List of terrorist incidents in Great Britain

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Terrorist incidents map of the United Kingdom (including Northern Ireland) 1970-2015. Northern Ireland and London are major places of incidents. A total of 4,992 incidents are plotted.

The following is a list of terrorist incidents in Great Britain. It excludes incidents in Northern Ireland, for which see Timeline of the Northern Ireland Troubles. For a detailed list of incidents in London, see List of terrorist incidents in London.

There have been various motives behind terrorism in Great Britain.[1] Before the 2000s, most attacks were carried out by various Irish Republican Army (IRA) groups and were linked to the Northern Ireland conflict (the Troubles). In the late 20th century there were also attacks by Middle Eastern terrorist groups, most of which were linked to the Arab–Israeli conflict. Since the 2000s, most terrorist incidents in Britain have been linked to Islamic fundamentalism.[2] A perspective has been put forth that terrorist incidents in Britain may be growing due to Britain's role in the Iraq War and its subsequent role in the Syrian Civil War, however this has not always found support.[3][4][5][6] This theory is further called into question by the fact that most terrorist attacks occur outside of Europe, and in Muslim majority countries.[7]

Between 1971 and 2001, there were 430 terrorist-related deaths in Great Britain. Of these, 125 deaths were linked to the Northern Ireland conflict,[8] and 305 deaths were linked to other causes[9] – most of the latter deaths occurred in the Lockerbie bombing.[9] Since 2001, there have been almost 100 terrorist-related deaths in Great Britain, the vast majority linked to Islamic jihad and religious extremism.[needs update]

Attacks[edit]

1605 Gunpowder Plot[edit]

19th century[edit]

1939–1940[edit]

From January 1939 to March 1940, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out a campaign of bombing and sabotage against the civil, economic, and military infrastructure of Britain. It was known as the S-Plan or Sabotage Campaign. During the campaign, the IRA carried out almost 300 attacks and acts of sabotage in Britain, killing seven people and injuring 96.[15] Most of the casualties occurred in the Coventry bombing on 25 August 1939.

1970s[edit]

  • 1971, 12 January: Two bombs exploded at the house of government minister Robert Carr. This attack was one of 25 carried out by the Angry Brigade between August 1970 and August 1971. The Bomb Squad was established at Scotland Yard in January 1971 to target the group, and they were apprehended in August of that year.[16][17]
  • 1971, 31 October: A bomb exploded in the Post Office Tower in London causing extensive damage but no injuries. The "Kilburn Battalion" of the IRA claimed responsibility for the explosion.[18]
  • 1972, 22 February: Aldershot bombing: The Official Irish Republican Army ('Official' IRA) detonated a car bomb at Aldershot British Army base, Hampshire. The blast killed seven civilian staff.
  • 1972, 19 September: The group Black September posted a letter bomb to the Israeli embassy in London killing an Israeli diplomat.[19]
  • 1973, 8 March: The Provisional Irish Republican Army ('Provisional' IRA) planted four car bombs in London. Two of the bombs exploded outside the Old Bailey and the Ministry of Agriculture, injuring dozens. The bombs outside New Scotland Yard and an army recruitment office near Whitehall were defused.
  • 1973, 10 September: The Provisional IRA set off bombs at London's King's Cross and Euston stations, injuring 21 people.[20]
  • 1974, 4 February: M62 coach bombing: An IRA bomb exploded aboard a bus carrying British soldiers and several of their family members in Yorkshire, killing nine soldiers and three civilians.
  • 1974, 17 June: An IRA bomb exploded at the Houses of Parliament, causing extensive damage and injuring 11 people.[21]
  • 1974, 5 October: Guildford pub bombings: IRA bombs exploded in two pubs frequented by British military personnel in Guildford, Surrey. Four soldiers and a civilian were killed and 44 injured.
  • 1974, 22 October: An IRA bomb exploded in Brooks's gentleman's club in London, injuring three people.[22]
  • 1974, 7 November: An IRA bomb exploded in a pub frequented by British military personnel in Woolwich, London, killing a soldier and a civilian.
  • 1974, 14 November: James Patrick McDade, Lieutenant in the Birmingham Battalion, of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) was killed in a premature explosion whilst planting a bomb at the Coventry telephone exchange in 1974.
  • 1974, 21 November: Birmingham pub bombings: IRA bombs exploded in two pubs in Birmingham, killing 21 people and injuring 182.
  • 1974, 18 December: Bomb planted by IRA in the run up to Christmas in one of Bristol's most popular shopping districts explodes injuring 17 people.[23]
  • 1975, 27 August: An IRA bomb explodes in a pub frequented by British military personnel in Caterham, Surrey, injuring 33.[24]
  • 1975, 5 September: An IRA bomb exploded in the lobby of the Hilton Hotel, London, killing two people and injuring 63.
  • 1975, 18 November: IRA members threw a bomb into Walton's restaurant in London, killing two people and injuring 23.
  • 1975, 27 November: IRA gunmen assassinated political activist and television personality Ross McWhirter in Enfield Town, London.[25]
  • 1975, 6–12 December: Balcombe Street siege: Four IRA members, who were fleeing from the police, barricaded themselves inside a flat in London and held the two occupants hostage. The siege lasted for six days and ended when the IRA members surrendered and released the hostages.
  • 1975, 20 December: The Ulster Defence Association (UDA) bombed Biddy Mulligan's pub in the Kilburn area of London. Five people were injured. It said it bombed the pub because it was frequented by Irish republican sympathizers.[26]
  • 1978, 17 December: IRA bombs explode in Manchester, Liverpool, Coventry, Bristol and Southampton, injuring seven in Bristol.[27]
  • 1979, 17 January: A bomb exploded at a Texaco oil terminal on Canvey Island, Essex, tearing a hole in a tank that was initially thought to contain aviation fuel.[28][29]
  • 1979, 17 February: The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) bombed two pubs frequented by Catholics in Glasgow, Scotland. Both pubs were wrecked and a number of people were wounded. It said it bombed the pubs because they were used for Irish republican fundraising.[30]
  • 1979, 30 March: Airey Neave killed when a bomb exploded under his car as he drove out of the Palace of Westminster car park. The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) claimed responsibility.

1980s[edit]

1990s[edit]

  • 1990, 16 May: The IRA detonated a bomb underneath a minibus, killing Sgt Charles Chapman (The Queen's Regiment) and injuring another soldier.
  • 1990, 1 June: A British soldier was killed and two wounded in an IRA gun attack at Lichfield City railway station, Staffordshire.
  • 1990, 20 July: The IRA detonated a bomb at the London Stock Exchange causing damage to the building. Nobody was injured in the blast.[34]
  • 1990, 30 July: Ian Gow, ConservativeMP, was assassinated by the IRA when a booby trap bomb exploded under his car at his home in East Sussex.[35]
  • 1991, 7 February: The IRA carried out a mortar attack of 10 Downing Street, in an attempt to assassinate Prime Minister John Major and his cabinet. One of the shells exploded in the back garden of 10 Downing Street but there were no deaths.
  • 1991, 18 February: An IRA bomb exploded at Victoria Station. One man killed and 38 people injured.
  • 1991, 15 November: An IRA bomb exploded in St Albans city centre. Two fatalities, both members of the provisional IRA (Patricia Black and Frankie Ryan), were the only casualties.
  • 1992, 28 February: An IRA bomb exploded at London Bridge station, injuring 29 people.
  • 1992, 10 April: Baltic Exchange bombing: A large IRA truck bomb exploded outside the Baltic Exchange building in the City of London, following a telephoned warning. It killed three people and caused £800 million worth of damage – more than the total damaged caused by the 10,000 explosions that had occurred during the Troubles in Northern Ireland up to that point.[36]
  • 1992, 7 June: Wanted IRA member Paul Magee opened fire on unarmed police officers Constable Sandy Kelly and Special Constable Glenn Goodman during a routine traffic stop in North Yorkshire. Kelly escaped injury when a single bullet ricocheted off his radio, but Goodman was hit four times, and later died in hospital.[37]
  • 1992, 25 August: The IRA planted three firebombs in Shrewsbury, Shropshire. Bombs were placed in Shoplatch, The Charles Darwin Centre and Shrewsbury Castle, the latter causing the most damage as the castle housed the Shropshire Regimental Museum and many priceless historical artifacts were lost and damaged by fire and smoke. No fatalities or injuries were recorded.
  • 1992, 12 October: A bomb exploded in the gents' toilet of a pub in Covent Garden, killing one person and injuring four others.
  • 1992, 16 November: IRA planted a bomb at the Canary Wharf, but was spotted by security guards. The bomb failed to detonate.
  • 1992, 3 December: The IRA detonated two car bombs in central Manchester, injuring 65 people.[38]
  • 1993, 20 March: Warrington bomb attacks: Two small bombs exploded in litter bins outside shops in Warrington, Cheshire, killing two children and injuring more than 50 people. IRA members had sent a telephoned warning but it was inaccurate.
  • 1993, 24 April: Bishopsgate bombing: The IRA detonated a huge truck bomb in the City of London at Bishopsgate. Police had received a telephoned warning but were still evacuating the area at the time of the explosion. A journalist was killed, over 40 people were injured, and about £1 billion worth of damage was caused.[36]
  • 1994, March: Heathrow mortar attacks: The IRA launched a series of mortar attacks on Heathrow Airport near London. The attacks caused severe disruption but little damage.
  • 1994, 26–27 July: A group of Palestinians detonated two car bombs in London, one outside the Israeli embassy[32] and one outside Balfour House, home to a Jewish charity. The attacks injured twenty people.[32]
  • 1994, 13 August: 2.5 lbs of Semtex packed into a bicycle left outside Woolworths in Bognor Regis, exploded damaging 15 shops. A similar bomb found in nearby Brighton.[39]
  • 1995, 24 January: The editor of the Des Pardes, Tarsem Singh Purewal, was shot and killed near to the newspaper's Southall office.[40]
  • 1996, 9 February: London Docklands bombing: The IRA detonated a powerful truck bomb in the Canary Wharf financial district of London, following telephoned warnings. The blast caused severe damage and killed two people.
  • 1996, 18 February: An improvised high explosive device detonated prematurely on a bus travelling along Aldwych in central London, killing Edward O'Brien, the IRA member transporting the device and injuring eight others.
  • 1996, 15 June: Manchester bombing: The IRA detonated a powerful truck bomb in central Manchester, following a telephoned warning. It was the biggest bomb detonated in Britain since the Second World War. It caused widespread damage and injured 200 people, but there were no deaths.
  • 1999, 17 April, 24 April, 30 April: David Copeland set off three nail bombs in London targeting the black, Bangladeshi and gay communities respectively, killing 3 and injuring 129. Convicted of murder on 30 June 2000.
Refer also to the list of IRA terrorist incidents presented to Parliament between 1980 and 1994, listed halfway down the page here

2000s[edit]

Memorial in London's Hyde Park to the victims of the 7 July bombings.

2010s[edit]

  • 2013, 29 April to 12 July: Pavlo Lapshyn attacks. Lapshyn, a Ukrainian student and right-wing extremist, stabbed Mohammed Saleem, a Birmingham resident to death on 29 April. He later admitted to police that he wished to start a "race war".[46] Lapshyn later detonated a home-made bomb outside a mosque in Walsall on 21 June. 150 homes were evacuated but no person was injured.[47] On 28 June Lapshyn detonated a second home-made bomb near a mosque in Wolverhampton, and attacked a mosque in Tipton with an improvised explosive device containing nails on 12 July. Friday prayers were delayed that day, and so his intended victims were still inside. Laphsyn was later sentenced to serve a minimum of 40 years.[48][49][50]
  • 2013, 22 May: A British soldier, Lee Rigby, was murdered and decapitated in an attack in Woolwich by Michael Adebolajo and Michael Adebowale, two Islamist extremists armed with a handgun and a number of bladed implements including a cleaver. Both men were sentenced to life imprisonment, with Adebolajo given a whole life order and Adebowale ordered to serve at least 45 years.[51]
  • 2015, 5 December: A man with a knife attacked three people at Leytonstone Tube Station in East London. The attacker was 29-year old Muhaydin Mire who was shouting "this is for Syria". The attacker was found guilty of attempted murder in June 2016. Three people were injured in the attack and one was seriously injured.[52]
  • 2016, 16 June. Labour MP Jo Cox, aged 41, was killed by Thomas Mair, according to testimony given in court.[53] Cox was fatally shot and stabbed outside the library in Birstall, West Yorkshire, where she was about to hold a constituency surgery at 1:00 pm. A 77-year-old local man, Bernard Kenny, was stabbed in the stomach while trying to fend off her attacker. The Crown Prosecution Service described it as an act of terror.[54] The judge, in his sentencing remarks, said that Mair's violence was politically-motivated.[55] Neo-nazi group National Action had adopted a slogan used by Mair, "death to traitors, freedom for Britain" and were subsequently proscribed following the attack.[56]
  • 2017, 22 March: 2017 Westminster attack – Khalid Masood, a 52-year-old British man, born in Kent as Adrian Elms, drove a car into pedestrians on Westminster Bridge, before crashing the vehicle into the Palace of Westminster's perimeter. He then entered the grounds of the Palace of Westminster, the meeting place of the Houses of Parliament, before being confronted by a police officer, whom he fatally stabbed before being shot himself. Six, including the perpetrator and the officer, were killed in the incident, and 49 people were injured. The attack is being treated as an act of terrorism motivated by Islamic extremism.[57][58][59][60]
  • 2017, 22 May: 2017 Manchester Arena bombing – A large explosion caused by Salmen Abedi, a British suicide attacker with a bomb at the Manchester Arena, Manchester, killing 22 individuals and injuring 250. The attack occurred shortly after an Ariana Grande concert had concluded, and is the most deadly terror related incident in the United Kingdom since the 7/7 London bombings in 2005.[61][62]
  • 2017, 3 June: June 2017 London attack. 8 people were confirmed dead and at least 48 injured, some critically. A white van drove at high speed across London Bridge, running into groups of people, then crashed. The occupants then ran to nearby Borough Market, where they stabbed many people.[63][64][65] All three of the terrorists involved were shot dead by police eight minutes after the incident was reported. All three were wearing imitation suicide bomb vests.
  • 2017, 19 June: A van was rammed into people walking near Finsbury Park Mosque in London after tarawih prayers. 10 people were injured, and one person was killed, though it was initially unclear whether this was the result of a previous medical condition. The police declared the incident a terrorist attack.[66][67]
  • 2017, 15 September: A London tube train was targeted, witnesses reported a flash and bang.[68] No fatalities were reported, however 30 people were injured, mostly with Flash burns and Crush injuries. ISIS claimed responsibility for the attack; their claim was subject to scepticism from authorities. The threat level was raised to his highest point of critical soon after.[69]

Prevented, failed or aborted attacks[edit]

These are known attacks which could have constituted a threat to life had they worked or been large enough. Does not include attacks that were merely at a talking stage and were not actually in operation.

  • 1981, January: the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) planted a bomb in the Suvla barrack block at RAF Uxbridge. The device was discovered and the 35 RAF musicians and 15 airmen living there were evacuated before it exploded.
  • 1985: Police found 10 grenades, seven petrol bombs and two detonators at the home of former Group Development Director for the British National Party Tony Lecomber after he was injured by a nail bomb that he was carrying to the offices of the Workers' Revolutionary Party. Convicted under the Explosive Substances Act 1883.
  • 1993, 23 October: In Reading, Berkshire, an IRA bomb exploded at a signal post near the railway station, some hours after 5 lb (2 kg) of Semtex was found in the toilets of the station. The resulting closure of the railway line and evacuation of the station caused travel chaos for several hours, but no-one was injured.
  • 2000, 1 June: Real IRA suspected of planting a high-explosive device attached to a girder under the south side of Hammersmith Bridge which detonated at 4.30am.[70]
  • 2000, 17 November: Police arrested Moinul Abedin. His Birmingham house contained bomb-making instructions, equipment, and traces of the explosive HTMD. A nearby lock-up rented by Abedin contained 100 kg of the chemical components of HTMD.[71]
  • 2005, 21 July: The 21 July 2005 London bombings, also conducted by four would-be suicide bombers on the public transport, whose bombs failed to detonate.
  • 2006, 28 September: Talbot Street bomb-making haul.
  • 2007, 1 February: Plot to behead a British Muslim soldier.
  • 2007, 29 June: London car bombs.
  • 2008, 27 February: British police thwarted a suspected plot to kill Abdullah of Saudi Arabia during a state visit to Britain in the year 2007 a senior officer said.
  • 2009, 3 September : Manchester Piccadilly multiple suicide bomber plot.[72] In 2009 Pakistani national Abid Naseer, was one of 12 suspects arrested on suspicion of being part of a Manchester Terror cell, after arriving in the UK a year before. All were released on insufficient evidence, but ordered to be deported from the UK. Naseer's deportation to Pakistan was prevented on human rights grounds, as he was ruled 'likely to be mistreated'. In 2013, on further evidence from Al-Queda sources, including documents from the bin Laden Raid, he was extradited to the US, and on 4 March 2015 was found guilty of masterminding an Al-Qaeda directed plot to synchronize multiple suicide bombings around Manchesters Arndale Centre and Piccadilly Shopping centre in a coordinated attack involving other locations including the New York Subway with other cells.
  • 2012, June: Five extremists plotted to bomb an English Defence League rally in Dewsbury but arrived late and were arrested when returning to Birmingham. A sixth was also convicted.[73]
  • 2013, April: As part of Operation Pitsford 11 Muslim extremists are jailed for a plotting terror attack involving suicide Bombers.[74]
  • 2015, 12 Feb : Liverpool Ricin Plot:[75] Mohammed Ammar Ali, an IT worker who rented a flat in Liverpool as a base of operations, attempted to buy 500 mg of ricin, which could kill as many as 1,400 people, using the darkweb. He was instead delivered a white powder by the FBI. Evidence was also found of attempts to purchase rabbits or chinchillas to test the poison out on.
  • 2015, 7 July : Attempted anniversary London 7/7 bomb plot.[76] Mohammed Rehman and Sana Ahmed Khan were sentenced to life imprisonment for preparing an act of terrorism.[77] They had 10 kg of urea nitrate. Rehman called himself the 'silent bomber' and asked his Twitter followers to choose between the Westfield Shopping Centre or the London Underground for the planned suicide bomb.

Given the nature of counter-terrorism, successes in preventing terrorist attacks in the UK will not always come to light, or not be as heavily promoted as intelligence failures. However, during the police advocacy of 90-day detention in relation to the Terrorism Act 2006 they produced documents listing all the cases about which they could not go into details.[78] Authorities often state, without going into details, numbers of attacks prevented, e.g. 12 attacks were reported in March 2017 to have been thwarted in the previous year, some only hours before they were to have been attempted.[79]

Arrests, detentions, and other incidents related to the Terrorism Acts[edit]

These are cases where either the Terrorism Acts were invoked, or which the authorities alleged were terrorist in nature at the time. This list includes both plots that were foiled at an early stage before any materials were actually assembled, and totally innocent suspects.

  • 2003, 5 January: Wood Green ricin plot, where police arrested six Algerian men accused of manufacturing ricin to use for a poison attack on the London underground. No poison was found,[80][81] and all men were acquitted of all terror charges, except for Kamel Bourgass who stabbed four police officers during his arrest in Manchester several days later. He was convicted of the murder of the officer he killed (the others he stabbed survived). He was also convicted of plotting to poison members of the public with ricin and other poisons. Two of the suspects in the plot were subsequently convicted of possessing false passports.[82]
  • 2003, October: Andrew Rowe arrested in Dover after being detained as he entered the Channel Tunnel in France.[83] Convicted as a "global terrorist" and sentenced to 15 years in prison on 23 September 2005 on the basis of traces of explosives on a pair of socks and a code translation book.[84]
  • 2004, 30 March: Seven men arrested in West Sussex in possession of 600 kg of ammonium nitrate fertilizer, as part of Operation Crevice.
  • 2004, 3 August: Fourteen men arrested, but only eight charged in relation to the 2004 Financial buildings plot following the leak of the identity of an Al-Qaeda double-agent. The men possessed detailed plans for attacking financial buildings in the US, but no actual bomb-making equipment. Their leader, Dhiren Barot, pleaded guilty at his trial on 12 October 2006, and was imprisoned for life.
  • 2004, 24 September: Four men arrested in the Holiday Inn in Brent Cross trying to buy red mercury, a mythical substance which could purportedly be used to construct a nuclear bomb, from a newspaper reporter.[85] One man was released three days later,[86] while the other three were cleared at their trial on 25 July 2006,[87] during which the jury was told that "whether red mercury does or does not exist is irrelevant".[88]
  • 2005, 22 July: The Metropolitan Police killed totally uninvolved Jean Charles de Menezes, shooting him in the head on a train over suspicions of an imminent terrorist attack, during counter-terrorism Operation Kratos.
  • 2005, 28 July: David Mery arrested at Southwark tube station on suspicion of terrorism for wearing a jacket "too warm for the season" and carrying a bulky rucksack. All charges were dropped on 31 August.[89] It took four more years for the police to apologise for the "unlawful arrest, detention and search of [his] home".[90]
  • 2005, 28 September: Walter Wolfgang, who had been ejected from the Labour Party Conference after shouting "Nonsense!", was briefly held under Terrorism Act 2000 powers when he attempted to go back in.
  • 2005, 22 December: Abu Bakr Mansha, described by his barrister as an "utter incompetent", was accused of planning to murder a British soldier who had served in the Iraq War, and convicted under the Terrorism Act for possessing a document that was "likely to be useful to a person committing or preparing an act of terrorism". He was sentenced to 6 years' imprisonment.
  • 2006, 2 June: The 2 June 2006 Forest Gate raid (on a house in Forest Gate) saw the arrest of two suspects, one who was shot in the shoulder, on charges of conspiring to release a chemical weapon in the form of a suicide vest. The suspects were cleared of suspicion and released days later.
  • 2006, 10 August: The 2006 transatlantic aircraft plot to blow up 10 planes flying from Heathrow saw the arrest of 24 people from their homes in Britain, chaos at airports as security measures were put in place, and numerous high-level statements from US and UK officials. 8 people were put on trial, and 3 found guilty of conspiracy to murder. It was shown at their trial how bottles of liquid could be made into effective bombs. Following this incident, carriage of liquids in hand luggage on aircraft was restricted internationally to very small amounts. Rashid Rauf, suspected to have been the link between the UK plotters and Pakistan, escaped to Pakistan, where he was arrested, but escaped again on his way to an extradition hearing. It was reported that he was killed in a US airstrike in North Waziristan in November 2008.[91]
  • 2006, 23 August: The 2006 Cheetham Hill terrorism arrests, where four men were arrested in the Manchester vicinity over the course of a month, and charged with financing terrorism.
  • 2006, 1 September: The Jameah Islameah School in Sussex was cordoned off for over three weeks and searched by a hundred police officers. Twelve men were arrested as part of the operation as they ate in a Chinese restaurant in London.
  • 2007, 1 November: Police searching for indecent images of children arrested British People's Party local organiser Martyn Gilleard in Goole, East Riding of Yorkshire under the Terrorism Act, over explosives found in his home. He was subsequently charged with possession of material for terrorist purposes and collection of information useful to a terrorist, and also pleaded guilty to possessing 39,000 indecent images. He was jailed for 16 years.[92][93][93][94][95]
  • 2008, 14 May: The Nottingham Two were arrested and detained for six days under the Terrorism Act 2000. A postgraduate student had downloaded a 140-page English translation of an Al-Qaeda document from the United States Department of Justice website for his PhD research on militant Islam. He sent it to a friend in the Modern Language department, for printing. Both were cleared of terrorism-related offences, but the friend was immediately re-arrested on immigration grounds.[96][97][98][99]
  • 2008, 14 September: Oxford graduate Stephen Clarke arrested after someone thought they saw him taking a photograph of a sealed man-hole cover outside the central public library in Manchester. He was arrested under section 41 of the Terrorism Act 2000, held for 36 hours while his house and computer were searched, and then released without charge. No photographs of man-hole covers were found.[100]
  • 2009, 13 February: 9 men arrested on the M65 motorway under section 40 of the Terrorism Act 2000. 6 were kept hand-cuffed in the back of a van for seven hours. The remaining 3 were detained for six days. No one was charged. [7]
  • 2011, 19 September: West Midlands Police arrested a woman who lived in the Alum Rock area of Birmingham. Salma Kabal, 22, appeared in court on 16 November 2011 accused of failing to inform police that her husband, Ashik Ali, planned to kill himself. The official charge was that she "knew or believed might be of material assistance in securing the apprehension, prosecution or conviction of another person for an offence involving the commission, preparation or instigation of an act of terrorism".[101]
  • 2011, 15 November: West Midlands Counter Terrorism Unit arrested four people at their homes who were from Sparkhill Birmingham, on suspicion of conducting terrorist offences. The four men appeared in court in Westminster on 19 November 2011 charged with terrorism offences. They were named as Khobaib Hussain, Ishaaq Hussain and Shahid Kasam Khan, all 19, and Naweed Mahmood Ali, 24. They were charged with fundraising for terrorist purposes and for travelling to Pakistan for terrorist training.[102]
  • 2012, 28 June: The two men, aged 18 and 32, were arrested at separate residential addresses in east London by officers from the Metropolitan Police Counter-Terrorism Command, at 7am on Thursday. It was believed the men were involved in a bomb plot concerning the London 2012 Summer Olympic Games. A Scotland Yard spokesman said: "At approximately 07:00 hrs today, Thursday June 28, officers from the counter-terrorism command arrested two men under the Terrorism Act 2000 on suspicion of the commission, preparation or instigation of acts of terrorism. The men were arrested at separate residential addresses in east London. Both addresses are currently being searched under the Terrorism Act 2000".[103]
  • 2017, 5 September: Three men, including two serving British soldiers, were arrested and later charged with several offences relating to membership of the neo-Nazi National Action terrorist organisation and preparing for acts of terrorism. They were identified as Lance Corporal Mikko Vehvilainen, Private Mark Barrett and Alexander Deakin, a civilian.[104]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Arnett, George (18 November 2014). "Religious extremism main cause of terrorism, according to report". Guardian. 
  2. ^ Chilcot, Sir John. "The report of the Iraq Enquiry (Chilcot report)". www.iraqinquiry.org.uk. Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 5 June 2017. 
  3. ^ "UK vulnerability to major terrorist attack - JIC Assessment (18 September 2001)" (PDF). www.iraqinquiry.org.uk. Joint Intelligence Committee. Retrieved 5 June 2017. 
  4. ^ "Noam Chomsky interviewed by John Bolender". www.zmag.org. Z Mag, December 2003. 
  5. ^ Greenwald, Glenn (7 July 2016). "Chilcot report and the 7/7 London bombing anniversary converge to highlight terrorism's causes". The Intercept. Retrieved 5 June 2017. 
  6. ^ Taylor, Richard Norton (3 April 2006). "Iraq war 'motivated London bombers'". Guardian. Retrieved 5 June 2017. 
  7. ^ Gilsinan, Kathy. "The Geography of Terrorism". The Atlantic. 
  8. ^ "Sutton Index of Deaths: Geographical Location of the death". Conflict Archive on the Internet. Retrieved 5 June 2017. 
  9. ^ a b Douglas, Roger. Law, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Terrorism. University of Michigan Press, 2014. p.18
  10. ^ National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. (2017). Global Terrorism Database (globalterrorismdb_0617dist.xlsx). Retrieved from https://www.start.umd.edu/gtd University of Maryland
  11. ^ National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. (2016). Global Terrorism Database (gtd1993_0617dist.xlsx). Retrieved from https://www.start.umd.edu/gtd University of Maryland
  12. ^ "Astronomers and the anarchist bomber". Royal Museums Greenwich. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  13. ^ "The Explosion on the Metropolitan Railway". The Times (35189). 28 April 1897. p. 12. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  14. ^ "The Explosion at Aldersgate-Street Station". The Times (35212). 25 May 1897. p. 15. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  15. ^ Dingley, James. The IRA: The Irish Republican Army. ABC-CLIO, 2012. p.82
  16. ^ "1971: British minister's home bombed". BBC News. 12 January 1971. Retrieved 8 May 2010. 
  17. ^ Bright, Martin (3 February 2002). "Look back in anger". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 8 May 2010. 
  18. ^ Bomb explodes in Post Office tower On this day report by the BBC
  19. ^ Parcel bomb attack on Israeli embassy On this day report by the BBC
  20. ^ Bomb blasts rock central London On this Day report by the BBC
  21. ^ IRA bombs parliament On this day report by the BBC
  22. ^ Bomb blast in London club On this Day report by the BBC
  23. ^ [1] Report
  24. ^ Robert Bartlett and Terry Waterfield. "Surrey Constabulary: Part 3: Policing Change: 1951-1975". Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  25. ^ "1975: TV presenter Ross McWhirter shot dead". BBC News. 27 November 1975. 
  26. ^ "Bomb in pub - City police hold 4". Evening Times, 20 December 1975.
  27. ^ "Picture and brief report.". Flickr. Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  28. ^ "BOMB INCIDENTS (Hansard, 18 January 1979)". hansard.millbanksystems.com. Retrieved 2017-03-21. 
  29. ^ "ITN News Clip | The night the IRA tried to blow us up | ITN News Clips | Old Films | History | Canvey Island Archive". www.canveyisland.org. Retrieved 2017-03-21. 
  30. ^ Wood, Ian S. Crimes of Loyalty: A History of the UDA. Edinburgh University Press, 2006. p.329
  31. ^ "A bomb blast rocks the ANC London office – South African History Online". Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  32. ^ a b c Alexander, Y. (2002). Combating terrorism: Strategies of ten countries. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan. p. 206.
  33. ^ Bremner, Charles (2005-06-08). "Tomb of the unknown assassin reveals mission to kill Rushdie". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 2010-06-01. 
  34. ^ IRA bombs Stock Exchange On this Day report by the BBC.
  35. ^ "1990–92: Start of the talks process". BBC News. 18 March 1999. 
  36. ^ a b De Baróid, Ciarán (2000). Ballymurphy And The Irish War. Pluto Press. p. 325. ISBN 0-7453-1509-7. 
  37. ^ "Glenn Goodman murder: 20th anniversary service held". 14 June 2012 – via www.bbc.co.uk. 
  38. ^ IRA bombs Manchester On this Day report by the BBC.
  39. ^ [2] The Independent – Tuesday 16 August 1994.
  40. ^ Gunman kills Sikh newspaper editor Gunman kills Sikh newspaper editor.
  41. ^ "Bomb blast outside BBC". BBC News. 2001-03-04. Retrieved 2006-09-22. 
  42. ^ "Car bombers rock west London". BBC News. 2001-08-03. 
  43. ^ "British victims of September 11". The Guardian. 10 September 2002. Retrieved 6 June 2017. 
  44. ^ "Bomb blast in Birmingham". BBC News. 2001-11-04. 
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