List of rallies and protest marches in Washington, D.C.

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The following is a list of rallies and protest marches in Washington, D.C., which shows the variety of expression of notable political views. Events at the National Mall are located somewhere between the United States Capitol and the Lincoln Memorial. The Mall is regulated by the National Park Service which is required to respect the free speech rights of Americans.

Following a controversy over the Million Man March in 1995, the National Park Service stopped releasing crowd size estimates for rallies on the National Mall.[1] Crowd estimates after that point have come from protest organizers, researchers or news outlets. Owing to different methodologies, estimates can vary greatly.[2]

Most marches and rallies in Washington are one-time events. Two exceptions are the March for Life and Rolling Thunder, both held annually. The March for Life is a protest against abortion held on January 22 marking the anniversary of the Roe v. Wade Supreme Court case legalizing abortion. The march has been held annually since 1974, typically drawing several hundred thousand demonstrators. Rolling Thunder is a motorcycle demonstration held since 1987 on Memorial Day to raise awareness of issues related to American Prisoner of War/Missing in action.

Before 1900[edit]

  • 1893 – Spring, Fry's Army. Protest march by unemployed American workers.
  • 1894 – March 25 to May 1, Coxey's Army. Protest march by unemployed workers.

1900–1949[edit]

  • 1913 – March 3, Woman Suffrage March. 5,000 march to support women's voting rights the day President-elect Woodrow Wilson arrived for his swearing in the next day.
  • 1914 – April–May, Coxey's Army Second March.
  • 1925 – August 8, Ku Klux Klan march. Between 25,000 and 400,000 Ku Klux Klan members march to show support for the KKK and demand immigration restrictions based on race and nation of origin. [3][4][5]
  • 1932 – January, Cox's Army. A march of 25,000 unemployed Pennsylvanians to encourage Congress to start a public works program.
  • 1932 – June 17, Bonus Army. March by 20,000 World War I veterans and their families seeking advance payment of bonuses from the Hoover administration; several killed.
  • 1932 – December, Hunger March. Communist-led march of unemployed workers from across the country.[6]
  • 1939 – April 9, Marian Anderson concert. 75,000 estimated attendance. Integrated concert at Lincoln Memorial held in defiance of DAR refusal to host her performance[7]
  • 1943 – October 6, Rabbis' march. Protest for American and allied action to stop the destruction of European Jewry.

1950–1999[edit]

See also: March for Life (annual; on or near January 22; since 1974) and Rolling Thunder (annual motorcycle demonstration on Memorial Day, since 1987)
Date Name Description
1957 May 17 Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom First large demonstration of the Civil Rights Movement in Washington, on 3rd anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education. Martin Luther King Jr. demands "Give us the ballot!"
1963 August 28 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom Major civil rights march at which Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. 250,000 gathered for the event.
1965 November 27 March on Washington for Peace in Vietnam Organized by the Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE). An estimated 250,000 attended. SANE's political director Sanford Gottlieb was the march chairman. The National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam, the SDS, and Women Strike for Peace were also involved.[8]
1966 May 16 Another march against the Vietnam War
1967 October 21 March on the Pentagon The National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam sponsored the march to protest the Vietnam War. Around 50,000 railed at the Lincoln Memorial in the morning for speeches and songs, although not all continued across the Arlington Memorial Bridge to the Pentagon. Organizers claimed 100,000 or more marches, but two intelligence agencies and an analysis of aerial reconnaissance photographs from a Navy Skywarrior plane estimated 35,000. A march described in Norman Mailer's Pulitzer Prize winning book, The Armies of the Night.[9] Among the groups supporting were the Peace Torch Marathon, starting in San Francisco August 27, walking across country through Ann Arbor Michigan and arriving 10/21 in Washington to the steps of the Capitol during the march.
1968 January 15 Jeannette Rankin Brigade A group of women's pro-peace organizations, including the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom and Women Strike for Peace, joined together as to confront Congress on its opening day, January 15, 1968, with a strong show of female opposition to the Vietnam War."[10] At age 87, Jeannette Rankin led the march of some 5,000 women.[11]
1968 – May 12 – June 19 Solidarity Day June 19, part of the Poor People's Campaign SCLC campaign to push for a Federal $30 billion anti-poverty package. Several thousand demonstrators built and camped in Resurrection City, while they lobbied Congress for the program until heavy rain and mud ended the encampment. 50,000–100,000 estimated in attendance. Juneteenth Rally for economic justice, during which tens of thousands joined the Resurrection City shantytown established on the Mall in May.[12]
1969 – October 15 Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam Vietnam Moratorium. 200,000 demonstrate against the Vietnam War in D.C. and many more across the country.
1969 – November 15 National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam Vietnam Moratorium, 600,000 gather and demonstrate against the war in Vietnam. Widely considered the largest march in the history of the United States at that point. The march and all-day rally on the Mall culminated a week of protests throughout the city, including a "March Against Death" from Arlington National Cemetery past the White House to the U.S. Capitol led by pediatrician Dr. Benjamin Spock and the Rev. William Sloane Coffin of Yale.
1970 – April 4 Victory March A rally, organized by the Reverend Carl McIntire, the fundamentalist preacher and anticommunist radio commentator, calling for victory in the Vietnam War. Drew 50,000.
1970 – May 9 Kent State/Cambodian Incursion Protest A week after the Kent State shootings, 100,000 demonstrators converged on Washington to protest the shootings and President Richard Nixon's incursion into Cambodia
1970 – July 4 Honor America Day A rally put together by supporters of President Nixon hosted by Bob Hope[13]
1970 – August 26 Women's Strike for Equality Held nationwide, it brought out around 20,000 female protestors in D.C., New York City elsewhere to demand equal rights for women. The march helped expand the women's movement
1971 – April 19–23 Operation Dewey Canyon III Sponsored by the Vietnam Veterans Against the War and named after Operation Dewey Canyon -- two secret US military incursions into Cambodia and Laos -- this anti-Vietnam War march included over 1,000 veterans camping on the National Mall and protests all over the city, including in front of the U.S. Supreme Court. John Kerry testifies in front of Senate.[14]
1971 – April 24 Vietnam War Out Now rally 200,000 call for end to Vietnam War.[14]
1971 – May 3 1971 May Day Protests Mass action by Vietnam anti-war militants to shut down the federal government. The slogan was "If the government doesn't stop the war, we'll stop the government." The official protest button featured Gandhi with a raised fist. A non-violent mass civil disobedience campaign of blocking traffic led to the single largest mass arrest in the history of the United States: some 10,000 people, many of them temporarily held behind fences at the Washington Redskins practice field, surrounded by National Guard troops.
1972 – May 21 Emergency March on Washington Organized by the National Peace Action Coalition and the People's Coalition for Peace and Justice to protest the U.S.'s increased bombing of North Vietnam and the mining of N.V. harbors. Demonstration draws between 8,000 and 15,000 protesters.
1972 – May 27 March to protest apartheid in South Africa 8,000–10,000 attendees.[15]
1973 – January 20 Anti-war protest demonstration Includes the Yippies-Zippie RAT float & SDS, "March Against Racism & the War" contingent.
1974 – January 22 March for Life Pro-life demonstration held (annually) on the anniversary of Roe v. Wade.
1974 – April 4 Honor Dr. King - March for Jobs Now Washington DC rally sponsored by National Coalition Against Inflation and Unemployment and other groups.
1974 – April 27 Impeachment of President Richard M. Nixon Ten thousand participants.
1975 – April 26 Solidarity Day According to two participants, sponsored by the IUD - Industrial Unions Dept of the AFL-CIO, and many other groups that supported the April 4 1974 March for Jobs Now! rally sponsored by the National Coalition to Fight Inflation and Unemployment. George Meany spoke and notably said, "All are welcome." More information is needed on this event; efforts are being made to obtain it as of January 2017 edit.
1976 – September 18 "America and God's Will" speech by Sun Myung Moon Unification Church rally on Washington Monument grounds reportedly draws 300,000 participants.[16]
1977 – August 26 March for the Equal Rights Amendment. Drew thousands of feminists, including original suffragettes.
1978 – July 9 March for the Equal Rights Amendment Drew 100,000 feminist women and men.[17]
1978 – July 11 Longest Walk Thousands of Native Americans finish their 3200 miles long walk from San Francisco, rallying at the National Mall for religious freedom for traditional American Indians and against eleven drafts discussed at the Congress, and considered anti-Indian by the native community.
1979 – February 5 Tractorcade 6000 family farmers drove their tractors to Washington D.C. to protest American farm policy.
1979 – May 6 Anti-Nuclear March Drew 125,000 people opposed to nuclear power and weapons following the Three-Mile Island accident.[18]
1979 – October 14 National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights First such march on Washington drew 75,000–125,000 gay men and lesbians to demand equal civil rights.
1979 – November 9 Iran Hostage Crisis A sign said "Deport all Iranians" and "Get the hell out of my country".
1980 – March 23 Mobilization Against the Draft and Draft Registration About 30,000 rally against the renewal of Draft Registration, proposed by President Jimmy Carter.[19][20]
1981 – May 3 People's Anti-War Mobilization (PAM) / May 3 Coalition March to protest Reagan Administration Central American and domestic policies; 100,000 march. Themes were stop the U.S. war buildup; U.S. hands off El Salvador; divest from Southern Africa; money for jobs and human needs, not for the Pentagon; stop racist violence; end lesbian and gay oppression.[21]
1981 – September 19 Solidarity Day march AFL-CIO organized march to protest Reagan Administration labor and domestic policies; 260,000 march.
1982 – November 27 Washington Anti-Klan Protest.
1983 – August March on Washington commemorating the 20th anniversary of the Martin Luther King, Jr. "I Have a Dream" speech.
1986 – March 1 – November 15 The Great Peace March for Global Nuclear Disarmament From Los Angeles, California to Washington D.C. (a.k.a. The Great Peace March) to raise awareness of the growing danger of nuclear proliferation and to advocate for complete, verifiable elimination of nuclear weapons from the earth.
1986 – March 9 March For Women's Lives – Reproductive Rights Rally National Organization for Women organized the 1986 'March For Women's Lives,' a massive pro-choice rally held in Washington D.C. on 9 March 1986.[22]
1987 – April 25 Mobilization for Justice & Peace in Central America & Southern Africa The march began at noon, going north up 17th Street NW from Constitution Avenue, winding past the White House and ending with a rally on the west steps of the Capitol about 2 p.m. Speakers included the Rev. Jesse Jackson, Eleanor Smeal and Ed Asner, with music performances by Peter, Paul and Mary, and Jackson Browne.[23]
1987 – May 25 Rolling Thunder Run to the Wall Rolling Thunder is an annual motorcycle demonstration to bring awareness to issues related to American POW/MIA. It has evolved to be a more generic demonstration in support of soldiers and veterans.[24]
1987 – October 11 Second National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights The second such march on Washington drew 500,000 gay men and women to protest for equal civil rights and to demand government action in the fight against AIDS.
1987 – December 6 Freedom Sunday for Soviet Jews On December 6, 1987, the American Jewish Committee organized the Freedom Sunday for Soviet Jews. 250,000 people attended the D.C. rally, which demanded that the Soviet government allow Jewish emigration from the USSR. The rally was held before a meeting between Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev and President Ronald Reagan. Participants in the rally included Union of Councils for Soviet Jews president Pamela Cohen, New York City mayor Ed Koch, vice president George H. W. Bush, Natan Scharansky, ambassador Moshe Arad, and congressman Jim Wright.
1989 – April March for Women's Lives Sponsored by the National Organization for Women. Attendance estimated at 500,000.
1990 January Rally for Life 1990 Took place at the Washington Monument Grounds. According to National Park Service estimates, over 700,000 people attend the rally.[25]
1991 – January 19 and 26 Dual Marches against the Gulf War The National Campaign for Peace in the Middle East estimated 250,000 attended the march on the 26th, but the National Park Service estimated attendance at 75,000. The march on January 19 was estimated at 25,000.
1992 – April 5 March for Women's Lives Pro-choice march organized by the National Organization for Women. The name would be reused for a similar 2004 event.
1992 – May 16 Save our Cities! Save our Children! Estimates put the crowd at 150,000.
1993 – April 25 March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation Organizers estimated 1,000,000 attended and the D.C. Police Department put the number between 800,000 and more than 1 million, but the National Park Service estimated attendance at 300,000.
1995 – October 16 Million Man March A gathering and atonement of men from across the U.S. The United States Park Police officially estimated the crowd size at 400,000 while a Boston University study put the number at 837,000.[26]
1996 – October 12 Immigrant Rights March First national march in D.C. for equal rights for immigrants.
1997 – October 4 Promise Keepers Event titled Stand in the Gap: A Sacred Assembly of Men, an open-air gathering at the National Mall.

2000–2009[edit]

See also: March for Life (annual; on or near January 22) and Rolling Thunder (annual motorcycle demonstration on Memorial Day)

2010[edit]

See also: March for Life (annual; on or near January 22) and Rolling Thunder (annual motorcycle demonstration on Memorial Day)
  • March 20 – March 20, 2010 anti-war protest. March on the White House against wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.
  • March 21 – March for America. 200,000 people[38] call for comprehensive immigration reform.
  • August 28 – Restoring Honor Rally, cosponsored by Special Operations Warrior Foundation and promoted as a "celebration of America's heroes and heritage." The number of attendees is disputed. Event organizer Glenn Beck also held an event at the Kennedy Center called "Divine Destiny" focused more on faith and religion on 8/27.
  • September 27 – Appalachia Rising, a march of 4,000 residents from across Appalachia, to the EPA and the White House, demanding an end to destructive Mountaintop Removal mining practices. About 113 people were arrested in front of the White House as part of a direct action protest, including Jim Hansen, known as the father of the global warming movement. A series of workshops and seminars were held by the event's organizers at Georgetown University the weekend directly prior to the march, discussing topics such as Green Jobs, Appalachian History, and political organizing.
  • October 2 – One Nation Working Together March for Jobs, Peace and Justice. Rally at the Lincoln Memorial to press for immigration reform, financial reform.[39]
  • October 30 – Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear – Held by talk show hosts Jon Stewart and Stephen Colbert to oppose radical political trends in American politics. A crowd estimate commissioned by CBS News by AirPhotosLive.com estimated 215,000 people attended, with a margin of error of plus or minus 10 percent. According to Brian Stelter of the New York Times, the National Park Service privately told Viacom there were "well over 200,000" people present.[40]
  • December 16 – Veterans for Peace rally in Lafayette Park and on the White House sidewalk. 131 people arrested for blocking the view of the White House per 36 CFR 7.96 (g)(5)(viii), the "ten yards" rule, upheld in 1984–5271 in the White House Vigil for the ERA v. Clark, as a time-place-manner exception to the First Amendment, to achieve a fundamental purpose of the Park Service specified in USC16 article 1.

2011[edit]

  • October 16 – The Right2Know March for Genetically Engineered Foods (GMO) to be labeled in the United States. The march left New York City on October 1 and arrived after marching 313 miles to the White House. More than 1000 people participated in the march.
  • October 15 – Jobs and Justice march to protest poverty, homelessness and high unemployment.[41][42]
  • November 9–23 Occupy Wall Street protesters march from New York City to Washington DC, to demonstrate at a congressional committee meeting to decide whether to keep President Barack Obama's extension of tax cuts enacted under former President George W. Bush. Protesters say the cuts benefit only rich Americans.

2012[edit]

  • January 11 – Close Guantanamo – 271 people in jumpsuits marched from the White House to the Supreme Court, along with 750 others not in jumpsuits.
  • February 20 – Veterans Support Ron Paul, March on the White House – Approximately 320 – 558 Veterans and active duty Veterans Marched, with another 1500 supporting behind the march. Upon arriving at the White House, the veterans and active military service members turned their backs to symbolically signify that they didn’t condone recent wars. There was an eight-minute hand salute for every active duty military member who had committed suicide under Obama. There was a rally for 2 hours before the march at the Washington Memorial and a 6-hour after party at the rock n roll hotel.[citation needed]
  • March 24 – Reason Rally – The Reason Rally was a rally for secularism and religious skepticism held on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. on March 24, 2012. Approximately 20,000 people in attendance. [1][2] The rally was sponsored by major atheistic and secular organizations of the United States and was regarded as a "Woodstock for atheists and skeptics". Future events include "Reason Rally 2016", scheduled for June 2, 2016 at the Lincoln Memorial.
  • July 28 – Stop the Frack Attack Rally – 5,000 people marched calling for an end of dangerous and dirty drilling using the process of fracking. The march led to the formation of the Stop the Frack Attack Network.[43]
  • November 3 – Million Puppet March – Approximately 1,500 people and puppets marched in support of continued funding for public broadcasting. The march was later recognized as the largest puppet march by RecordSetter.
  • November 17 – Move:DC – Approximately 10,000 people marched around the White House to call for an end to the LRA in Central Africa, with the march concluding at the Washington Monument. The march and rally were organized by Invisible Children as a part of the Kony 2012 campaign.

2013[edit]

2014[edit]

  • December 13 – Justice for All – Thousands march to call attention to the recent deaths of unarmed African American men at the hands of police.

2015[edit]

2016[edit]

2017[edit]

  • January 21 - Women's March on Washington, estimated 500,000 protesters marched in the Nation's Capital (with over 1.3 million estimated marched across the United States), and another 3,200,000 marched across the world to promote women's rights, immigration reform, and LGBTQ rights, and to address racial inequities, worker’s issues, and environmental issues. This marks the protest as the largest combined protest across the United States.[48][49]
  • January 27 - The annual March for Life protest through Washington, D.C. in dissent of the decision made in the 1973 Supreme Court case Roe v. Wade.
  • January 28 - 2017 United States Donald Trump airport protests Thousands of protesters across varying U.S Airports to protest Donald Trump's Executive Order 13769. In implementation of the order, an estimated 375 travelers were affected by the order.
  • January 29 - More than 5,000 protesters marched from the White House to the U.S. Capitol to demonstrate opposition to the Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements executive order. Thousands of protesters also appeared at airports across the country. [50]
  • March 4 - March 4 Trump
  • March 10 - Native People's March on Washington - Thousands of primarily Indigenous people marched from west of Union Station to Lafyette square. The march was led in part by members of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and protested the Dakota Access Pipeline, broken treaties, and the U.S. Government's treatment of Indigenous people. The event began on March 7th, when a symbolic Tipi camp was erected at the Washington Monument.[51][52][53]
  • April 15 - Tax March, The intent of the march was to pressure U.S. President Donald Trump to release his tax returns.
  • April 22 - March for Science, The march in Washington drew about 40,000 participants and proceeded to the National Mall where scientists and others discussed their work and the importance of evidence-based policy.
  • April 29 - People's Climate March. Between 100,000 and 200,000 protested, in unseasonably warm temperatures, Trump's anti-climate agenda
  • May 1 - May Day Action: Immigrants and Workers March
  • May 28 - PGA Trump Protest on Memorial Day weekend against President Trump's with the internet of disrupting Senior PGA Senior Championship at Trump National Golf Course Washington DC to be broadcast live on NBC.
  • June 3 - About 100,000 protesters participated in the March for Truth to demand a large scale and quick investigation of American and Russian political collusion in the 2016 election.[54]
  • June 11 - National Pride March
  • August 26 – Women's Equality Day – March and Rally from St. Stephen's Episcopal Church to National Mall, Washington, D.C.
  • September 16 - Juggalo March on Washington to protest the FBI gang label (see Juggalo gangs)
  • September 16 - Mother of All Rallies at The National Mall in Washington D.C. [55]
  • September 18 - Restoring Freedom: March to protest the Family Court systems.[56]
  • October 7 - National Popular Vote March for 2020

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Oh, who's counting?". News.google.com. The Free Lance–Star. October 15, 1996. Retrieved August 21, 2017. 
  2. ^ Markman, Joe (September 15, 2009). "Crowd estimates vary wildly for Capitol march". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 21, 2017. 
  3. ^ Blood, Money, & Power: How LBJ Killed JFK – Barr McClellan – Google Books. Books.google.com. 2011. ISBN 9781616081973. Retrieved 2017-01-08. 
  4. ^ The Harlem Renaissance – Harold Bloom – Google Books. Books.google.com. 2004. ISBN 0791076792. Retrieved 2017-01-08. 
  5. ^ New World Coming: The 1920s and the Making of Modern America – Nathan Miller – Google Books. Books.google.com. 2003. ISBN 0684852950. Retrieved 2017-01-08. 
  6. ^ "Red ‘Hunger March’ Gets Gay Send-Off: Fed and Warmly Clothed, 600 in Trucks and Cars Start for Capital Demonstration." New York Times: 3. 1 Dec. 1932. ProQuest Historical Newspapers Web. 8 Dec. 2014.
  7. ^ New York Times, April 9, 1993
  8. ^ William Conrad Gibbons, The U.S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships, Part IV: July 1965 – January 1968. Princeton University Press, 1995, p. 95.
  9. ^ Steve Vogel, The Pentagon, A History: The untold story of the wartime race to build the Pentagon—and to restore it sixty years later, Random House, 2008, chap. 18.
  10. ^ Harriet Hyman Alonso, Peace as a Women's Issue: A history of the U.S. movement for world peace and women's rights. Syracuse University Press, 1993, p. 221.
  11. ^ "Rankin, Jeanette." Helen Rappaport, Encyclopedia of women social reformers, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO, 2001, p. 571.
  12. ^ "50,000 Hear Leader of Poor Vow to Keep Resurrection City in Capital: Cheer Made By King's Widow for End of War". Toledo Blade. AP. 20 June 1968. pp. 1, 8. Retrieved 18 September 2012. 
  13. ^ "Nation: Gathering in Praise of America". TIME Magazine. July 13, 1970. Retrieved 2010-11-02. 
  14. ^ a b "Vietnam Veterans Against the War demonstrate — History.com This Day in History — 4/19/1971". History.com. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  15. ^ "10,000 Protest on South Africa". New York Times. 1972-05-28. Retrieved 2010-08-31. [dead link]
  16. ^ "United States Bicentennial Speech given by Reverend Sun Myung Moon September 18, 1976". unification.net. Archived from the original on 2001-01-15. Retrieved 2017-03-14. 
  17. ^ "Nearly 100,000 demonstrators march on Washington D.C. for ERA July 9 in History". Brainyhistory.com. 1978-07-09. Retrieved 2009-07-16. 
  18. ^ WRL News, July–August 1979, War Resisters League, New York, NY
  19. ^ "The Spokesman-Review – Google News Archive Search". 
  20. ^ Hasbrouck, Edward. "The History of Draft Registration and Draft Resistance Since 1980". Resisters.info. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  21. ^ "Antiwar Coalition Plans Protests On Diverse Interests". New York Times. 1981-05-24. Retrieved 2016-12-30. 
  22. ^ "Highlights – National Organization for Women". 
  23. ^ Gaines-Carter, Patrice (25 April 1987). "THOUSANDS OF PROTESTERS BEGIN ARRIVING IN D.C." – via washingtonpost.com. 
  24. ^ "Rolling Thunder Run – Washington DC – Main Page". 
  25. ^ "Rally for Life 1990". c-span.org. C-SPAN. 1990-04-28. Retrieved 2017-02-11. 
  26. ^ http://www.bu.edu/remotesensing/research/completed/million-man-march/ BU Remote Sensing Million Man March page
  27. ^ "US moms protest against guns". BBC. May 15, 2000. Retrieved January 30, 2015. 
  28. ^ About us Archived 2009-06-22 at the Wayback Machine. at Million Mom March website
  29. ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". 29 January 2011. Archived from the original on 29 January 2011. 
  30. ^ "BBC News – AMERICAS – Bush: Who's protesting and why". 
  31. ^ Inauguration Protests Largest Since Nixon in 1973 Archived December 27, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., Philadelphia Inquirer, January 21, 2001
  32. ^ "Anti-war demonstrators rally around the world". CNN. January 18, 2003. 
  33. ^ "Abortion activists on the march". BBC News. April 26, 2004. 
  34. ^ "Israel@60: A Capital Celebration to be Held on National Mall". Reuters. May 30, 2008. 
  35. ^ Page, Jordan (May 25, 2011). "Revolution March Blacked Out By Media". Huffington Post. 
  36. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-08-27. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  37. ^ Cloud, John (12 October 2009). "The Gay March: A New Generation of Protesters". Time. Retrieved 29 October 2009. 
  38. ^ Douglas Rivlin. "200,000 March For Immigration Reform in Massive D.C. Rally | Immigration". AlterNet. Retrieved 2010-04-16. 
  39. ^ Greenhouse, Steven (October 2, 2010). "Liberal Groups Rally, Challenging Tea Party". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-11-02. 
  40. ^ Montopoli, Brian (2010-10-30). "Jon Stewart Rally Attracts Estimated 215,000". CBS News. 
  41. ^ Danielle Wright (October 15, 2011). "No Justice, No Peace: Hundreds March on Washington to Protest Jobless Rate". BET. 
  42. ^ Susan Svrluga and Bill Turque (October 16, 2011). "D.C. marchers rally for jobs and justice". Washington Post. 
  43. ^ Spear, Stefanie (July 28, 2012). "5,000 People Unite in DC to Protest Fracking". EcoWatch.com. 
  44. ^ Collins, Eliza (January 26, 2013). "Thousands rally in Washington for gun control". USA Today. Retrieved January 30, 2015. 
  45. ^ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jamie-henn/forward-on-climate_b_2707553.html
  46. ^ Mohney, Gillian (October 13, 2013). "Thousands Protest Closures During 'Million Vet March'". abcnews.com. Retrieved October 13, 2013. 
  47. ^ http://www.restoringfreedom.us
  48. ^ Benac, Nancy; Nuckols, Ben (January 21, 2017). "Over 4 million join anti-Trump women's marches worldwide". Associated Press. Retrieved January 22, 2017. 
  49. ^ Wolf, Byron; Walker, Christina; Caldwell, Travis (January 22, 2017). "Over 1 million marchers in the US (Not including Washington DC, which had 1.3 million". CNN. Retrieved January 22, 2017. 
  50. ^ Ruta, Garance Franke (January 30, 2017). "Protesters march from the White House to the Capitol against Trump Muslim and refugee order". Yahoo News. Retrieved January 30, 2017. 
  51. ^ "Native Nations Rise brings DAPL protest to Washington". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2017-04-20. 
  52. ^ "Native Nations Rise | Tipi Camp and March on DC". nativenationsrise.org. Retrieved 2017-04-20. 
  53. ^ "American Indians from around the U.S. march on White House in rally for rights". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-04-20. 
  54. ^ Jenkins, Aric. "Thousands of Protestors Call for Russia Probe at 'March for Truth' Rallies". Time. Retrieved 2017-06-04. 
  55. ^ https://www.motherofallrallies.com/
  56. ^ http://www.restoringfreedom.us

Further reading[edit]

  • Barber, Lucy G. Marching on Washington: The Forging of an American Political Tradition. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002. ISBN 0-520-22713-1