Women in the art history field
Women were professionally active in the academic discipline of art history already in the nineteenth century and participated in the important shift early in the century that began involving an "emphatically corporeal visual subject", with Vernon Lee as a notable example. It is argued that in the twentieth century women art historians (and curators), by choosing to study women artists, "dramatically" "increased their visibility". In fact, women art historians are one of two groups (besides authors of high-school texbooks) "who say there have been great women artists" in the first place, according to the authors of a study of the representations of women artists in US textbooks.
Education and employment
In the United States professional, academic employment for women art historians was, by the early 1970s, not commensurate with the number of female PhDs in art history. Between 1960 and 1969, 30.1% of PhDs were awarded to women but those numbers increased significantly during that period: between 1960 and 1965 it was 27%, but between 1966 and 1967 it had gone up to 43.5%. But in 1970-1971, women art historians in art departments in the US made up 23.1% of instructors, 21.6% of assistant professors, 17.5% of associate professors, and only 11.1% of full professors. Comparison with the numbers for the same years for women in the languages, from a study done by the Modern Language Association, showed that "women in C.A.A. [College Art Association] professions face[d] rather more severe discrimination than women in M.L.A. fields". Similar tendencies were reported for salary and employment in studio teaching ("preliminary statistics...indicate that women artists receive a disproportionately small share of full-time studio jobs") and in museums ("particularly significant was a tendency to hire women with BAs to be secretaries and men with BAs for trainee programs which rapidly advanced them to more challenging positions).
The history of women in the profession also suggests that art education itself has benefited from the increased presence of professional women art historians, since women students sometimes found it necessary to "redo" an education in which only a male point of view had been provided given. Paula Harper, "one of the first art historians to bring a feminist perspective to the study of painting and sculpture", and Moira Roth shared the same experience of a "one-sided training", of feeling left out. Discrimination against "women in college and university art departments and art museums" was, in the early 1970s, the immediate cause for the foundation of the Women's Caucus for Art (see below).
In a statistical study of US employment among art faculties published in 1977, Sandra Packard notes that "in art departments women have been decreasing in number since the 1930's", and that the number of women in art faculties at institutes of higher education "decreas[ed] from 22% in 1963 to a low of 19.5% in 1974", and cites statistics suggesting that "although women are concentrated at the lower ranks in art faculties, they have more Ph.D. degrees than their male colleagues."
The Women's Caucus for Art (WCA), a caucus for woman art historians, artists, and curators was founded at the 1972 meeting of the College Art Association (CAA), but re-established itself as an independent organization in 1974 after the CAA told them they could not use the CAA name anymore. According to Judith Brodsky, the CAA was, at the time, very much a male-dominated organization; she notes, though, in a 1977 article that the Caucus is given space and time at the annual CAA conference and in the CAA's journal, Art Journal. A Lifetime Achievement Award was installed in 1979. The organization's objectives include "providing women with leadership opportunities and professional development" and "expanding networking and exhibition opportunities for women", and to that purpose publishes a newsletter, organizes sessions at conferences, and runs databases for "art and activism". In 2012 the WCA celebrated its 40th anniversary, and published a pamphlet for the annual awards ceremony that also includes a number of historical essays and reflections from the past presidents.
Women art historians and feminist art theory
Feminist scholars have argued that the role of women art historians is connected to the study of women (as artists and as subjects) by art historians. In 1974, Lise Vogel noted that there were few feminist art historians, and that women art historians in general seemed unwilling to ask "the more radical critiques" a feminist scholar should engage in. In a 1998 essay, Corine Schleif argued that women and feminist scholars need to challenge the "Great Master" canon, and that they need to focus less on "style as evidence of authorship", seen as a traditionally masculine way of viewing the history of art, but rather on style as "one of many sites on the production of meaning". The topic of women scholars in art history is thus intricately connected with what scholars have called feminist art theory; Kerry Freedman, for example, claims that "women art historians often interpret art that is about and by women differently than their male colleagues". However, Carol Armstrong and Catherine de Zegher, in Women artists at the millennium (2006), argue that by the 1980s many "women art history scholars" had begun to think of feminism as irrelevant to the discipline.
Notable women art historians
|Alpers, SvetlanaSvetlana Alpers||American||1936||Dutch Golden Age Painting||Art historian|
|Antonelli, PaolaPaola Antonelli||Italian||1963||Modern Art, Design||Curator|
|Mouriki, DoulaDoula Mouriki||Greek||1934 - 1991||Byzantinologist, Historian of Art||Professor|
|Arscott, CarolineCaroline Arscott||English||Victorian art, 19th century art||Art historian|
|Ashton, DoreDore Ashton||American||1928||Modern Art, Contemporary Art||Writer, professor, art critic|
|Atasoy, NurhanNurhan Atasoy||Turkish||1934||Ottoman art and architecture||Art historian|
|Baert, BarbaraBarbara Baert||Belgian||1967||medieval iconology||Art historian|
|Bal, MiekeMieke Bal||Dutch||1946||Modern Art, Contemporary Art||Cultural theorist, video artist|
|Banti, AnnaAnna Banti||Italian||1895–1985||Italian Baroque, female artists||Writer, art historian, art critic, translator|
|Banti, LuisaLuisa Banti||Italian||1894–1978||Etruscan art||Archaeologist, art historian, writer|
|Barnes, RuthRuth Barnes||British||1956||Material culture, South and Southeast Asian Textiles||Art historian, curator|
|Beckett, WendyWendy Beckett (aka 'Sister Wendy')||British||1930||Catholic art||Art historian, Catholic nun|
|Berenson, MaryMary Berenson ||American||1864–1945|
|Dorléac, Laurence BertrandLaurence Bertrand Dorléac||French||1957||Modern and contemporary||Art historian, professor, curator|
|Bieber, MargareteMargarete Bieber ||German||1879–1978||Theatre, sculpture, and clothing of ancient Rome and Greece||Art historian, professor|
|Bing, GertrudGertrud Bing ||German||1892–1964|
|Boggs, Jean SutherlandJean Sutherland Boggs ||Canadian||1922||Nineteenth-century French art, Degas||Curator, art historian, and first female director of the National Gallery of Canada|
|Borea, EvelinaEvelina Borea||Italian||1931||Italian art history|
|Broude, NormaNorma Broude||American||1941||Impressionism and feminist art history||Art historian, Author and emerita professor at American University|
|Breeskin, Adelyn DohmeAdelyn Dohme Breeskin||American||1896–1986||works by Mary Cassatt||curator, museum director, and art historian at Baltimore Museum of Art|
|Brookner, AnitaAnita Brookner ||English||1936|
|Browse, LillianLillian Browse||British||1906–2005||Art dealer, art historian|
|Bruggen, Coosje vanCoosje van Bruggen ||Dutch-American||1942–2009||Artist, art historian|
|Bulling, AnnelieseAnneliese Bulling||German, American||1900–2004||Sinologist, Chinese Art and Arch.||Art lecturer, art historian|
|Carbonell, Teresa GisbertTeresa Gisbert Carbonell||Bolivian||1926||Andean art history||Art historian|
|Caws, Mary AnnMary Ann Caws||American||1933||Modern Art, Contemporary art||Author, literary critic, art historian|
|Churcher, BettyBetty Churcher||Australian||1931–2015||Art historian, first female director of the National Gallery of Australia)|
|Constantine, MildredMildred Constantine||American||1913–2008||Poster Art, Graphic Design||Art historian and curator at Museum of Modern Art in the 1950s and 1960s|
|Cooke, LynneLynne Cooke||Australian||Modern art, Contemporary art||Curator|
|d'Harnoncourt, AnneAnne d'Harnoncourt||American||1943–2008||Curator, and Director of the Philadelphia Museum of Art|
|Dhanens, ElisabethElisabeth Dhanens||Belgian||1915–2014||Early Netherlandish painting||Heritage official|
|Dickerman, LeahLeah Dickerman||American||Modern art, Contemporary art||Curator, art historian|
|Emilia, Lady Dilke||English||1840–1904|
|Joan Evans||British||1893–1977||Art historian|
|Garrard, MaryMary Garrard||American||1940-||Italian Baroque art and feminist art history||Art historian, Author, emerita professor at American University|
|Graevenitz, Antje vonAntje von Graevenitz||German||1940-||Art historian, Art critic|
|Harper, PaulaPaula Harper||American||1930-2012||Feminist art, Pissarro, contemporary art||Art historian, art critic, art lecturer, author|
|Hoff, UrsulaUrsula Hoff||German, Australian||1909–2005|
|Hoffmann, MeikeMeike Hoffmann||German||1962|
|Holly, Michael AnnMichael Ann Holly||American||Historiography of Art History||Art historian|
|Jim, Alice Ming WaiAlice Ming Wai Jim||Canadian||Contemporary Asian art, contemporary Asian Canadian art, remix culture||Professor, art historian, curator|
|Jones, AmeliaAmelia Jones||American||1961|
|Klonk, CharlotteCharlotte Klonk||German||Modern Art, Contemporary Art, Museology||Art historian|
|Krauss, RosalindRosalind Krauss||American||1941|
|Lemieux, AnnetteAnnette Lemieux||American||1957-present||Contemporary art||Professor, artist|
|Levetus, Amelia SarahAmelia Sarah Levetus||British Austrian||1853–1938||Modern art||Author, cultural journalist|
|Lewis, SamellaSamella Lewis||American||1924||African-American art||Art historian, art critic, and artist (printmaker)|
|Lippard, LucyLucy Lippard||American||1937||Contemporary Art||Art critic, curator|
|Montagu, JenniferJennifer Montagu||British||1931||Italian Baroque sculpture||Art historian|
|Müller-Ebeling, ClaudiaClaudia Müller-Ebeling||German||1956|
|Mulvey, LauraLaura Mulvey||English||1941||feminist film theorist|
|Natif, MikaMika Natif||Israeli||Islamic painting: Central Asia, Iran, India, and the Mediterranean||Art historian|
|Der Nersessian, SirarpieSirarpie Der Nersessian||Armenian||1896-1989||Armenian and Byzantine studies||Art Historian and Museum Director|
|Nochlin, LindaLinda Nochlin ||American||1931||Art historian|
|Philip, Lotte BrandLotte Brand Philip||German||1910–1986|
|Pollock, GriseldaGriselda Pollock ||English/Canadian||1949–|
|Prettejohn, ElizabethElizabeth Prettejohn||American||1961–||Victorian Art, Pre-Raphaelites||Art historian, Professor, curator, author|
|Raven, ArleneArlene Raven||American||1944–2006||Feminist art movement in the United States||Art historian, art critic, and founder of the Los Angeles Woman's Building)|
|Rebay, HillaHilla Rebay||1890-1967|
|Robbins, TrinaTrina Robbins||American||1938||History of comics||Artist and writer|
|Rose, BarbaraBarbara Rose||American||1938|
|Rottenberg, AndaAnda Rottenberg||Polish||1944–|
|Schopenhauer, JohannaJohanna Schopenhauer ||German||1766–1838||Artist, author|
|Shabout, NadaNada Shabout||American||1962||Modern Iraqi art||Art historian|
|Silverman, KajaKaja Silverman||American||1947–||Film theorist, art historian|
|Silvestri-Levy, AlessandraAlessandra Silvestri-Levy||Brazilian||1900s–||Producer and witer|
|Stafford, Barbara MariaBarbara Maria Stafford||American||Art historian|
|Steinitz, KateKate Steinitz ||German-American||1889–1975||Artist, art historian|
|Stiles, KristineKristine Stiles||American||1947–||Art historian, curator|
|Stokes, MargaretMargaret Stokes ||Irish||1832–1900||Antiquarian|
|Stokstad, MarilynMarilyn Stokstad ||American||1929–|
|Swindler, Mary HamiltonMary Hamilton Swindler ||American||1884–1967|
|Temkin, AnnAnn Temkin||American|
|Thompson, Dorothy BurrDorothy Burr Thompson ||American||1900–2001|
|Tietze-Conrat, EricaErica Tietze-Conrat ||Austrian, American||1883–1958||Contemporary Viennese Art, Renaissance art, the Venetian school||Academic lecturer|
|Tipping, MarjorieMarjorie Tipping ||Australian||1917–2009||Historian|
|Toynbee, JocelynJocelyn Toynbee ||English||1897–1985|
|Tucker, MarciaMarcia Tucker ||American||1940–2006|
|Vetulani, CecyliaCecylia Vetulani||Polish||1908–1980|
|Wagner, AnneAnne Wagner||American||1949-||Modern and contemporary art||Art historian,
|Wagner-Rieger, RenateRenate Wagner-Rieger ||Austrian||1921–1980||Architecture, historicism||Academic lecturer|
|Welch, EvelynEvelyn Welch|
|Wharton, EdithEdith Wharton ||American||1862–1937||Architecture||Writer|
|Whinney, MargaretMargaret Whinney ||English||1897–1975||English art history||Academic lecturer|
|Williams, SylviaSylvia Williams||American||1936–1996||African art||Curator, museum director|
|Wilson, SarahSarah Wilson||English|
|Wischnitzer, RachelRachel Wischnitzer||German||1885–1989||Jewish art history||architect,
|Wittkower, MargotMargot Wittkower||German-American||1902-1995||Neo-Palladian Architecture, Italian Renaissance, Baroque||Writer, Interior Design|
|Woodall, JoannaJoanna Woodall||British||Portraiture, Netherlandish Art|
|Woodall, MaryMary Woodall||British||1901–1988||Thomas Gainsborough scholar||Museum director, curator|
|Yates, FrancesFrances Yates ||English||1899–1981||Renaissance|
|Zahorska, StefaniaStefania Zahorska||Polish||1890–1961||Polish prosaist|
|Zorach, RebeccaRebecca Zorach||American||Active since 2005||
Early modern European
- Fraser, Hilary (1998–1999). "Women and the Ends of Art History: Vision and Corporeality in Nineteenth-Century Critical Discourse". Victorian Studies. 42 (1): 77–100. JSTOR 3829127. doi:10.2979/vic.1918.104.22.168.
- Tannenbaum, Judith (1994). "East Coast- C Is for Contemporary Art Curator: Curiosity, Contradiction, Collaboration, Challenge". Art Journal. 53 (3): 47, 49, 51, 53 55, 57, 59. JSTOR 777431. doi:10.2307/777431.
- Clark, Roger; Ashley Folgo (2006). "Who Says There Have Been Great Women Artists? Some Afterthoughts". Art Education. 59 (2): 47–52. JSTOR 27696136.
- Harris, Ann Sutherland (1973). "Women in College Art Departments and Museums". Art Journal. 32 (4): 417–19. JSTOR 775692. doi:10.2307/775692.
- Grady, Denise (25 June 2012). "Paula Hays Harper, Art Historian, Is Dead at 81". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- Harper, Paula (1985). "The First Feminist Art Program: A View from the 1980s". Signs. 10 (4): 762–81. JSTOR 3174313. doi:10.1086/494182.
- Packard, Sandra (1977). "An Analysis of Current Statistics and Trends as They Influence the Status and Future for Women in the Art Academe". Studies in Art Education. 18 (2): 38–48. JSTOR 1319477. doi:10.2307/1319477.
- Brodsky, Judith K. (1977). "The Women's Caucus for Art". Women's Studies Newsletter. 5 (1/2): 13–15. JSTOR 40042430.
- "Women's Caucus for Art: 40th Anniversary Celebration" (PDF). Women's Caucus for Art. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- Schleif, Corine (1998). "The Role of Women in Challenging the Canon of 'Great Master' Art History". In Amussen, Susan Dwyer; Seeff, Adele F. Attending to Early Modern Women. U of Delaware P. ISBN 9780874136500.
- Vogel, Lise (1991). "Fine Arts and Feminism: The Awakening Consciousness". In Raven, Arlene; Langer, Cassandra L.; Frueh, Joanna. Feminist Art Criticism: An Anthology. IconEditions. pp. 21–58. ISBN 9780064302166.
- Freedman, Kerry (1994). "About This Issue: The Social Reconstruction of Art Education". Studies in Art Education. 35 (3): 131–34. JSTOR 1320214. doi:10.2307/1320214.
- Mathews, Patricia (2008). "Art and Architecture: Art History". In Smith, Bonnie G. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History. Oxford UP. pp. 142–43. ISBN 9780195148909.
- "Mary Berenson". Dictionary of Art Historians.
- "Mary Berenson". Villa I Tatti. 2013.
- "Margarete Bieber". Dictionary of Art Historians. Retrieved 2014-05-24.
- "Gertrud Bing; Gertrude Bing". Dictionary of Art Historians. Retrieved 2014-05-24.
- "Jean Sutherland Boggs". Dictionary of Art Historians. 1966-08-07. Retrieved 2014-05-24.
- "Dictionary of Art Historians". Dictionary of Art Historians. Retrieved 2014-05-24.
- "Dictionary of Art Historians". Dictionary of Art Historians. Retrieved 2014-05-24.
- "Churcher, Betty, AO AM FAHA". Humanities.org.au. 1999-02-22. Retrieved 2014-05-24.
- "Lady Dilke; Emilia Francis Strong; Emily Francis Strong; Mrs Mark Pattison". Dictionary of Art Historians.
- "Linda Nochlin". Dictionary of Art Historians. Retrieved 2014-05-24.
- "Griselda Pollock". Dictionary of Art Historians.
- "Johanna Henrietta Schopenhauer". Dictionary of Art Historians.
- "Kate Steinitz; Kate Traumann Steinitz". Dictionary of Art Historians.
- "Margaret Stokes". Dictionary of Art Historians.
- "Marilyn Stokstad". Dictionary of Art Historians.
- "Swindler, Mary Hamilton". Dictionary of Art Historians.
- "Dorothy Burr Thompson". Dictionary of Art Historians.
- "Erica Tietze-Conrat; Erika Tietze-Conrat". Dictionary of Art Historians.
- "Tipping, Marjorie Jean (1917 - 2009)". The Australia Women's Register. Australia Women's Archives Project. Retrieved 2014-05-25.
- "Jocelyn Toynbee, J.M.C. Toynbee". Dictionary of Art Historians.
- "Tucker, Marcia, née Silverman". Dictionary of Art Historians.
- "Wagner-Rieger, Renate [née Rieger]". Dictionary of Art Historians.
- "Wharton, Edith [née Newbold Jones, Edith]". Dictionary of Art Historians.
- "Whinney, Margaret [Dickens]". Dictionary of Art Historians.
- "Yates, Frances [Amelia], Dame". Dictionary of Art Historians.