Muhammad al-Bukhari

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Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl al-Bukhārī
محمد بن إسماعيل البخاري
al-Bukhārī's name in Arabic calligraphy.
TitleImam al-Bukhari
Amir al-Mu'minin fi al-Hadith
Born21 July 810 C.E.
13th Shawwal 194 A.H.
Died1 September 870(870-09-01) (aged 60) C.E.
1 Shawwal 256 A.H.
Khartank, Samarkand, Abbasid Caliphate
Resting placeKhartank (Samarkand, Uzbekistan)
EraIslamic Golden Age
(Abbasid era)
RegionAbbasid Caliphate
JurisprudenceIjtihad (in disputes)[1][2][3][4]
Main interest(s)Hadith, Aqidah
Notable work(s)Sahih al-Bukhari
al-Adab al-Mufrad
Muslim leader
Imam al-Bukhārī
AlBukhari Mausoleum.jpg
Imam al-Bukhārī's mausoleum near Samarkand, Uzbekistan
Hadith Traditionalist
Venerated inSunni Islam
Major shrineKhartank (Samarkand, Uzbekistan).

Muhammad ibn Isma'il ibn Ibrahim (Persian: محمد ابن اسماعيل ابن ابراهيم, romanizedMuḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl ibn ʾIbrāhīm; 19 July 810 – 1 September 870), better known as al-Bukhari (Persian: البخاری, romanizedal-Bukhārī), commonly referred to as Imam al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari,[8] was a Persian[9][10][11] Islamic scholar who was born in Bukhara (early Khorasan and present day Uzbekistan). He compiled the hadith collection known as Sahih al-Bukhari, regarded by Sunni Muslims as the most authentic (sahih) hadith collections. He also wrote other books such as Al-Adab al-Mufrad.[12]



Muhammad ibn Ismaʿil al-Bukhari al-Juʿfi was born after the Jumu'ah prayer on Friday, 21 July 810 (13 Shawwal 194 AH) in the city of Bukhara in Greater Khorasan[13] (in present-day Uzbekistan).[9][14]

His father, Ismail ibn Ibrahim, a scholar of hadith, was a student and associate of Malik ibn Anas. Some Iraqi scholars related hadith narrations from him.[9]


Imam Bukhari's great-grandfather, al-Mughirah, settled in Bukhara after accepting Islam at the hands of Bukhara's governor, Yaman al-Juʿfi. As was the custom, he became a mawla of Yaman, and his family continued to carry the nisbah of "al-Juʿfi".[9][14][15]

Al-Mughirah's father, Bardizbah, is the earliest known ancestor of Bukhari according to most scholars and historians. Bardizbah was a Zoroastrian Magi, and died as such. As-Subki is the only scholar to name Bardizbah's father, who he says was named Bazzabah (Persian: بذذبه). Little is known of either Bardizbah or Bazzabah, except that they were Persian and followed the religion of their people.[9] Historians have also not come across any information on Bukhari's grandfather, Ibrahim ibn al-Mughirah.[9]

Hadith studies and travels[edit]

The historian al-Dhahabi described his early academic life:

He began studying hadith in the year 205 (A.H.). He memorized the works of [‘Abdullah] ibn al-Mubaarak while still a child. He was raised by his mother because his father died when he was an infant. He traveled with his mother and brother in the year 210 after having heard the narrations of his region. He began authoring books and narrating hadith while still an adolescent. He said, “When I turned eighteen years old, I began writing about the Companions and the Followers and their statements. This was during the time of ‘Ubaid Allah ibn Musa (one of his teachers). At that time I also authored a book of history at the grave of the Prophet at night during a full moon."[16]

Bukhari's travels seeking and studying hadith.

At the age of sixteen, he, together with his brother and widowed mother, made the pilgrimage to Mecca. From there he made a series of travels in order to increase his knowledge of hadith. He went through all the important centres of Islamic learning of his time, talked to scholars and exchanged information on hadith. It is said that he heard from over 1,000 men, and learned over 600,000 traditions.[citation needed]

After sixteen years absence[citation needed], he returned to Bukhara, and there he drew up his al-Jami' al-Sahih, a collection of 7,275 tested traditions, arranged in chapters so as to afford a basis for a complete system of jurisprudence without the use of speculative law.

His book is highly regarded among Sunni Muslims, and considered the most authentic collection of hadith, even ahead of the Muwatta Imam Malik and Sahih Muslim of Bukhari's student Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. Most Sunni scholars consider it second only to the Quran in terms of authenticity. He also composed other books, including al-Adab al-Mufrad, which is a collection of hadiths on ethics and manners, as well as two books containing biographies of hadith narrators (see isnad).[17]

Last years[edit]

In the year 864/250, he settled in Nishapur. It was in Nishapur that he met Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. He would be considered his student, and eventually collector and organiser of hadith collection Sahih Muslim which is considered second only to that of al-Bukhari. Political problems led him to move to Khartank, a village near Samarkand where he died in the year 870/256.[18]


Imam Al Bukhari Memorial

Today his tomb lies within the Imam al-Bukhari Complex, in Hartang Village, 25 kilometers from Samarkand. It was restored in 1998 after centuries of neglect and dilapidation. The mausoleum complex consists of Imam al-Bukhari's tomb, a mosque, a madrassah, library, and a small collection of Qurans. The modern ground level mausoleum tombstone of Imam Bukhari is only a cenotaph, the actual grave lies within a small burial crypt below the modern structure.[19]


Below is a summary of the discussion of Bukhari's available works in Fihrist Muṣannafāt al-Bukhāri by Umm 'Abdullāh bint Maḥrūs, Muḥammad ibn Ḥamza and Maḥmūd ibn Muḥammad.[20]

Works describing narrators of hadith[edit]

Bukhari wrote three works discussing narrators of hadith with respect to their ability in conveying their material: the "brief compendium of hadith narrators," "the medium compendium" and the "large compendium"

  • Al-Tarikh al-Kabīr (Eng: The great history) known as al-Tarīkh al-Ṣaghīr, and al-Tarīkh al-Awsaţ). The large compendium is published and well-identified. The medium compendium was thought to be the brief collection and was published as such. The brief compendium has yet to be found.[21] Another work, al-Kunā, is on patronymics: identifying people who are commonly known as "Father of so-and-so". Then there is a brief work on weak narrators: al-Ḍu'afā al-Ṣaghīr.

Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukharī & extant hadith[edit]

Two of Bukhari's works on hadith survive:

  • Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukharī – full title, al-Jāmi’ al-Musnad al-Sahīh al-Mukhtaṣar min umūr Rasûl Allāh wa sunnanihi wa ayyāmihi  – "Collection of Selected True Reports of the Prophet, his Practices and Times"); al-Bukharī's famous magnum opus. [Note: these al-Musnad are reports with chains of narration that go back to the Prophet.]
  • Al-Adab al-Mufrad; hadith on respect and propriety.

Modern scholars critique al-Bukhari for having a bias when putting hadiths into his collection (Sahih al-Bukhari) regardless of the authenticity of the chain itself. An example of this is when al-Bukhari mentions a hadith about Umar cursing "so-and-so" for selling alcohol. This same report can be found in the Musnad of Ahmed Ibn Hanbal and of Al Humaydi with the same content but with the name of the person intact. The reason for this was that it would hurt the image of the companion of Muhammad, Samura Ibn Jundub.[22]

Theological Views[edit]

According to some scholars and Ash'arite theologians like Ibn Hajar, Bukhari was a follower of early Sunni theologian (mutakallim) Ibn Kullab in creed.[23][24] However, other scholars like Jonathan Brown assert that Al-Bukhari was a "diehard traditionalist" who firmly adhered to Ibn Hanbal’s original traditionalist school, but fell victim to its most radical wing due to misunderstandings.[25] Following his master Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Bukhari had reportedly declared that 'reciting the Qur’an is an element of createdness’. Through this assertion, Bukhari sought an alternative response to the doctrines of Mu'tazilites and declared that element of creation is only applied to humans, but not to God's Words. His statements were met negative response with certain hadith scholars.[26][27] Reacting to such teaching, the hadith scholars of Baghdad warned the people of Nishapur against him, had him imprisoned and then drove him out of the city.[24][26] Open followers of Ibn Kullab, such as the rationalist Harith al-Muhasibi, were also criticised and made to relocate.[27][28] However, in reality Bukhari had only referred to the human action of reading the Qur’an, when he reportedly stated ‘lafzi bi al-Qur’an makhluq’ (my recitation of the Qur’an is created) in the dispute over the ambiguous term ‘lafz al-Qur’an’ (word of the Qur’an). Al-Dhahabi and Al-Subki asserted that Bukhari was expelled due to the jealousy of certain scholars of Nishapur.[29] As a reluctant person who viewed debates as unwanted speculation (khawd), Bukhari had stated in his early years:

“The Qur'an is God’s speech, uncreated, and the acts of men are created, and inquisition (imtihan) is heresy (bida)."[30]

In response to the accusations levelled against him by various scholars, Bukhari compiled the treatise Khalq af'al al-ibad, the earliest traditionalist representation of the position taken by Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Navigating the contradictions apparent in blunt doctrines of his uber-traditionalist accusers like Al-Dhuhli, Bukhari explains that the Qur'an is God’s uncreated speech, but he also argues that God creates human actions, as the Sunnis had insisted in their attacks on the free-will position of Qadarites. The first section of the book reports narrations from earlier scholars such as Sufyan al-Thawri that affirmed the Sunni doctrine of uncreated nature of the Qur'an and condemned anyone who held the contrary position as a Jahmi or disbeliever. The second section asserts that the acts of men are created, relying on Qur'anic verses and reports from earlier traditionalist scholars like Yahya b. Sa'id al Qatlan. In the last part of his treatise, Bukhari began harshly rebutting the rationalists; arguing that human acts are created. Reporting narrations from the Prophet, Bukhari defended the traditionalist belief that sound of the Qur'an being recited is created.[31] In addition, Bukhari cited Ahmad Ibn Hanbal as evidence for his position on the lafz, re-affirming the legacy of Ibn Hanbal and his allegiance to the Ahl al-Hadith camp.[32] Fiercely condemning the Mutakallimun (speculative theologians) Bukhari writes in Khalq af-'al Al-'Ibad:

"It is known that Ahmad and all the people of knowledge hold that God’s speech is uncreated and that all other speech is created. Indeed they hated discussing and investigating obscure issues, and they avoided the people of dialectical theology (kalam), speculation (al-khawd ) and disputation (tanazu') except on issues in which they had [textual] knowledge."[33]

Away from discussions relating to God's speech, Bukhari also repudiated rejection of Qadar (the divine decree) in his Sahih by quoting a verse of the Quran implying that God had already determined all human acts with a precise determining.[26] According to Ibn Hajar, Bukhari signified that if someone was to accept autonomy in creating his acts, he would be assumed to be playing God's role and so would subsequently be declared a polytheist.[26] In another chapter, Bukhari refutes the creeds of the Kharijites, and according to al-Ayni, the heading of that chapter was designed not only to refute the Kharijites but also any who held similar beliefs.[26]

Interpretation of God's attributes[edit]

In Sahih al-Bukhari, in the book entitled "Tafsir al-Qur'an wa 'ibaratih" [i.e., Exegesis of the Qur'an and its expressions], surat al-Qasas, verse 88: "kullu shay'in halikun illa Wajhah" [the literal meaning of which is "everything will perish except His Face"], he said the term [illa Wajhah] means: "except His Sovereignty/Dominance", He also says that it is also said to be "what is wanted by wajh Allah (Allah's Face). And there is [in this same chapter] other than that in terms of ta'wil (metaphorical interpretation), like the term 'dahk' (Arabic: ضحك, lit.'laughter') which is narrated in a hadith, [which is interpreted by] His Mercy.[34][35]

Bukhari also has a chapter in his Sahih entitled "Kitab At-Tawheed" in the Chapter entitled "wa kaana Arshuhu 'Ala Al-Ma (And his throne was above the water [Surah Hud 11:7])", he transmits from Mujahid that he said "(Istiwa [Taha 20:4]) means : Irtafa'a (rose above)[36]

School of thought[edit]

Many are of the opinion that Bukhari was a mujtahid with his own school of jurisprudence.[37][38][39][40]

Bukhari has however been claimed as a follower of the Hanbali school,[41] although members of the Shafi'i and Ẓāhirī schools levy this claim as well.[42] JRD Mughal and Munir Ahmad assert that historically most jurists considered him to be a muhaddith and not a jurist, and that as a muhaddith they thought that he followed the Shafi'i school.[37] However, both go on to evidence the opinion that he was an absolute scholar of independent reasoning (Mujatahid Mutlaq).[37]

Scott Lucas argues that Bukhari's legal positions were similar to those of the Ẓāhirīs and Hanbalis of his time, suggesting Bukhari rejected qiyas and other forms of ra'y completely.[43] He makes comparisons between Bukhari's positions and those of Ibn Hazm.[44]

Early Islamic scholars[edit]

Muhammad (570–632 the Constitution of Medina, taught the Quran, and advised his companions
`Abd Allah bin Masud (died 650) taughtAli (607–661) fourth caliph taughtAisha, Muhammad's wife and Abu Bakr's daughter taughtAbd Allah ibn Abbas (618–687) taughtZayd ibn Thabit (610–660) taughtUmar (579–644) second caliph taughtAbu Hurairah (603–681) taught
Alqama ibn Qays (died 681) taughtHusayn ibn Ali (626–680) taughtQasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (657–725) taught and raised by AishaUrwah ibn Zubayr (died 713) taught by Aisha, he then taughtSaid ibn al-Musayyib (637–715) taughtAbdullah ibn Umar (614–693) taughtAbd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (624–692) taught by Aisha, he then taught
Ibrahim al-Nakha’i taughtAli ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (659–712) taughtHisham ibn Urwah (667–772) taughtIbn Shihab al-Zuhri (died 741) taughtSalim ibn Abd-Allah ibn Umar taughtUmar ibn Abdul Aziz (682–720) raised and taught by Abdullah ibn Umar
Hammad bin ibi Sulman taughtMuhammad al-Baqir (676–733) taughtFarwah bint al-Qasim Jafar's mother
Abu Hanifa (699–767) wrote Al Fiqh Al Akbar and Kitab Al-Athar, jurisprudence followed by Sunni, Sunni Sufi, Barelvi, Deobandi, Zaidiyyah and originally by the Fatimid and taughtZayd ibn Ali (695–740)Ja'far bin Muhammad Al-Baqir (702–765) Muhammad and Ali's great great grand son, jurisprudence followed by Shia, he taughtMalik ibn Anas (711–795) wrote Muwatta, jurisprudence from early Medina period now mostly followed by Sunni in Africa and taughtAl-Waqidi (748–822) wrote history books like Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi, student of Malik ibn AnasAbu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam (died 829) wrote biographies and history books, student of Malik ibn Anas
Abu Yusuf (729–798) wrote Usul al-fiqhMuhammad al-Shaybani (749–805)Al-Shafi‘i (767–820) wrote Al-Risala, jurisprudence followed by Sunni and taughtIsmail ibn IbrahimAli ibn al-Madini (778–849) wrote The Book of Knowledge of the CompanionsIbn Hisham (died 833) wrote early history and As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, Muhammad's biography
Isma'il ibn Ja'far (719–775)Musa al-Kadhim (745–799)Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780–855) wrote Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal jurisprudence followed by Sunni and hadith booksMuhammad al-Bukhari (810–870) wrote Sahih al-Bukhari hadith booksMuslim ibn al-Hajjaj (815–875) wrote Sahih Muslim hadith booksDawud al-Zahiri (815–883/4) founded the Zahiri schoolMuhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi (824–892) wrote Jami` at-Tirmidhi hadith booksAl-Baladhuri (died 892) wrote early history Futuh al-Buldan, Genealogies of the Nobles
Ibn Majah (824–887) wrote Sunan ibn Majah hadith bookAbu Dawood (817–889) wrote Sunan Abu Dawood Hadith Book
Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni (864- 941) wrote Kitab al-Kafi hadith book followed by Twelver ShiaMuhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) wrote History of the Prophets and Kings, Tafsir al-TabariAbu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (874–936) wrote Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn, Kitāb al-luma, Kitāb al-ibāna 'an usūl al-diyāna
Ibn Babawayh (923–991) wrote Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih jurisprudence followed by Twelver ShiaSharif Razi (930–977) wrote Nahj al-Balagha followed by Twelver ShiaNasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) wrote jurisprudence books followed by Ismaili and Twelver ShiaAl-Ghazali (1058–1111) wrote The Niche for Lights, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Alchemy of Happiness on SufismRumi (1207–1273) wrote Masnavi, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi on Sufism
Key: Some of Muhammad's CompanionsKey: Taught in MedinaKey: Taught in IraqKey: Worked in SyriaKey: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of Muhammad and compiled books of hadithKey: Worked in Persia



  1. ^ Taj al-Din al-Subki. Tabaqat al-Shafiyyah al-Kubra. Vol. 2. p. 214.
  2. ^ Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani. Fath al-Bari. Vol. 1. p. 123.
  3. ^ Shah Waliullah Dehlawi. al-Insaf Ma Tarjuma o Saaf. p. 67.
  4. ^ Siddiq Hasan Khan. Abjad-ul-Uloom. Vol. 3. Maktabah Quddusia Lahore. p. 126.
  5. ^ Brown, Jonathan (2007). "Three: The Genesis of al-Bukhārī and Muslim". The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. pp. 78–80. ISBN 978-90-04-15839-9. is not very accurate to employ the term “rationalist” in any sense when describing al-Bukhārī, since he was a diehard traditionalist. Rather, we should view him as a representative of Ibn Hanbal’s original traditionalist school... Al-Bukhari’s allegiance to the ahl al-hadith camp and to Ibn Hanbal himself is thus obvious. Indeed, he quotes Ibn Hanbal as evidence for his position on the lafz.. It is more accurate to describe al-Bukhari as a conservative traditionalist
  6. ^ Wahab, Muhammad Rashidi, and Syed Hadzrullathfi Syed Omar". "The Level of Imam al-Ash'ari's Thought in the Faith." International Journal of Islamic Thought 3 (2013): 58-70. "Because of that, al-Bukhari in most matters relating to the question of faith is said to have taken the opinion of Ibn Kullab and al-Karabisi (Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani 2001: 1/293)"
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  8. ^ Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن إسماعيل بن إبراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه الجعفي البخاري: Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl ibn Ibrāhīm ibn al-Mughīrah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju‘fī al-Bukhārī
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  21. ^ Fihris Musannafāt al-Bukhāri, pp. 28-30.
  22. ^ Modern Muslim Objections to Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī,Studia Islamica 117 (2022), Nabil Husayn,pg.141
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  24. ^ a b Wahab, Muhammad Rashidi, and Syed Hadzrullathfi Syed Omar. "Peringkat Pemikiran Imam al-Ash’ari Dalam Akidah." International Journal of Islamic Thought 3 (2013): 58-70. "Disebabkan itu, al- Bukhari dalam kebanyakan perkara berkaitan dengan persoalan akidah dikatakan akan mengambil pendapat Ibn Kullab dan al-Karabisi(al-'Asqalani 2001: 1/293)"
  25. ^ Brown, Jonathan (2007). "Three: The Genesis of al-Bukhārī and Muslim". The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. p. 78. ISBN 978-90-04-15839-9. is not very accurate to employ the term “rationalist” in any sense when describing al-Bukhārī, since he was a diehard traditionalist. Rather, we should view him as a representative of Ibn Hanbal’s original traditionalist school who fell victim to its most radical wing.
  26. ^ a b c d e Azmi, Ahmad Sanusi. "Ahl al-Hadith Methodologies on Qur'anic Discourses in the Ninth Century: A Comparative Analysis of Ibn Hanbal and al-Bukhari." Online Journal of Research in Islamic Studies 4.1 (2017): 17-26. "Supporting his master, Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 241/855), al-Bukhari is reported to declare that ‘reciting the Qur’an is an element of createdness’. This statement presumably proclaimed by al-Bukhari as an explanatory assertion intended to provide an alternative source of thought or reasoning for Muslims. Instead of accepting the doctrine of the Mu’tazilites (the group that champions the concept of the creation of the Qur’an), al-Bukhari appears to suggest that the element of creation is only applied to humans, not to the words of God, namely the Qur’an. The statement did, however, receive a negative response from the Muslim community, including some prominent scholars."
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  30. ^ Brown, Jonathan (2007). "Three: The Genesis of al-Bukhārī and Muslim". The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. p. 80. ISBN 978-90-04-15839-9.
  31. ^ Brown, Jonathan (2007). "Three: The Genesis of al-Bukhārī and Muslim". The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunni Hadith Canon. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. pp. 80–82. ISBN 978-90-04-15839-9.
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  38. ^ Sattar, Abdul. "Konstruksi Fiqh Bukhari dalam Kitab al-Jami’al-Shahih." De Jure: Jurnal Hukum dan Syar'iah 3.1 (2011).
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  40. ^ Hasyim, Muh Fathoni. "FIKIH IMAM AL-BUKHAR1." (2009).
  41. ^ Imam al-Bukhari. (d. 256/870; Tabaqat al-Shafi'iya, 2.212-14 [6])
  42. ^ Falih al-Dhibyani, Al-zahiriyya hiya al-madhhab al-awwal, wa al-mutakallimun 'anha yahrifun bima la ya'rifun Archived 3 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Interview with Abdul Aziz al-Harbi for Okaz. 15 July 2006, Iss. #1824. Photography by Salih Ba Habri.
  43. ^ Lucas, Scott C. (2006). "The Legal Principles of Muhammad B. Ismāʿīl Al-Bukhārī and Their Relationship to Classical Salafi Islam". Islamic Law and Society. 13 (3): 290, 312. doi:10.1163/156851906778946341.


  • Bukhari, Imam (194-256H) اللإمام البُخاري; An educational Encyclopedia of Islam; Syed Iqbal Zaheer
  • Abdul Qadir Muhammad Jalal et al., "Elevating Imam Al Bukhari: Affirming the Status of Imam Al Bukhari and His Sahih by Dispelling the Misconceptions Surrounding them", Lagos 2021

Further reading[edit]


  • Encyclopedia of Sahih Al-Bukhari by Arabic Virtual Translation Center (New York 2019, Barnes & Noble ISBN 9780359672653)
  • al-Bukhārī, al-Jāmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ, 9 vols. In 3, Būlāq 1311–3, repr. Liechtenstein 2001
  • al-Bukhārī, al-Taʾrīkh al-kabīr, 4 vols. In 8, Hyderabad 1358–62/1941–5, 1377/19582
  • al-Dhahabī, Taʾrīkh al-Islām, ed. ʿUmar ʿAbd al-Salām Tadmurī (Beirut 1407–21/1987–2000), 19 (251–60 A.H.):238–74
  • Ibn Abī Ḥātim, K. al-Jarḥ wa-l-taʿdīl, 4 vols. In 8, Hyderabad 1360/1941
  • Ibn ʿAdī al-Qaṭṭān, al-Kāmil fī ḍuʿafāʾ al-rijāl, ed. ʿĀdil Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Mawjūd et al., Beirut, 1418/1997
  • Ibn ʿAdī al-Qaṭṭān, Asāmī man rawā ʿanhum Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-Bukhārī, ed. ʿĀmir Ḥasan Ṣabrī, Beirut, 1414/1994
  • Ibn ʿAsākir, Taʾrīkh madīnat Dimashq, ed. Muḥibb al-Dīn Abī Saʿīd al-ʿAmrawī, 70 vols., Beirut 1415/1995
  • Ibn Ḥajar, Fatḥ al-bārī, ed. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. ʿAbdallāh Ibn Bāz, 15 vols. Beirut, 1428–9/2008
  • al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī, Taʾrīkh Baghdād aw Madīnat al-Salām (Cairo 1349/1931), 2:4–34
  • al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī, Taʾrīkh Madīnat al-Salām, ed. Bashshar ʿAwwād Maʿrūf (Beirut 1422/2001), 2:322–59
  • al-Nawawī, Tahdhīb al-asmāʾ wa-l-lughāt, Cairo 1927
  • al-Qasṭallānī, Irshād al-sārī Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, ed. Muḥammad ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Khālidī, 15 vols., Beirut 1416/1996.


  • Ghassan Abdul-Jabbar, Bukhari, London, 2007
  • Muḥammad ʿIṣām ʿArār al-Ḥasanī, Itḥāf al-qāriʾ bi-maʿrifat juhūd wa-aʿmāl al-ʿulamāʾ ʿalā Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, Damascus 1407/1987
  • Jonathan Brown, The canonization of al-Bukhārī and Muslim, Leiden 2007
  • Eerik Dickinson, The development of early Sunnite ḥadīth criticism, Leiden 2001
  • Mohammad Fadel, "Ibn Ḥajar’s Hady al-sārī," JNES 54 (1995), 161–97
  • Johann W. Fück, "Beiträge zur Überlieferungsgeschichte von Bukhārī’s Traditionssammlung," ZDMG 92 (n.s. 17, 1938), 60–87
  • Ignaz Goldziher, Muslim studies, ed. S. M. Stern, trans. C. R. Barber and S. M. Stern (Chicago 1968–71), 2:216–29
  • Nizār b. ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Sulṭān al-Ḥamadānī, al-Imām al-Bukhārī, Mecca 1412/1992
  • al-Ḥusaynī ʿAbd al-Majīd Hāshim, al-Imām al-Bukhārī, Cairo n.d.
  • Abū Bakr al-Kāfī, Manhaj al-Imām al-Bukhārī, Beirut 1421/2000
  • Najm ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Khalaf, Istidrākāt ʿalā Taʾrīkh al-turāth al-ʿArabī li-Fuʾād Sizkīn fī ʿilm al-ḥadīth (Beirut 1421/2000), 135–264
  • Scott C. Lucas, "The legal principles of Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-Bukhārī and their relationship to classical Salafi Islam," ILS 13 (2006), 289–324
  • Christopher Melchert, "Bukhārī and early hadith criticism," JAOS 121 (2001), 7–19
  • Christopher Melchert, "Bukhārī and his Ṣaḥīḥ," Le Muséon 123 (2010), 425–54
  • Alphonse Mingana, An important manuscript of the traditions of Bukhārī, Cambridge 1936
  • Rosemarie Quiring-Zoche, "How al-Bukhārī’s Ṣaḥīḥ was edited in the Middle Ages. ʿAlī al-Yūnīnī and his rumūz," BEO 50 (1998), 191–222
  • Fuat Sezgin, Buhârî’nin kaynakları, Istanbul 1956
  • Umm ʿAbdallāh bt. Maḥrūs al-ʿAsalī et al., Fihris Muṣannafāt al-Imām Abī ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-Bukhārī…fīmā ʿadā al-Ṣaḥīḥ, Riyadh 1408/1987–8

External links[edit]