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Since antiquity, a number of Jewish communities have been established in many parts of Asia migrating or fleeing eastward from their place of origin in Mesopotamia. Some examples of ancient Jewish communities in Asia are: In Iran (Persian Jews) and Iraq (Iraqi Jews); the Georgian Jews and Mountain Jews of the Caucasus; the Bene Israel, the Baghdadi Jews and the Cochin Jews of India (Jews in India); and the Bukharan Jews of Central Asia. China once had an established Jewish community in Kaifeng.
Here is a partial list of some prominent Asian Jews, arranged by country of origin. Note that those regions of Asia where Arabic or Russian or Turkish predominate are excluded from this list (except for the Baghdadi Jews from India and Southeast Asia); see Arab Jews, Ashkenazi Jews and Sephardi Jews for information on these populations.
- Sarah Avraham, Indian-born Israeli 2014 women's world Thai kickboxing champion
- Joseph Rabban, given copper plates of special grants from the Chera ruler Bhaskara Ravivarman II from Kerala in South India
- David Abraham Cheulkar, actor
- Nissim Ezekiel, poet
- J F R Jacob, former Governor of Punjab and Goa; the Chief of Staff of the Indian Army's Eastern Command
- Gerry Judah, artist and designer
- Anish Kapoor, sculptor (Baghdadi Jewish mother)
- Samson Kehimkar, musician
- Ezekiel Isaac Malekar, Bene Israel Rabbi
- Pearl Padamsee, theatre personality (part Jewish)
- David and Simon Reuben, businessmen
- Nadira, actress of the 1950s and 1960s.
- David Sassoon, businessman
- Albert Abdullah David Sassoon, British Indian merchant
- Sassoon David Sassoon philanthropist and benefactor of greater Indian Jewish community.
- Solomon Sopher, Jewish community leader
- Ellis Kadoorie and Elly Kadoorie, philanthropists
- Horace Kadoorie, philanthropist
- Ruby Myers, Bollywood actress of the 1920s, otherwise known as Sulochana
- Lalchanhima Sailo, rabbi
- Abraham Barak Salem, Cochin Jew Indian nationalist leader
- Bensiyon Songavkar, professional cricketer
- Michel Abdollahi, German writer
- David Alliance, British businessman
- Moses ben Hanoch, rabbi
- Yossi Banai, performer
- Soleyman Binafard, wrestler
- Jimmy Delshad, Californian politician
- Roya Hakakian, writer
- Moshe Katsav, Israeli president
- Rita Kleinstein, Israeli singer/actress, known popularly as "Rita"
- Janet Kohan-Sedq, track and field athlete
- Mashallah ibn Athari, astrologer and astronomer
- Shaul Mofaz, Israeli Minister of Transportation
- Bahar Soomekh, American actress
- Soleiman Haim, among first compilers of Persian dictionary
- Ari Babakhanov, musician
- Yefim Bronfman, pianist
- Lev Leviev, diamond tycoon
- Ilyas Malayev, musician and poet
- Shlomo Moussaieff (businessman), Israeli businessman
- Shlomo Moussaieff (rabbi), co-founder of the Bukharian Quarter in Jerusalem
- Gavriel Mullokandov, shashmakom artist, "People's Artist of Uzbekistan"
- Suleiman Yudakov, composer and musician, "People's Artist of the Soviet Union"