List of works by Charles Holden

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Charles Holden by Benjamin Nelson, 1910

Charles Holden (12 May 1875 – 1 May 1960) was an English architect best known for designing many London Underground stations during the 1920s and 1930s. Other notable designs were Bristol Central Library, the Underground Electric Railways Company of London's headquarters at 55 Broadway and the University of London's Senate House. Many of his buildings have been granted listed building status, indicating that they are considered to be of architectural or historical interest and protecting them from unapproved alteration.[note 1] He also designed over 60 war cemeteries and two memorials in Belgium and northern France for the Imperial War Graves Commission from 1920 to 1928.[1]

Holden's early architectural training was in Bolton and Manchester where he worked for architects Everard W. Leeson and Jonathan Simpson before moving to London.[2] After a short period with Arts and Crafts designer Charles Robert Ashbee, he went to work for Henry Percy Adams in 1899. He became Adams' partner in the firm in 1907 and remained with it for the rest of his career.[3]

Buildings[edit]

Holden's early buildings were influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement, but for most of his career he championed an unadorned style based on simplified forms and massing that was free of what he considered to be unnecessary decorative detailing. He believed strongly that architectural designs should be dictated by the intended functions of buildings.[4][5] After the First World War he increasingly simplified his style and his designs became pared-down and modernist, influenced by continental European architecture.[6][7] This list includes all buildings for which Holden was commissioned to produce designs.

Building[8] Location[note 2] Year
completed[8]
Listed Note
aaa14–15 Old Bond Street Westminster 1911
aab55 Broadway Westminster 1929 Grade I[9] First cruciform plan office building in Britain; includes St. James's Park tube station. Sculptures commissioned by Holden for the building include Jacob Epstein's Day and Night and Henry Moore's first public commission.
aac87 Harmer Green Lane Welwyn, Hertfordshire 1906 Holden's own home
aad127 & 129 High Holborn Holborn 1904 Grade II[10]
Acton Town tube station Acton 1932 Grade II[11]
Almshouses Woburn, Bedfordshire 1906
Alperton tube station Alperton 1931
Archway tube station Archway 1931 Replacement Portland stone and glazed screen entrance façade, since demolished
Arnos Grove tube station Arnos Grove 1932 Grade II*[12]
Balham tube station Balham 1926 Grade II[13]
Bedfordshire Cottages, Workhouse site Woburn, Bedfordshire 1901
Belgrave Hospital for Children Kennington 1903 Grade II*[14]
Birchmoor Lodge Woburn, Bedfordshire 1901
Bond Street tube station West End 1927 Replacement Portland stone and glazed screen entrance façade, since demolished
Boston Manor tube station Boston Manor 1934 Grade II[15] With Stanley Heaps
Bounds Green tube station Bounds Green 1932 Grade II[16]
Bristol Central Library Bristol 1906 Grade I[17] A Tudor revival exterior with classical interior. Furnishings also by Holden.
Bristol Royal Infirmary King Edward VII memorial extension Bristol 1912
British Medical Association Strand 1908 Grade II*[18] Now Zimbabwe House. Jacob Epstein's series of sculptures caused great controversy when unveiled. They were defaced in the 1930s to prevent pieces falling off.
British Seamen's Hospital Istanbul, Turkey 1903
Bushey Heath tube station Bushey, Hertfordshire Unbuilt
Cavendish Laboratory, Austin Wing, University of Cambridge Cambridge, Cambridgeshire 1940
Chiswick Park tube station Chiswick 1932 Grade II[19]
Clapham Common tube station Clapham 1924 Grade II[20]
Clapham South tube station Clapham 1926 Grade II[21]
Clifton College Memorial Arch Bristol 1922 Grade II[22]
Colliers Wood tube station Colliers Wood 1926 Grade II[23]
Cockfosters tube station Cockfosters 1933 Grade II[24]
Cottages Port Sunlight, Merseyside 1898
Cottage Hospital Woburn, Bedfordshire 1903 Grade II[25] Listed as Henry P. Adams design
Crowholt Lodge Woburn, Bedfordshire 1914
Danvers Tower, Cheyne Walk Chelsea Unbuilt design for artists' studios
Ealing Common tube station Ealing 1931 Grade II[26] With Stanley Heaps
Eastcote tube station Eastcote 1939 Grade II[27]
East Finchley tube station East Finchley 1939 Grade II[28] With Leonard Holcombe Bucknell
Elstree South tube station Elstree, Hertfordshire Unbuilt
Evelyn House, Oxford Street West End 1909 Grade II[29]
Farm Cottages Mayland, Essex 1906
Finchley Central tube station Finchley With Reginald Uren. Unbuilt.
Gants Hill tube station Gants Hill 1947 The platform level concourse was modelled after stations on the Moscow Metro
General Hospital Tunbridge Wells, Kent 1902
Green Park tube station Piccadilly 1932 New Portland stone entrance shelter adjacent to Green Park, since demolished
Grey Gables Bolton, Greater Manchester 1898
Hall of Remembrance (War Museum) London Unbuilt
Hammersmith tube station Hammersmith 1931 New Portland stone and glazed screen secondary entrance façade, since demolished
Haresfoot Berkhamsted, Buckinghamshire 1920 Additions to existing house
Highgate tube station Highgate 1939 Partly built and partly disused
Holborn tube station Holborn 1933 Replacement Portland stone and glazed screen entrance façade
Homeopathic Cottage Hospital Southport, Lancashire 1909 Arts and Crafts hospital building with sea view.
Hounslow West tube station Hounslow 1931 Grade II[30] With Stanley Heaps
House Delamere Forest, Cheshire 1898 Holden's first project, unknown location
House Holford, Somerset 1923
House Knight Bepton Common, Midhurst, West Sussex 1915
House Mayor Bicknoller, Somerset 1928
House Semon Great Missenden, Buckinghamshire 1910 Grade II[31] Now known as Rignalls
House Sixsmith Adlington, Lancashire 1907 Grade II[32] Now know as Brown Low
Institution of Electrical Engineers Interiors, Savoy Place Westminster 1911
Isle of Thanet District Hospital Margate, Kent 1926 Grade II[33] Now part of Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother Hospital
Isolation Hospital for Infectious Diseases Ampthill, Bedfordshire 1903
King Edward VII Sanatorium Midhurst, West Sussex 1906 Grade II*[34] Chapel separately listed Grade II*[35]
Lodge Woburn, Bedfordshire 1908
Lodge, Birchmoor Drive Woburn, Bedfordshire 1914
Kings College for Women Kensington 1916 Grade II[36] Wren-influenced design for college for domestic science
Sir James Knott Memorial Flats Tynemouth 1939 With Tasker & Child
Law Society extension Holborn 1904 Grade II*[37] Listed with main building by Lewis Vulliamy
Leicester Square tube station West End 1933 New Portland stone entrance building including public house and sub-surface booking hall and concourse
London Underground Acton Works and Offices Acton 1932
Manor House tube station Manor House 1932
Mansion House tube station City of London 1930 Replacement Portland stone and glazed screen entrance façade, since demolished
Memorial Chapel, New College, Oxford Oxford, Oxfordshire Unbuilt
Morden tube station Morden 1926
Mortuary Chapel, Richmond Hospital Richmond 1914
National Library of Wales Aberystwyth, Wales 1937 Grade II*[38] Front range (modified version of earlier design by Sidney Greenslade). Also the Central Hall (completed 1955).
Northfields tube station Northfields 1932 Grade II[39]
Oakwood tube station Oakwood 1932 Grade II*[40] The free-standing station sign is separately listed Grade II[41]
Orchestral Association London 1912
Osterley tube station Osterley 1934 Grade II[42] With Stanley Heaps
Piccadilly Circus tube station Piccadilly 1928 Grade II[43] Sub-surface booking hall and concourse beneath the roadway of Piccadilly Circus
Rayners Lane tube station Harrow 1938 Grade II[44] With Reginald Uren
Redbridge tube station Redbridge 1947 Grade II[45]
Royal Northern Hospital Holloway 1941 Demolished
Royal Victoria Infirmary Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear 1906 With W. L. Newcombe
Royal Westminster Ophthalmic Hospital Westminster 1926
St George's Hospital, Hyde Park Corner Westminster Unbuilt
St Luke's Hospital Valletta, Malta 1939
School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London Bloomsbury 1946 Grade II[46]
Senate House, University of London Bloomsbury 1937 Grade II*[47] Tallest office building in London from 1937 to 1957. Remnant of a much grander unrealised scheme.
Shire Hall extension Bedford, Bedfordshire 1910 Grade II[48] Listed with main building by Alfred Waterhouse
Southgate tube station Southgate 1932 Grade II*[49] Station parade and lamp standards also by Holden separately listed Grade II and Grade II*[50][51]
South Harrow tube station South Harrow 1935
South Wimbledon tube station South Wimbledon 1926 Grade II[52]
SS Caldedonia, Interiors 1922 Interior design of principal rooms for Anchor Line ocean liner
SS Cameronia, Interiors 1922 Interior design of principal rooms for Anchor Line ocean liner
SS Tuscania, Interiors 1922 Interior design of principal rooms for Anchor Line ocean liner
Sudbury Hill tube station Sudbury 1931 Grade II[53]
Sudbury Town tube station Sudbury 1931 Grade II*[54]
Sutton Valence School Sutton Valence, Kent 1914 Grade II[55]
Sutton Valence School, Chapel Sutton Valence, Kent 1928
Tomb of Oscar Wilde, Père Lachaise Cemetery Paris, France 1912 With Jacob Epstein
Tooting Bec tube station Tooting 1926 Grade II[56]
Tooting Broadway tube station Tooting 1926 Grade II[57]
Torbay Hospital Torbay, Devon 1927
Torbay Hospital Chapel Torbay, Devon 1929 Grade II[58]
Trent Park House Enfield 1926 Grade II[59] New façades to existing mansion
Turnpike Lane tube station Harringay 1932 Grade II[60]
Two Cottages Oakley, Bedfordshire 1905
Two Cottages Woburn, Bedfordshire 1907
Uxbridge tube station Uxbridge 1938 Grade II[61] With Leonard Holcombe Bucknell
Victoria Hospital Folkestone, Kent 1910 Ward extensions
Wanstead tube station Wanstead 1947
Warren Street tube station Euston 1933 Replacement station building
West Ham Hospital West Ham 1907
West Kensington tube station West Kensington 1928 New façade and ticket hall
Westminster Female Refuge Westminster 1902
Westminster Hospital, Clapham Common Clapham Unbuilt
Westminster tube station Westminster 1924 Replacement side entrance and ticket hall, since demolished
Women's Hospital, Soho Square Soho 1908 Grade II[62] New façades and internal redesign of two existing houses
Woodcote Aspley Guise, Bedfordshire 1914
Wood Green tube station Wood Green 1932 Grade II[63]
Holden's competition-winning Tudor Revival design for Bristol Central Library was described by Andor Gomme as "one of the great masterpieces of the early Modern Movement".[17]
A typical Edwardian façade for the Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, carried out with W. L. Newcombe.[8]
The series of sculptures commissioned from Jacob Epstein for the British Medical Association Building, Strand, Westminster were highly controversial and calls were made in the newspapers to have them removed.[6]
For the Bristol Royal Infirmary, King Edward VII Memorial wing, Holden designed simplified abstract façades of white Portland Stone.[65]
Clifton College Memorial Arch, Bristol was constructed in a Gothic style using limestone and gritstone to match the college buildings.[22]
South Wimbledon station, Merton, demonstrates the modernist glazed "folded screen" design that Holden developed for the seven new stations of the City and South London Railway's extension to Morden.[6]
The cruciform plan of the Underground Group's headquarters at 55 Broadway, Westminster, maximised the daylight entering the building without using light wells. It was the first British office building to be planned in this way.[66]
European architecture inspired a new style for the Piccadilly line described by Holden as "brick boxes with concrete lids".[67] Sudbury Town station, Sudbury, was the first of these.
The single-storey Southgate station, Enfield, features a canopied roof supported on a single central column above a band of clerestory windows that is topped by an illuminated glass and bronze feature.[68]
The designs for new buildings for the University of London, Bloomsbury, were gradually revised and cut back due to a shortage of funds.[69] The 19-storey, 210-foot (64 m) tall Senate House is the only part that was completed and was the tallest office building in London for 20 years.[70]

Cemeteries[edit]

Holden worked on the designs for 69 cemeteries for the dead of the First World War as part of his work for the Imperial War Graves Commission (IWGC, now the Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC)) between 1918 and 1928.[1] Up until 1920, he worked as senior design architect and his designs are thought to include two of the initial cemetery designs built at Forceville and Louvencourt where Reginald Blomfield was named as the principal architect.[71][72][note 3] In 1920, he became one of the four principal architects for the cemeteries on the Western Front.[1]

Cemetery Location Identified
casualties[note 4]
Note
Aubers Ridge British Cemetery[74][75] Aubers, France 278
Avesnes-le-Comte Communal Cemetery Extension[76] Avesnes-le-Comte, France 329
Awoingt British Cemetery[77] Awoingt, France 714
Bac-Du-Sud British Cemetery[78] Bailleulval, France 737
Bapaume Post Military Cemetery[79] Albert, France 229
Bellicourt British Cemetery[80] Bellicourt, France 892
Bienvillers Military Cemetery[77] Bienvillers-au-Bois, France 1,198
Boulogne Eastern Cemetery[81] Boulogne, France 5,743
Brown's Road Military Cemetery[82] Festubert, France 664
Busigny Communal Cemetery Extension[83] Busigny, France 697
Buttes New British Cemetery[84] Zonnebeke, Belgium 432
Cambrai East Military Cemetery[85] Cambrai, France 474
Cambrin Churchyard Extension[86] Cambrin, France 1,304
Cambrin Military Cemetery[87] Cambrin, France 816
Canada Cemetery, Tilloy-les-Cambrai[88] Cambrai, France 248
Caudry Military Cemetery[77] Caudry, France 654
Chapelle British Cemetery[77] Holnon, France 360
Corbie Communal Cemetery Extension[89] Corbie, France 918
Cross Roads Cemetery[77] Fontaine-au-Bois, France 638
Dadizeele New British Cemetery[90] Moorslede, Belgium 871
Doullens Communal Cemetery Extension No. 1[91] Doullens, France 1,366
Doullens Communal Cemetery Extension No. 2[92] Doullens, France 459
Dranoutre Military Cemetery[93] Heuvelland, Belgium 456
Forceville Communal Cemetery and Extension[94][95] Forceville, France 308 The principal architect was Reginald Blomfield, but aspects of the design have been attributed to Holden.
Gorre British and Indian Cemetery[96] Beuvry, France 901
Gouy-en-Artois Communal Cemetery Extension[97] Gouy-en-Artois, France 47
Grand Seraucourt British Cemetery[98][99] Seraucourt-le-Grand, France 496
Guards Cemetery, Windy Corner[100] Cuinchy, France 1,246
Ham British Cemetery[77][101] Muille-Villette, France 267
Highland Cemetery, Le Cateau[102] Le Cateau, France 560
Honnechy British Cemetery[77][103] Honnechy, France 347
Kandahar Farm Cemetery[104] Heuvelland, Belgium 435
Le Cateau Military Cemetery[105] Le Cateau, France 513
Lancashire Cottage Cemetery[106] Comines-Warneton, Belgium 265
La Plus Douve Farm Cemetery[107] Comines-Warneton, Belgium 345
Lindenhoek Chalet Military Cemetery[108] Heuvelland, Belgium 248
London Rifle Brigade Cemetery[109] Comines-Warneton, Belgium 343
Louvencourt Military Cemetery[94][110] Louvencourt, France 230 The principal architect was Reginald Blomfield, but aspects of the design have been attributed to Holden.
Marcoing British Cemetery[77][111] Marcoing, France 181
Messines Ridge British Cemetery[112] Messines, Belgium 577
Montay-Neuvilly Road Cemetery[113] Montay, France 418
Naves Communal Cemetery Extension[77][114] Naves, France 320
Pargny British Cemetery[77][115] Pargny, France 149
Passchendaele New British Cemetery[116] Zonnebeke, Belgium 501
Poelcapelle British Cemetery[73] Langemark-Poelkapelle, Belgium 1,248
Polygon Wood Cemetery[117] Zonnebeke, Belgium 88 Attached to Buttes New British Cemetery
Pond Farm Cemetery[118] Heuvelland, Belgium 297
Post Office Rifles Cemetery[119] Festubert, France 128
Premont British Cemetery[120] Prémont, France 561
Romeries Communal Cemetery Extension[121] Romeries, France 703
Rue-des-Berceaux Military Cemetery[77][122] Richebourg-l'Avoué, France 243
St. Aubert British Cemetery[123] Avesnes-les-Aubert, France 391
St. Quentin Cabaret Military Cemetery[124] Heuvelland, Belgium 455
St. Souplet British Cemetery[77][125] Saint-Souplet, France 591
St. Vaast Post Military Cemetery[98][126] Richebourg-l'Avoué, France 850
Savy British Cemetery[77][127] Savy, France 430
Strand Military Cemetery[128] Comines-Warneton, Belgium 802
Tancrez Farm Cemetery[129] Comines-Warneton, Belgium 328
Tournai Communal Cemetery Allied Extension[77][130] Tournai, Belgium 819
Trefcon British Cemetery[77][131] Trefcon, France 277
Unicorn Cemetery[132] Vendhuile, France 599
Valenciennes (St. Roch) Communal Cemetery[77][133] Valenciennes, France 882
Villers Hill British Cemetery[134] Villers-Guislain, France 385
Wailly Orchard Cemetery[135] Wailly, France 351
Warlincourt Halte British Cemetery[136] Saulty, France 1,286 Some sources list this as a Lutyens cemetery that Holden completed
Wimereux Communal Cemetery[137] Wimereux, France 3,022
Woburn Abbey Cemetery[77][138] Cuinchy, France 315
Wulverghem-Lindenhoek Road Military Cemetery[139] Heuvelland, Belgium 658
Zantvoorde British Cemetery[140] Zantvoorde, Belgium 449
The entrance pavilion at Dadizeele New British Cemetery, Moorslede, Belgium shows the simple style Holden used for the first of his war cemeteries. The Reginald Blomfield designed Cross of Sacrifice is a feature of all IWGC cemeteries.
Landscaping and horticulture, seen at Messines Ridge British Cemetery, Messines, Belgium, are key features of all IWGC cemeteries.[141] Edwin Lutyens' Stone of Remembrance features in larger cemeteries.
Holden enclosed the irregularly placed graves in the battlefield Cemetery at Polygon Wood, Zonnebeke, Belgium with a low wall of local stone capped with Portland stone. The grass path links it to the adjacent Buttes New British Cemetery.
The extremely simplified Portland stone buildings and memorial at Buttes New British Cemetery, Zonnebeke, Belgium are representative of Holden's later war cemeteries.

Memorials[edit]

Holden designed two memorials for the missing dead of the First World War as part of his work for the Imperial War Graves Commission between 1920 and 1928. Both are memorials to the missing from the New Zealand Expeditionary Force. They are located in Belgium and are within cemeteries also constructed to his design.

Memorial Location Number of missing Note
Buttes New British Cemetery (New Zealand) Memorial[142] Zonnebeke, Belgium 378 See also Buttes New British Cemetery
Messines Ridge (New Zealand) Memorial[143] Messines, Belgium 827 See also Messines Ridge British Cemetery
Linked pavilions and colonnades of the New Zealand Memorial, Buttes New British Cemetery, Zonnebeke, Belgium.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Listed buildings are granted one of three grades (II, II* and I in order of importance) representing their status as nationally or internationally important buildings. In England, the register of listed building is administered by Historic England. A listed building may not be demolished, extended or altered without special permission from the local planning authority.
  2. ^ These buildings are located in London unless otherwise indicated.
  3. ^ The principal architects worked with assistant architects, also called architects in France, who worked from offices in St Omer, and in some cases did most of the design work, with the final design being approved or amended by the principal architect they were working with.
  4. ^ The CWGC records the number of identified casualties contained in a cemetery, although most cemeteries have additional graves containing the bodies of soldiers who could not be identified and whose grave stones carry no name. In some cases the number of unidentified burials is considerable – for example, Poelcapelle British Cemetery contains 6,231 such burials.[73]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Karol 2007, pp. 51–55.
  3. ^ Hutton & Crawford 2007.
  4. ^ Holden, quoted in Glancey 2007.
  5. ^ Holden, Charles (1957). "The Kind of Architecture we want in Britain". Architectural Review. Quoted in Karol 2007, p. 9.
  6. ^ a b c Powers 2007.
  7. ^ Sutcliffe 2006, p. 166.
  8. ^ a b c Karol 2007, pp. 481–484.
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  66. ^ Karol 2007, p. 303.
  67. ^ Orsini, Fiona (2010). Underground Journeys: Charles Holden’s designs for London Transport (PDF). V&A + RIBA Architecture Partnership. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  68. ^ Day, John R; Reed, John (2008) [1963]. The Story of London's Underground. Capital Transport. p. 103. ISBN 1-85414-316-6. 
  69. ^ Karol, Eitan (2008). "Naked and unashamed: Charles Holden in Bloomsbury" (PDF). Past and Future (The Institute of Historical Research) (4): pp. 6–7. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
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  71. ^ Geurst 2010, p. 50.
  72. ^ Karol 2007, p. 217.
  73. ^ a b Cemetery Details: Poelcapelle British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  74. ^ Geurst 2010, p. 384.
  75. ^ Cemetery Details: Aubers Ridge British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  76. ^ Cemetery Details: Avesnes-le-Comte Communal Cemetery Extension. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  77. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Karol 2007, p. 483.
  78. ^ Cemetery Details: Bac-Du-Sud British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  79. ^ Cemetery Details: Bapaume Post Military Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  80. ^ Cemetery Details: Bellicourt British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  81. ^ Cemetery Details: Boulogne Eastern Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  82. ^ Cemetery Details: Brown's Road Military Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  83. ^ Cemetery Details: Busigny Communal Cemetery Extension. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  84. ^ Cemetery Details: Buttes New British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  85. ^ Cemetery Details: Cambrai East Military Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  86. ^ Cemetery Details: Cambrin Churchyard Extension. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  87. ^ Cemetery Details: Cambrin Military Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  88. ^ Cemetery Details: Canada Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  89. ^ Cemetery Details: Corbie Communal Cemetery Extension. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  90. ^ Cemetery Details: Dadizeele New British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  91. ^ Cemetery Details: Doullens Communal Cemetery Extension No.1. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  92. ^ Cemetery Details: Doullens Communal Cemetery Extension No.2. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  93. ^ Cemetery Details: Dranoutre Military Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  94. ^ a b Geurst 2010, p. 49.
  95. ^ Cemetery Details: Forceville Communal Cemetery and Extension. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  96. ^ Cemetery Details: Gorre British and Indian Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  97. ^ Cemetery Details: Gouy-en-Artois Communal Cemetery Extension. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  98. ^ a b Geurst 2010, p. 72.
  99. ^ Cemetery Details: Grand Seraucourt British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  100. ^ Cemetery Details: Guards Cemetery, Windy Corner. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  101. ^ Cemetery Details: Ham British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  102. ^ Cemetery Details: Highland Cemetery, Le Cateau. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  103. ^ Cemetery Details: Honnechy British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  104. ^ Cemetery Details: Kandahar Farm Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  105. ^ Cemetery Details: Le Cateau Military Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  106. ^ Cemetery Details: Lancashire Cottage Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  107. ^ Cemetery Details: La Plus Douve Farm Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  108. ^ Cemetery Details: Lindenhoek Chalet Military Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  109. ^ Cemetery Details: London Rifle Brigade Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  110. ^ Cemetery Details: Louvencourt Military Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  111. ^ Cemetery Details: Marcoing British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  112. ^ Cemetery Details: Messines Ridge British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  113. ^ Cemetery Details: Montay-Neuvilly Road Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  114. ^ Cemetery Details: Naves Communal Cemetery Extension. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  115. ^ Cemetery Details: Pargny British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  116. ^ Cemetery Details: Passchendaele New British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  117. ^ Cemetery Details: Polygon Wood Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  118. ^ Cemetery Details: Pond Farm Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  119. ^ Cemetery Details: Post Office Rifles Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  120. ^ Cemetery Details: Premont British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  121. ^ Cemetery Details: Romeries Communal Cemetery Extension. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  122. ^ Cemetery Details: Rue-des-Berceaux Military Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  123. ^ Cemetery Details: St. Aubert British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  124. ^ Cemetery Details: St. Quentin Cabaret Military Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  125. ^ Cemetery Details: St. Souplet British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  126. ^ Cemetery Details: St. Vaast Post Military Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  127. ^ Cemetery Details: Savy British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  128. ^ Cemetery Details: Strand Military Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  129. ^ Cemetery Details: Tancrez Farm Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  130. ^ Cemetery Details: Tournai Communal Cemetery Allied Extension. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  131. ^ Cemetery Details: Trefcon British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  132. ^ Cemetery Details: UNICORN Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  133. ^ Cemetery Details: Valenciennes (St. Roch) Communal Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  134. ^ Cemetery Details: Villers Hill British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  135. ^ Cemetery Details: Wailly Orchard Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  136. ^ Cemetery Details: Warlincourt Halte British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  137. ^ Cemetery Details: Wimereux Communal Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  138. ^ Cemetery Details: Woburn Abbey Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  139. ^ Cemetery Details: Wulverghem-Lindenhoek Road Military Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  140. ^ Cemetery Details: Zantvoorde British Cemetery. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  141. ^ "Horticulture". CWCG. Retrieved 3 June 2015. 
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  143. ^ Cemetery Details: Messines Ridge (N.Z.) Memorial. Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2011.

Bibliography[edit]