|Cultural origins||Late 1970s, United Kingdom|
Indie pop is a subgenre and subculture of alternative/indie rock that originated in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s. The style is inspired by punk's DIY ethic and related ideologies, and it generated a thriving fanzine, label, and club and gig circuit. Indie pop differs from indie rock to the extent that it is more melodic, less abrasive, and relatively angst-free. Its substyles include chamber pop and twee pop.
Origins and etymology
The term "indie" had been used for some time[vague] to describe artists on independent labels (and the labels themselves). Both "indie" and "indie pop" had originally referred to the same thing during the late 1970s. According to Emily Dolan, indie is predicated on the distorted music of the Velvet Underground, the "rebellious screaming" of early punk, and "some of rock's more quirky and eccentric figures", such as Jonathon Richman. Indie pop is distinguished from indie rock; the majority of indie pop borrows not only the "rawness" of punk, but also "the sweetness and catchiness of mainstream pop".
The concept of "indie music" did not crystalize until the late 1980s and early 1990s. Most of the modern notion of indie music stems from NME's 1986 compilation C86, which collects many guitar bands who were inspired by the early psychedelic sounds of 1960s garage rock. American indie pop band Beat Happening's 1985 eponymous debut album was also influential in the development of the indie pop sound, particularly in North America.
Disputed significance of C86
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Everett True, a writer for NME in the 1980s, believes that C86 wasn't the main factor behind indie pop, arguing that Sarah Records was more responsible for sticking to a particular sound, and that: "C86 didn't actually exist as a sound, or style. ... I find it weird, bordering on surreal, that people are starting to use it as a description again". Geoff Taylor, a member of the band Age of Chance, added: "We never considered ourselves part of any scene. I’m not sure that the public at large did either, to be honest. We were just an independent band around at that same time as the others."
Bob Stanley, a Melody Maker journalist in the late 1980s and founding member of pop band Saint Etienne, acknowledges that participants at the time reacted against lazy labelling, but insists they shared an approach:[improper synthesis?] "Of course the 'scene', like any scene, barely existed. Like squabbling Marxist factions, groups who had much in common built up petty rivalries. The June Brides and the Jasmine Minks were the biggest names at Alan McGee's Living Room Club and couldn't stand the sight of each other. Only when the Jesus and Mary Chain exploded and stole their two-headed crown did they realise they were basically soulmates.[verification needed] Manic Street Preachers bassist Nicky Wire remembers that it was the bands' very independence that gave the scene coherence: "People were doing everything themselves - making their own records, doing the artwork, gluing the sleeves together, releasing them and sending them out, writing fanzines because the music press lost interest really quickly."
Many of the actual C86 bands distanced themselves from the scene cultivated around them by the UK music press - in its time, C86 became a pejorative term for its associations with so-called "shambling" (a John Peel-coined description celebrating the self-conscious primitive approach of some of the music) and underachievement.[verification needed]
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In 2013, Cherry Red Records released 5-CD retrospective Scared to Get Happy: A Story of Indie-Pop 1980-1989, an attempt to represent the genre's first decade. A 3-CD expanded rerelease of C86, compiled by Neil Taylor, followed in 2014 and a sequel box set, C87, in 2016.
- "Indie Pop". AllMusic.
- Abebe, Nitsuh (24 October 2005), "Twee as Fuck: The Story of Indie Pop", Pitchfork Media
- Dolan, Emily. "…This little ukulele tells the truth': indie pop and kitsch authenticity.". Popular Music. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2017-02-06.
- "A definition of indie music". www.23indie.com. Retrieved 2016-03-16.
- Martin, Ian (July 10, 2013). "C86 sound jangles on in the Japanese indie scene".
- Abebe, Nitsuh. "Beat Happening - Beat Happening". Allmusic. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- True, Everett (22 July 2005), Plan B Magazine Blog, archived from the original on 1 May 2007, retrieved 12 January 2016
- Taylor, Geoff, Interview, ireallylovemusic vs Age of Chance
- Bob Stanley, sleevenotes to CD86
- Wire, Nicky (25 October 2006), "The Birth of Uncool", The Guardian, London
- Simon Reynolds, Time Out, 23 October 2006
- Petridis, Alexis (13 June 2013). "Various: Scared to Get Happy – review" – via The Guardian.
- "Scared To Get Happy: A Story Of Indie Pop 1980 - 89 - Uncut".
- "Various Artists - C86 - Uncut".
- "The Quietus - Reviews - Various Artists".
- "C87 – VARIOUS ARTISTS – 3CD Album Review". 25 May 2016.
||This "further reading" section may contain inappropriate and/or excessive suggestions. Please ensure that only a reasonable number of balanced, topical, reliable, and notable further reading suggestions are given. Consider utilising appropriate texts as inline sources or creating a separate bibliography article. (June 2016)|
- Bladh, Krister Everything went Pop!, C86 and more, A wave and its rise and wake (pdf) 2005
- "Fire Escape Talking", Anoraky in the UK: C86, the punk that refuses to die ("Fire Escape Talking blog", 7 July 2006)
- Fitchett, Alastair, C86 (Tangents Blog, 25 July 2005)
- Fonarow, Wendy, "Empire of Dirt, The Aesthetics and Rituals of British Indie Music" July 2006
- Hann, Michael Fey City Rollers (The Guardian, 13 October 2004)
- Pearce, Kevin A Different Story: The Ballad of the June Brides(Tangents, March 2001)
- Reynolds, Simon Rip It Up and Start Again: Post Punk 1978-1984 (Faber and Faber, 2005) ISBN 0-571-21569-6
- Reynolds, Simon The C86 Indie Scene is back (Time Out, 23 Oct 2006)
- Rogers, Jude Smells like Indie Spirit (The Observer, 8 July 2007)
- Stanley, Bob, Where were you in C86? (The Times 20 October 2006)
- True, Everett C86 Q&A(Plan B Blog 22 July 2005)
- Wire, Nicky The birth of uncool (The Guardian, 25 October 2006)