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The Sahih al-Tirmidhi (Arabic: صحيح الترمذي, romanized: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Tirmidhī) is a hadith compiled by Islamic scholar al-Tirmidhi in c. 864–884 (250–270 AH). Among the Kutub al-Sitta of Sunni Islam, the book is ranked fourth or fifth in authenticity.
The full title of the compilation is al-jāmiʿ al-mukhtaṣar min as-sunan ʿan Rasūl Allāh ﷺ wa maʿrifat al-saḥīḥ wal-maʿlūl wa mā ʿalayhil al-ʿamal (Arabic: الجامع المختصر من السنن عن رسول الله ﷺ ومعرفة الصحيح والمعلول وما عليه العمل). It is shortened to al-jāmiʿ al-saḥīḥ, al-jāmiʿ al-sunan, al-jāmiʿ al-Tirmidhī, al-sunan al-Tirmidhī or the common Ṣaḥīḥ al-Tirmidhī.
The term Jami within the title indicates a complete collection covering all eight Risalah (Allah's message) subjects. The term Sunan within the title refers to the collection's focus and chapter arrangement based on the particular Risalah subject, ahkam (general law). Al-Kattani said: "The Jamiʿ of at-Tirmidhi is also named The Sunan, contrary to those thinking them to be two separate books, and [it is also named] Al-Jamiʿ al-Kabir.
Compilation and description
He began compiling it after the year 864/5 AD (250 AH) and completed it on the 9 June 884 AD (10 Dhu al-Hijjah 270 AH).
Ibn al-Athir said: "(It) is the best of books, having the most benefit, the best organization, with the least repetition. It contains what others do not; like mention of the different views, angles of argument, and clarifying the circumstances of the hadith as being sahih, da'if, or gharib, as well as disparaging and endorsing remarks (regarding narrators)."
Sunnis regard this collection as fifth in strength of their six major hadith collections. Ibn al-Jawzi stated that there are twenty-three or thirty forged hadith in it. Some scholars like al-Suyuti have criticised Ibn al-Jawzi's findings as being too strict, concluding that there are no fabricated hadith in the Jami. The 20th-century Albanian Islamic scholar al-Albani identified sixteen fabricated hadith.
Types of hadith included relating to their authenticity
Of the four Sunan books, al-Tirmidhi's alone is divided into four categories. The first, those hadith definitively classified as authentic, he is in agreement with Bukhari and Muslim b. al-Hajjaj. The second category are those hadith which conform to the standard of the three scholars, al-Tirmidhi, al-Nasa'i and Abu Dawood, at a level less than Bukhari and Muslim b. al-Hajjaj. Third, are the hadith collected due to a contradiction; in this case, he clarifies its flaw. And fourth, those hadith which some fiqh specialists have acted upon.
- Aridhat al-Ahwathi bi Sharh Sunan al-Tirmidhi written Ibn al-Arabi d. 543H (1148–49 CE)
- Sharh Jaami' al-Tirmidhi of which only the last portion of remains – Sharh 'Ilal at-Tirmidhi – by Ibn Rajab
- Al-Kawakib al-Durri sharh Jami al-Tirmidhi by Rashid Ahmad Gangohi
- Commentary on al-Tirmidhi's Hadith Collection by al-Zayn al-Iraqi
- Footnotes, including explanation and verification, of approximately the first third of the Sunan by Ahmad Muhammad Shakir
- Al-Arf al-Shadhi sharh Sunan al-Tirmidhi by Anwar Shah Kashmiri
- Maarif al-Sunan sharh Sunan al-Tirmidhi by Yusuf Banuri
- Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi Bi Sharh Jamiʿ Al-Tirmidhi by 'Abd al-Rahman al-Mubarkafuri, ed. 'Abd al-Rahman Muhammad 'Uthman, 10 vols., Beirut
- Fuyoodh Un Nabi, Sharh Jami Al Tirmidhi (in Urdu Language) by Allama Mufti Muhammad Arshad ul Qadri, Taleem wo Tarbiyat Publisher, Lahore, Pakistan
- Imam Tirmidhi and his Al-Jami’ al-Sunan: http://daruliftaa.com/node/7130 Archived 2014-01-27 at the Wayback Machine
- Jonathan A.C. Brown (2007), The Canonization of al-Bukhārī and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunnī Ḥadīth Canon, p.10. Brill Publishers. ISBN 978-9004158399. Quote: "We can discern three strata of the Sunni hadith canon. The perennial core has been the Sahihayn. Beyond these two foundational classics, some fourth/tenth-century scholars refer to a four-book selection that adds the two Sunans of Abu Dawud (d. 275/889) and al-Nasa'i (d. 303/915). The Five Book canon, which is first noted in the sixth/twelfth century, incorporates the Jami' of al-Tirmidhi (d. 279/892). Finally the Six Book canon, which hails from the same period, adds either the Sunan of Ibn Majah (d. 273/887), the Sunan of al-Daraqutni (d. 385/995) or the Muwatta' of Malik b. Anas (d. 179/796). Later hadith compendia often included other collections as well.' None of these books, however, has enjoyed the esteem of al-Bukhari's and Muslim's works." Archived 2018-01-06 at the Wayback Machine
- "Imam Tirmidhi and his Al-Jami' al-Sunan (الجامع السنن للإمام الترمذي رضي الله عنه) - daruliftaa.com". daruliftaa.com. 26 March 2005. Archived from the original on 2014-01-27. Retrieved 2013-09-06.
- Al-Risalah al-Mustatrafah, pg. 11.
- Brown, J. A. C. (2009). Hadith: Muhammad's Legacy in the Medieval and Modern World (2nd ed., p. 34). Oneworld Publications.
- "Jami' at-Tirmidhi - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Archived from the original on 2021-05-01. Retrieved 2021-05-02.
- Haddad, G. F. "Various Issues About Hadiths". Archived from the original on 2012-10-16. Retrieved 2006-03-12.
- Tirmidhi, M. I. (2007). The Translation of the Meaning of Jami Tirmidhi with Explanatory Notes and Brief Biographical Sketches of Major Narrators (p. 10). Darul Ishaat.
- Kamali, M. H. (2005). A Textbook of Hadith Studies: Authenticity, Compilation, Classification and Criticism of Hadith (p. 203). The Islamic Foundation.
- Muqaddamah Tuhfat al-Ahwazi, pp. 180-181 as cited in Tirmidhi, M. I. (2007). The Translation of the Meaning of Jami Tirmidhi with Explanatory Notes and Brief Biographical Sketches of Major Narrators (p. 11). Darul Ishaat.
- Al-Albani, M. N. (2000). Daeef Sunan at-Tirmidhi (nos. 172, 801, 2494, 2505, 2681, 2699, 2714, 2762, 2887, 2888, 3570, 3684, 3709, 3923, 3928, & 3939). Maktab al-Maarif.
- Shurut al-A'immah al-Sittah, by al-Maqdisi, pg. 92.
- Hadith and the Quran, Encyclopedia of the Quran, Brill
- "All books and chapters of jami al tirmizi". www.islamicfinder.org. Archived from the original on July 17, 2019. Retrieved Jun 27, 2019.
- "Jami' at-Tirmidhi". sunnah.com. Archived from the original on December 16, 2019. Retrieved Jun 27, 2019.
- "the-book-launching-ceremony-fuyoodh-un-nabi-sharh-jami-al-tirmidhi". Archived from the original on 2016-04-20.