
SF Site (www.sfsite.com) Rodger Turner [19]
Strange Horizons (www.strangehorizons.com) Mary Anne Mohanraj [19]
Tangent Online (www.tangentonline.com) Dave Truesdale and Tobias S. Buckell [19]
2005 Sci Fiction (www.scifi.com/scifiction)* Ellen Datlow [20]
Locus Online (www.locusmag.com) Mark R. Kelly [20]
Emerald City (www.emcit.com) Cheryl Morgan [20]
Strange Horizons (www.strangehorizons.com) Susan Marie Groppi [20]
eFanzines (www.efanzines.com) Bill Burns [20]

Best Young Adult Book[edit]

Year Work Creator(s) Publisher Ref.
2018 Nnedi Okorafor Akata Warrior Viking Books [22]
Sam J. Miller The Art of Starving HarperTeen [22]
Philip Pullman The Book of Dust: La Belle Sauvage Alfred A. Knopf [22]
Sarah Rees Brennan In Other Lands Big Mouth House [22]
Frances Hardinge A Skinful of Shadows Macmillan Publishers / Abrams Books [22]
Ursula Vernon (as T. Kingfisher) Summer in Orcus Sofawolf Press [22]
Lauren Henderson (illustrator)

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Jordison, Sam (2008-08-07). "An International Contest We Can Win". The Guardian. London, England: The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2009-07-29. Retrieved 2010-04-21. 
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  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "1956 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2017-09-18. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  6. ^ a b "1958 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
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  13. ^ "Notes from the 1974 WSFS Business Meeting". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2011-03-03. 
  14. ^ "Minutes of 1980 WSFS Business Meeting". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2011-03-03. 
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  20. ^ a b c d e f "2005 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  21. ^ "2017 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2017-08-11. Retrieved 2017-08-11. 
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  23. ^ "The Hugo Awards: FAQ". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-20. 
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  25. ^ "World Science Fiction Society / Worldcon". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2009-04-14. Retrieved 2010-04-20. 
  26. ^ Glyer, Mike (2009-02-10). "Ackerman's Hugo". File 770. Archived from the original on 2011-08-25. Retrieved 2011-08-25. 
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  28. ^ a b c d e f "1990 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  29. ^ a b c d e "1992 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  30. ^ a b c d e "1993 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  31. ^ a b c "1994 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
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  33. ^ a b c d e "1996 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 

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