Kimba, South Australia

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Kimba
South Australia
Big Galah Kimba.jpg
Big Galah
Kimba is located in South Australia
Kimba
Kimba
Coordinates33°08′22″S 136°25′09″E / 33.139565°S 136.41908°E / -33.139565; 136.41908Coordinates: 33°08′22″S 136°25′09″E / 33.139565°S 136.41908°E / -33.139565; 136.41908[1]
Population629 (2016 census)[2]
Established29 April 1915 (town)
6 May 1999 (locality)[3][4]
Postcode(s)5641[5]
Elevation280 m (919 ft)weather station[6]
Time zoneACST (UTC+9:30)
 • Summer (DST)ACST (UTC+10:30)
Location282 km (175 mi) north-west of Adelaide[5]
LGA(s)District Council of Kimba[1]
RegionEyre Western[1]
CountyBuxton[1]
State electorate(s)Giles[7]
Federal division(s)Grey[8]
Mean max temp[6] Mean min temp[6] Annual rainfall[6]
23.6 °C
74 °F
11.4 °C
53 °F
348.1 mm
13.7 in
Localities around Kimba:
Cortlinye Cortlinye
Moseley
Moseley
Solomon Kimba Kelly
Solomon Solomon
Kelly
Kelly
FootnotesAdjoining localities[1]

Kimba is a rural service town on the Eyre Highway at the top of Eyre Peninsula in the Australian state of South Australia. At the 2016 census, Kimba had a population of 629 and it has an annual rainfall of 348 millimetres (13.7 in). There is an 8-metre (26 ft) tall statue of a galah beside the highway, marking halfway between the east and west coasts of Australia. The Gawler Ranges are north of the highway near the town.

Kimba is located in the federal division of Grey, the state electoral district of Giles and the local government area of the District Council of Kimba.[8][7][1]

The word "kimba" is derived from the local Aboriginal word for "bushfire", and the District Council of Kimba's emblem reflects this in the form of a burning bush. The town was built on Barngarla lands.

Early history[edit]

The first European in the area was explorer Edward John Eyre, who passed through the area on his passage from Streaky Bay to the head of Spencer Gulf in late 1839.

The area was first settled in the 1870s by lease-holding pastoralists who moved north up the Eyre Peninsula during the 1870s and 1880s. They lightly stocked the land and relied on the limited water supplies and intermittent open grass lands to raise their stock. It was more intensively settled for wheat farming from 1908, when overseas demand for wheat increased in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The large tracts of mallee scrub began to be cleared to facilitate this, and soon regular mail services were established from the port at Cowell. Bags of wheat had to be loaded onto bullock drays which carried the produce to Cowell 76 km south.

In 1913, Kimba was connected by narrow gauge railway to Port Lincoln. This development encouraged a number of new wheat farmers to move into the area. Two years later the township of Kimba was officially proclaimed and service industries began to move into the district.

Education within the town is provided by the Kimba Area School where around 170 students from reception to year 12 attend.

National Radioactive Waste Management Facility[edit]

Two properties in the Kimba district were nominated in 2017 for a proposed National Radioactive Waste Management Facility, to store low-level and intermediate-level nuclear waste. One is owned by Brett and Michelle Rayner,[9] and the other is owned by Andrew and Dale Baldock.[10] A third proposed site is located at Barndioota in the Flinders Ranges.[citation needed]

In 2017, a Kimba town vote demonstrated support for further investigation of the prospect. The result of the vote was 396 to 294 in favour.[10] Opposition to the project has been expressed by community groups No Radioactive Waste on Agricultural Land in Kimba or SA[10] and the Against Radioactive Waste Action Group.[11]

On 1 February 2020 federal resources minister, Matt Canavan, announced that 160 hectares (400 acres) of Jeff Baldock's Napandee property, 20 kilometres (12 mi) west of Kimba, would provide the location to permanently store low-level waste. The facility would also temporarily store intermediate-level waste from Lucas Heights nuclear reactor, until a suitable permanent site was found.[12][13]

The federal government is allocating a A$31 million community development package to boost the skills of local businesses and workers to build and run the dump. The facility would cost A$200 million, and create 45 jobs during construction and 25 ongoing jobs.[12][13]

Culture[edit]

An 8-metre (26 ft) large-scale public artwork known as "The Big Galah" welcomes visitors to Kimba as they enter the township.[14] The Kimba Art Prize is held annually by the District Council of Kimba. Selected works are displayed in the Kimba Institute in September, and an award is presented to a local artist. In 2017, the art prize received 150 entries from around South Australia and interstate.[15][16]

In 2017 a 30-metre (98 ft) high mural was completed on the town's grain silos by Melbourne artist Cam Scale, part of the silo art[17] projects that extend across South Australia and Victoria.[18]

Climate[edit]

Kimba, South Australia, Australia
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
21
 
 
32
16
 
 
20
 
 
31
16
 
 
19
 
 
28
14
 
 
23
 
 
24
11
 
 
32
 
 
19
9
 
 
43
 
 
16
6
 
 
38
 
 
16
5
 
 
41
 
 
17
6
 
 
39
 
 
21
7
 
 
30
 
 
24
9
 
 
23
 
 
28
12
 
 
23
 
 
30
14
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

Kimba experiences a cold semi-arid climate bordering on a hot-summer mediterranean climate (Köppen: BSk/Csa, Trewartha: BSal/Csal); with warm to hot, dry summers; mild to warm dry springs and autumns; and mild, relatively dry winters. Kimba is located within a dry (arid and semi arid) climate zone, where precipitation is less than the total potential evapotranspiration. The region is characterised by hot summers and relies on cool winter rainfall for cereal (dominantly wheat and barley with smaller amounts of oats and canola) agriculture. Grazing is also practised, largely that of merino sheep for wool production with smaller amounts of cattle grazing. Water for stock is sourced solely from rainfall due to the paucity of reliable groundwater in the district, and often summer thunderstorms can supplement the winter rainfall for grazing purposes.

Kimba and the associated Buckleboo agricultural area is one of a small number of communities on Eyre Peninsula located significantly to the north of Goyders Line in South Australia. This line represents a remarkable development in climatic understanding from the 19th century in that it was the first recognition of the vagaries of highly variable rainfall and climatic conditions with respect to European style agriculture.

Climate data for Kimba, South Australia, Australia (1991-2020 normals, extremes 1920-present); 280 m AMSL
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 47.0
(116.6)
44.8
(112.6)
42.3
(108.1)
37.8
(100.0)
30.0
(86.0)
25.8
(78.4)
27.0
(80.6)
30.0
(86.0)
35.5
(95.9)
39.0
(102.2)
43.5
(110.3)
46.0
(114.8)
47.0
(116.6)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 39.8
(103.6)
39.0
(102.2)
35.2
(95.4)
30.5
(86.9)
24.5
(76.1)
19.2
(66.6)
19.0
(66.2)
22.1
(71.8)
27.3
(81.1)
31.6
(88.9)
35.2
(95.4)
37.6
(99.7)
39.8
(103.6)
Average high °C (°F) 31.9
(89.4)
31.4
(88.5)
28.1
(82.6)
24.2
(75.6)
19.4
(66.9)
16.1
(61.0)
15.6
(60.1)
17.1
(62.8)
20.8
(69.4)
24.3
(75.7)
27.6
(81.7)
29.7
(85.5)
23.8
(74.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.0
(75.2)
23.9
(75.0)
21.1
(70.0)
17.8
(64.0)
14.1
(57.4)
11.3
(52.3)
10.4
(50.7)
11.4
(52.5)
14.1
(57.4)
16.9
(62.4)
20.0
(68.0)
22.1
(71.8)
17.3
(63.1)
Average low °C (°F) 16.0
(60.8)
16.3
(61.3)
14.1
(57.4)
11.4
(52.5)
8.7
(47.7)
6.4
(43.5)
5.1
(41.2)
5.7
(42.3)
7.4
(45.3)
9.4
(48.9)
12.3
(54.1)
14.4
(57.9)
10.6
(51.1)
Mean minimum °C (°F) 11.1
(52.0)
11.6
(52.9)
10.0
(50.0)
7.7
(45.9)
4.8
(40.6)
2.8
(37.0)
2.0
(35.6)
2.2
(36.0)
3.2
(37.8)
5.0
(41.0)
7.0
(44.6)
9.0
(48.2)
2.0
(35.6)
Record low °C (°F) 5.3
(41.5)
7.7
(45.9)
4.3
(39.7)
0.6
(33.1)
0.8
(33.4)
−0.8
(30.6)
−1.7
(28.9)
−0.8
(30.6)
−1.1
(30.0)
0.4
(32.7)
2.5
(36.5)
4.6
(40.3)
−1.7
(28.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 21.2
(0.83)
20.2
(0.80)
18.9
(0.74)
22.6
(0.89)
32.2
(1.27)
43.0
(1.69)
38.3
(1.51)
40.9
(1.61)
39.4
(1.55)
29.8
(1.17)
22.6
(0.89)
23.4
(0.92)
352.5
(13.87)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 2.5 2.1 2.6 3.3 5.6 8.4 8.5 8.8 6.2 4.3 3.6 3.3 59.2
Average relative humidity (%) 42.5 45.5 50.5 52.0 62.5 70.0 69.5 63.0 54.5 45.5 43.0 43.0 53.5
Average dew point °C (°F) 9.7
(49.5)
10.8
(51.4)
9.6
(49.3)
8.4
(47.1)
7.6
(45.7)
6.4
(43.5)
5.4
(41.7)
5.2
(41.4)
5.7
(42.3)
5.4
(41.7)
7.0
(44.6)
8.4
(47.1)
7.5
(45.4)
Source 1: Australian Bureau of Meteorology (1991-2020 normals)[19]
Source 2: Australian Bureau of Meteorology (1920-present extremes)[20]

Soils and geomorphology[edit]

'Halfway Across Australia' sign at Kimba

The Kimba district is dominated by calcareous earths, containing distinctive calcrete profiles and varying degrees of development, with minor ferruginous red-brown earths and local pisolitic regions. The major exception is to the south west of the Kimba District, within the Corrobinnie Depression, a palaeochannel which is now filled with deep sands. Much of this region is unsuitable for agriculture and comprises the Pinkawillinie Conservation Park. Locally grey loams and gypsum bearing flats are developed, with minor evaporites surrounding playa lakes, such as Lake Gilles at the eastern end of the district.

Small rounded hills in the form of Wild Dog Hill occur in the Kelly region to the east of Kimba township, with two ranges, Botanella Hills and the Wilcherry Range comprising uplands to the north east. The Gawler Ranges located in the pastoral country to the far north, the Cleve Uplands to the south, and the Corrobinnie Depression comprise distinct geomorphic boundaries to the District Council of Kimba.

Notable persons from Kimba[edit]

Parliamentarians[edit]

AFL footballers[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Search results for 'Kimba, LOCB' with the following datasets selected – 'Suburbs and localities', 'Counties', 'Government Towns', 'Hundreds', 'Local Government Areas', 'SA Government Regions' and 'Gazetteer'". Location SA Map Viewer. South Australian Government. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  2. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Kimba (State Suburb)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 24 February 2020. Edit this at Wikidata
  3. ^ Styles, A.W. (29 April 1929). "Town of Kimba" (PDF). The South Australian Government Gazette. Government of South Australia. p. 1057. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  4. ^ "GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES ACT 1991 Notice to Assign Names and Boundaries to Places (within the District Council of Kimba)" (PDF). The South Australian Government Gazette. Government of South Australia. 6 May 1999. p. 2468. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  5. ^ a b "Postcode for Kimba, South Australia". Postcodes Australia. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d "Climate Statistics for Kimba (1967–2012)". Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  7. ^ a b "Giles (Electoral District Profile)". Electoral Commission SA. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  8. ^ a b "Profile of the electoral division of Grey (SA)". Australian Electoral Commission. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  9. ^ "Kimba Landowners Visit ANSTO As Consultation Continues". magic899.com.au. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  10. ^ a b c Booth, Meredith (23 June 2017). "Kimba votes to investigate nuclear waste facility on Eyre Peninsula". The Australian.
  11. ^ "Kimba Residents Protest Over Proposed Kimba Radioactive Waste Management Facility". magic899.com.au. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  12. ^ a b Boisvert, Eugene. "Eyre Peninsula farm chosen to store Australia's nuclear waste". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  13. ^ a b Australian Associated Press (31 January 2020). "Matt Canavan announces nuclear waste dump location in South Australia". Retrieved 1 February 2020 – via The Guardian.
  14. ^ UBD street directory Gregory's South Australia and Northern Territory., Universal Business Directories Pty. Ltd., Universal Publishers, 2013, ISBN 978-0-7319-2696-1, OCLC 829213142{{citation}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  15. ^ Media, Australian Community Media – Fairfax (12 September 2017). "Kimba prepares for Art Prize exhibition". Eyre Peninsula Tribune. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  16. ^ Catanzariti, Kathrine (10 July 2017). "Kimba Art Prize to be revamped". Eyre Peninsula Tribune. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  17. ^ silo art
  18. ^ Field, Emma (22 September 2017). "Silo art: New mural opened in Kimba, South Australia". Weekly Times. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  19. ^ "Kimba, SA Climate (1991-2020 normals)". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  20. ^ "Kimba, SA Climate (1920-present extremes)". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  21. ^ http://www.parliament.sa.gov.au/Members/FormerMembers/Pages/default.aspx Archived 20 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 12 January 2015
  22. ^ http://www.parliament.sa.gov.au/Members/FormerMembers/Pages/default.aspx Archived 20 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 12 January 2015