Khagaul

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Khagaul Nainchak
खगौल
Nainadham
City
Khagaul Nainchak is located in Bihar
Khagaul Nainchak
Khagaul Nainchak
Location in Bihar, India
Coordinates: 25°35′N 85°03′E / 25.58°N 85.05°E / 25.58; 85.05Coordinates: 25°35′N 85°03′E / 25.58°N 85.05°E / 25.58; 85.05
Country  India
State Bihar
District Patna
Area
 • Total 3 km2 (1 sq mi)
Elevation 55 m (180 ft)
Population (2001)
 • Total 48,330
 • Density 16,000/km2 (42,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Magahi, Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 801105
Website patna.nic.in

Khagaul is a city and a municipality in Patna district in the Indian state of Bihar.

Geography[edit]

Khagaul is located at 25°35′N 85°03′E / 25.58°N 85.05°E / 25.58; 85.05.[1] It has an average elevation of 55 metres (180 feet).

Demographics[edit]

As of 2001 India census,[2] Khagaul had a population of 48,330. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Khagaul has an average literacy rate of 95%. In Khagaul, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age.

History[edit]

Khagaul is a world-famous historical place of great importance. In ancient times, Before Christ, Khagaul was called as Kusumpura or Kusumpur, near Pataliputra which was the Capital City of the mighty Magadh Empire. Pushpapur was located between Pataliputra and Kusumpur. In modern times Pataliputra is called as Patna, whereas Khusumpura or Kusumpur is called as Khagaul and Pushpapur is called as Phulwari or Phulwari Sharif.

Shaktar and Chanakya (Also known as Khautilya or Vishnugupta), the two world-famous Prime Ministers of the mighty Magadh Empire belonged to Kusumpur or present day Khagaul during Fourth Century BC. Chanakya had provided initial education and training to Chandagupta Maurya (Great Emperor of Magadh Empire and Founder of the Gupta Dynasty) at this very place. Under the guidance of Chanakya, the mighty Magadh Empire was spread from present day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan up to Iran after defeating the forces of Alexander and Seleucus. The tyrannical rule of the King Dhanananda over Magadh was brought to an end by the rebellion of Chanakya after arrest, humiliation and death sentence inflicted against his father Chanak by the tyrannical King Dhananand. Thereafter Chandragupta Maurya, disciple of Chanakya was made King Emperor of the Magadh Empire and Chankya became its Prime Minister. Chanakya was a great scholar, economist, administrator, jurist, lawmaker and a very sharp minded nationalist and shrewd politician. He was a student of the world-famous Takshashila or Taxila University who also worked as an Acharya or professor in the same university. Under the guidance of Chanakya, the mighty Magadh Empire had become the most powerful, most influential, most developed and the richest empire of the world, and Pataliputra had become the most beautiful city of the world.

After 5th century AD, Kusumpur was renamed as Khagaul after Khagol or Khagol Shastra i.e. Astronomy, as it was an eminent center of Astronomical Observatory (Khagoliya Vedhashala) established by Aryabhata or Aryabhatta for Astronomical Studies and Astronomical Research. Aryabhatta has been being called as Father of Algebra, Geometry and Trigonometry, Concept of Zero (0) and decimal system.

Aryabhata, also called Aryabhata I or Aryabhata the Elder (born in the year 476 AD, at Kusumapura, near Pataliputra or present day Patna in India), astronomer and the earliest Indian mathematician whose work and history are available to modern scholars. He is also known as Aryabhata I or Aryabhata the Elder to distinguish him from a 10th-century Indian mathematician of the same name. He flourished in Kusumapura—near Patalipurta (Patna), then the capital of the Gupta dynasty—where he composed at least two works, Aryabhatiya (c. 499) and the now lostAryabhatasiddhanta.

Aryabhatasiddhanta circulated mainly in the northwest of India and, through the Sāsānian dynasty (224–651) of Iran, had a profound influence on the development of Islamic astronomy. Its contents are preserved to some extent in the works of Varahamihira (flourished c. 550), Bhaskara I (flourished c. 629), Brahmagupta (598 – c. 665), and others. It is one of the earliest astronomical works to assign the start of each day to midnight.

Aryabhatiya was particularly popular in South India, where numerous mathematicians over the ensuing millennium wrote commentaries. The work was written in verse couplets and deals with mathematics and astronomy. Following an introduction that contains astronomical tables and Aryabhata’s system of phonemic number notation in which numbers are represented by a consonant-vowel monosyllable, the work is divided into three sections: Ganita(“Mathematics”), Kala-kriya (“Time Calculations”), and Gola (“Sphere”).

In Ganita Aryabhata names the first 10 decimal places and gives algorithms for obtaining square and cubic roots, using the decimal number system. Then he treats geometric measurements—employing 62,832/20,000 (= 3.1416) for π—and develops properties of similar right-angled triangles and of two intersecting circles. Using the Pythagorean theorem, he obtained one of the two methods for constructing his table of sines. He also realized that second-order sine difference is proportional to sine. Mathematical series, quadratic equations, compound interest (involving a quadratic equation), proportions (ratios), and the solution of various linear equations are among the arithmetic andalgebraic topics included. Aryabhata’s general solution for linear indeterminate equations, whichBhaskara I called kuttakara (“pulverizer”), consisted of breaking the problem down into new problems with successively smaller coefficients—essentially the Euclidean algorithm and related to the method of continued fractions.

With Kala-kriya Aryabhata turned to astronomy—in particular, treating planetary motion along theecliptic. The topics include definitions of various units of time, eccentric and epicyclic models of planetary motion (see Hipparchus for earlier Greek models), planetary longitude corrections for different terrestrial locations, and a theory of “lords of the hours and days” (an astrological concept used for determining propitious times for action).

Aryabhatiya ends with spherical astronomy in Gola, where he applied plane trigonometry to sphericalgeometry by projecting points and lines on the surface of a sphere onto appropriate planes. Topics include prediction of solar and lunar eclipses and an explicit statement that the apparent westward motion of the stars is due to the spherical Earth’s rotation about its axis. Aryabhata also correctly ascribed the luminosity of the Moon and planets to reflected sunlight.

The Indian Government named its First Satellite Aryabhata (launched 1975) in his honour.

The First Modern Gurukul (Most Idealistic Great Center of Learning) of Twentieth Century AD was established in the name of Vedaratna Vidyalaya at Cant. Road, Mustafapur, Khagaul, Patna by Pundit Hari Narayan Sharma, who was a great educationist, physician and freedom fighter as well as front line eminent leader and Mahamantri (Secretary General) of Arya Samaj, Sarvadeshik Arya Pratinidhi Sabha and Founder of Bihar Arya Pratinidhi Sabha. After its expansion in the year 1915, Vedaratna Vidyalaya Gurukul became world-famous great center of learning from primary level education to graduate and post graduate level education in a single campus. It became a great center of education and training of Vedic Studies, Mathematics, Science, Astronomy, Astrology, Indian Medical Science or Ayurveda, Diagnostic Science (Nadi Vigyan), Philosophy, Sanskrit Literature, Grammar, Archery, Fencing, Shooting, Wrestling, Football Training etc. It was spresd over an area of about four acres of land with all round boundary wall. It was a residential ideal educational institution with hostel facilities, Yagyashala, Conference Hall, Ayurvedic Medicine Manufacturing Unit, Ayurvedic Hospital and Play Ground. A matter of great pride indeed it is for this institution that has produced scores of the most idealistic scholars of world fame including eminent teachers, professors, directors, orators, writers, lawyers, judges, legislators, ministers, chief ministers etc. Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Dr. Dukhan Ram, Dr. Badri Prasad, Dr. Madhusudan Das, Lakhan Lal Paul, Paras Nath, Ramakant Pandey, Shri Krishna Singh, Anugrah Narayan Singh, Krishna Ballabh Sahay, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Pundit Veda Vrat Sharma, Pundit Satya Vrat Sharma, Pundit Priya Vrat Sharma, Dhirendra Brahmachari, Tara Kant Jha etc. were the disciples of Pundit Hari Narayan Sharma and their most idealistic noble personality was shaped and molded under Vedaratna Vidyalaya Gurukul System of Education. Its ideal slogan was that – "A well educated single man is equal to one hundred armies." Close associates of Pundit Hari Narayan Sharma including Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Swamy Shraddhanand, Nardeo Shastri, Mangal Deo Shastri, Pundit Madan Mohan Malaviya, J.B. Kripalani etc. used to visit this eminent institution and played a great role in its development and they were very much inspired by the functioning of Vedaratna Vidyalaya Gurukul System of Education. The first publication of the famous Hindi News Paper ARYAVARTA was started by Pundit Hari Narayan Sharma in the year 1916 from this very premises of Vedaratna Vidyalaya Gurukul, which was printed at a press at Danapur. It had also become a great center of activities related to Social Reform and Freedom Movement. It was also a secret abode of the great revolutionary Chandra Shekhar Azad, who had organized a secret meeting of eminent freedom fighters and had decided to kill the British Police Superintendent Saunders for avenging the death of Lala Lajpat Rai, who was a batch mate and best friend of Pundit Hari Narayan Sharma and both had studied at Lahore now in Pakinstan, and along with others both of them had worked hard for establishment of the First D.A.V. School and College at Lahore in the year 1886. One of the most brilliant students of this Vedaratna Vidyalaya namely Pundit Priya Vrat Sharma (Former Principal of Patna Ayurvedic College and Former Director of Post Graduate Institute of Indian Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi) has written and translated a large number of world-famous books on Ayurveda in English, Hindi and Sanskrit languages including Charak Samhita, Sushrut Samhita, Medicinal Use of Fruits and Vegetables in ancient India etc. and he worked hard for worldwide promotion and popularity of Ayurveda. in the year 1926, Higher Education Section of Vedaratna Vidyalaya Gurukul was shifted or transferred to Gurukul Mahavidyalaya, Baidyanathdham near Deoghar (Deoghar Vidyapeeth). Historic aspect of Vedaratna Vidyalaya Gurukul is also explained in "Comprehensive History of Bihar, Volume- 3, Part- II, Page- 31", published by K.P. Jaiswal Research Institute of the Government of Bihar, Patna Museum Premises, Budh Marg, Patna. Now the great grand son of Pundit Hari Narayan Sharma namely Krishna Ballabha Sharma 'Yogiraj' (Advocate, Patna High Court) has been making all possible efforts of restoration and development of this Vedaratna Vidyalaya Gurukul in accordance with its historical importance and pristine glory.

Besides Vedaratna Vidyalaya Gurukul, Danapur Divisional Head Office of Eastern Railway (Now East Central Railway), Irrigation Research Institute, Jagjeevan Stadium, N.C. Ghosh Institute, V.N. Sharma Institute, Water and Land Management Institute, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, PATNA), Rashtriya Nava Nirman Parishad, Krishna Foundation etc. have been famous great institutions of national and international fame.

Jagat Narayan Lal College, Mahila Mahavidyalaya, Gandhi Vidyalaya, Baliga High School, Kasturba Gandhi School, Railway High school, Ghanshyam Balika High School, D.A.V. Public School etc. are the modern famous educational institutions.

This small town of Khagaul. being center of activities of Chanakya and Aryabhatta, it has continuously been attracting all kinds of world-famous great and noble people including Swamy Dayananda Saraswati, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Subhash Chandra Bose, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Mahatma Gandhi, Kasturba Gandhi, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Nardeo Shastri, Mangal Deo Shastri, Pundit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Pundit Govind Vallabh Pant, Shri Krishna Singh, Anugrah Narayan Singh, Prithvi Raj Kapoor, Shashi Kapoor, Shammi Kapoor, Mukesh, Mahendra Kapoor, Balraj Sahni, Dara Singh, King Kong, Jaya Bachchan (Wife of Amitabh Bachchan) etc. who have been visiting Khagaul in connection with various activities.

This small city of Khagaul has produced a large number of famous great scholars, physicians, experts of Ayurveda, mathematicians, politicians, orators, social workers, educationists, social reformers, religious reformers, astrologers, cultural activists, theater workers, musicians, lawyers, judges, writers, literary persons, poets etc. Pundit Shreshth Chandra Mishra, Pundit Ramavatar Sharma Vaidya, Pundit Hari Narayan Sharma, Pundit Priya Vrat Sharma (Former Principal of Patna Ayurvedic College and Former Director of Post Graduate Institute of Indian Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi), Pundit Nand Kishore Mishra (Former Principal of Patna Ayurvedic College) and Lal Bihari Mishra etc. have been great experts of Ayuveda of national and internal fame. Pundit Veda Vrat Sharma has been a great educationist, journalist and scholar of history and English Literature of national and international fame. Pundit Satya Vrat Sharma (Former Director of Rajbhasha Vibhag, Government of Bihar) has been a great scholar of Sanskrit and Hindi Literature. Pundit Braja Ballabha Sharma 'Brajaraj', Dr. Medha Vrat Sharma and Pundit Pramud Ranjan Mishra 'Pramud' have been famous for their literary work in Hindi Literature. Dr. Vidya Vrat Sharma, Dr. Prema Vrat Sharma, Dr. Anu Vrat Sharma, Dr. Manu Vrat Sharma, Dr. Mahendra Prasad etc. have been great scholars of modern medical science.

Ambarish Nath Chaturvedi, Ram Narayan Prasad, Professor Shami Khan, Md. Salam, Basudeva Vishvakarma, Rajendra Prasdad Verma 'Tarun', Sarur Ali ansari, Aniruddh Pathak, Uday Kumar etc. have been the leading cultural activists, theater workers and new trend setters in respect of theater and cultural activities. Subodh Gupta has become a great painter and sculptor of national and international fame. Aniruddh Pathak has been the creator of the famous TV Serial Devadhideva Mahadeva and Savitri shown on Life OK TV Channel and appreciated by one and all throughout India.

Krishna Ballabha Sharma 'Yogiraj' (Advocate, Patna High Court and resident of Cant. Road, Mustafapur, Khagaul) has been an eminent great lawyer and jurist as well as a nationalist social worker and writer of various books in Hindi and English languages including Basic Principles of Dharma Justice and Democracy, Dharma Vigyan, Dharmavad, Itihas Rachayita, Dharma Nyaya Evam Janatantra ke Mool Siddhant, Veddic Civilization: Mother of All Civilizations, Basic Principles Indian Jurisprudence (Science of Law). He has been the Founder of Rashtriya Nava Nirman Parishad, Krishna Foundation and Nationalist Lawyers Association. Following the noble tradition of his great ancestors and historical past, he has been making sustained and continuous efforts for promotion of Dharma, Justice, Democracy, Peace and Social Harmony and for social and national reconstruction for a Better India and Better World

People of Khagaul are very sharp minded, bold, brave and courageous and they have spread and dominated throughout India and the world. People of Khagaul and Danapur Division of East Central Railway may be easily found in all States of India and everywhere they try to dominate the society and friend circle on account of their noble qualities. Historical aspect of Khagaul has always inspired and dominated the present status of Khagaul and its people.

References[edit]