The Live 8 logo
|Dates||2 and 6 July 2005|
|Location(s)||London, Paris, Berlin, Rome, Philadelphia, Barrie, Chiba, Johannesburg, Moscow, Cornwall and Edinburgh|
|Founded by||Bob Geldof, Midge Ure|
Live 8 was a string of benefit concerts that took place on 2 July 2005, in the G8 states and in South Africa. They were timed to precede the G8 conference and summit held at the Gleneagles Hotel in Auchterarder, Scotland from 6–8 July 2005. Both events also coincided with the 20th anniversary of Live Aid. Run in support of the aims of the UK's Make Poverty History campaign and the Global Call for Action Against Poverty, ten simultaneous concerts were held on 2 July and one on 6 July. On 7 July, the G8 leaders pledged to double 2004 levels of aid to poor nations from US$25 billion to US$50 billion by the year 2010. Half of the money was to go to Africa.
More than 1,000 musicians performed at the concerts, which were broadcast on 182 television networks and 2,000 radio networks.
Live Aid organiser Bob Geldof announced the event on 31 May. Many former Live Aid acts offered their services to the cause. Prior to the official announcement of the event, many news sources referred to the event as Live Aid 2. However, Geldof and co-organiser Midge Ure have since explicitly said they don't think of the event as the same as Live Aid. On an episode of BBC Two music-based comedy panel show Never Mind the Buzzcocks, which aired on 2 March 2006, The Cribs frontman Ryan Jarman said he had texted Geldof to suggest that a "Live Aid 2" would be a good idea. However, after organising the event, Geldof said: "This is not Live Aid 2. These concerts are the start point for The Long Walk To Justice, the one way we can all make our voices heard in unison.". Many of the Live 8 backers were also involved in the largely forgotten NetAid concerts, including Executive Producer Jeff Pollack.
Organisers of Live 8 presented the "Live 8 List" to the world leaders at the Live 8 call that politicians take action to "Make Poverty History". Names from the list also appeared on the giant televisions at each concert during the broadcast.
An official Live 8 DVD set was released on 7 November 2005 internationally and 8 November 2005 in the United States. It was released almost a year to the day after the release of the DVD of Live Aid on 8 November 2004.
- 1 Concerts
- 2 Key events
- 3 Tickets
- 4 Performances
- 5 Rally and protest in Edinburgh
- 6 Notable absences
- 7 Criticism
- 8 Legacy
- 9 See also
- 10 References
Broadcaster Jonathan Ross opened the European Live 8 concerts with the words:
|“||It's two o'clock in London on July the 2nd 2005. Hyde Park welcomes the world to Live 8.||”|
There were ten concerts held on 2 July 2005, most of them simultaneously. The first to begin was held at the Makuhari Messe in Japan, with Rize being the first of all the Live 8 performers. During the opening of the Philadelphia concert outside the city's Museum of Art, actor Will Smith led the combined audiences of London, Philadelphia, Berlin, Rome, Paris and Barrie in a synchronised finger snap, meant to represent the death of a child every three seconds in Africa.
Bob Geldof hosted the event at Hyde Park in London, England where he also performed "I Don't Like Mondays". Special guests appeared throughout the concerts. Then-Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan and Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates made speeches at the London show, while former South African President Nelson Mandela addressed the crowd in the Johannesburg venue. Guest presenters, ranging from sports stars to comedians, also introduced acts.
Included in the all-star line-up were Pink Floyd, reunited with former bassist/vocalist/lyricist Roger Waters for the first time in over 24 years. With the death of pianist/keyboardist/backing vocalist Richard Wright in 2008, Live 8 became the final time the four members of the band's best known, "classic" lineup performed together in concert. The band dedicated "Wish You Were Here" to their absent former member Syd Barrett, who died in 2006.
The final event called Edinburgh 50,000 - The Final Push was held at Murrayfield Stadium in Edinburgh, Scotland on 6 July 2005. It featured further performances from some of the artists from the other concerts, and was the closest of the eleven to the actual location of the G8 summit.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. (February 2013)
- 31 May 2005: Official announcement of the Live 8 concerts by Bob Geldof.
- 1 June 2005: Geldof calls for a million people to descend upon Edinburgh in a "Long Walk to Justice", on 6 July, the first day of the G8 summit at Gleneagles. Geldof is immediately criticised by Lothian and Borders Police chief constable Ian Dickenson for encouraging such a large crowd to assemble in Edinburgh with such little notice and no consultation with local authorities about how to accommodate so many people.
- 3 June 2005: British Chancellor Gordon Brown announces that VAT will be waived on the cost of the London concert. He estimates that this will save the organisers £500,000. He also supported Geldof's call for a peaceful protest rally in Scotland.
- 6 June 2005: Text lottery launches in the UK for tickets for the London concert. 1.5 million text messages are received in the first day.
- 7 June 2005: Midge Ure announces a concert to be held in Murrayfield Stadium in Edinburgh, Scotland on 6 July as the climax to the proposed rally.
- 11 June 2005: G8 finance ministers agree to cancel the debt owed by 18 of the poorest countries.
- 14 June 2005: eBay announces that they will block the selling-on of tickets after Geldof calls on the public to rally against the internet auction site.
- 15 June 2005: Peter Gabriel announces he will organise a sixth simultaneous Live 8 concert dubbed "Africa Calling" featuring all African artists, to counter criticisms that most performers announced to date are white. The event is to be held in Cornwall, southwest England, on 2 July. Gabriel, British Indian drummer Johnny Kalsi and actress Angelina Jolie will host the event, which will also feature performances by African performers Maryam Mursal, Salif Keita, Thomas Mapfumo and Youssou N'Dour.
- 16 June 2005: Geldof announces three more concerts for 2 July, to be held in Johannesburg, South Africa; Makuhari Messe, Japan; and Sudbury, Canada.
- 17 June 2005: The Live 8 List, a petition to the G8 leaders, launches.
- 21 June 2005: "Live 8 Canada" announced. Acts include Bryan Adams, Barenaked Ladies, and more. The event will be hosted by comedians Dan Aykroyd and Tom Green.
- 21 June 2005: Damon Albarn, who recently criticised Live 8 for the lack of African artists, is now reportedly happy about Live 8 now that they have addressed his criticism. He told a reporter: "I have said certain things in relation to the density of African performers... In some way that's been addressed and that's really good... Live 8 will make a difference – it's already created a debate that we're all involved in."
- 22 June 2005: In the United States, MTV, MTV2, mtvU and VH1 all confirm that they will broadcast Live 8 starting at 12:00 ET/09:00 PT. Country Music Television and VH1 Classic will show highlights on 3 July in favour of their viewers' genres.
- 23 June 2005: All 35,000 tickets for the Canadian show are taken within 20 minutes of being made available online.
- 24 June 2005: Live 8 Japan and South Africa announced. Acts in Japan concert include Do As Infinity, Björk, Good Charlotte, while acts in Johannesburg concert include African stars such as 4Peace Ensemble and Oumou Sangare.
- 28 June 2005: ABC say they will broadcast a two-hour highlights event at 20:00 ET/PT on 2 July.
- 2 July 2005: Live 8 Russia, in Moscow's Red Square, is announced. Acts include Pet Shop Boys, The Red Elvises and Bravo.
- 2 July 2005: AOL Music begins broadcasting streams from each city live and on-demand at AOLmusic.com.
- 2 July 2005: The march against poverty in Edinburgh starts and continues mostly peacefully, with an estimate of 200,000 people involved with the march. Main concerts start.
- 3 July 2005: Sail 8 flops.
- 6 July 2005: Edinburgh 50,000 - The Final Push concert in Edinburgh takes place.
- 8 July 2005: The G8 summit ends. Leaders pledge to increase aid to developing countries by US$50 billion overall by 2010, including an increase of US$25 billion in aid for Africa.
- 8 July 2005: Bob Geldof thanks the G8 for meeting the Live 8 goal.
- 13 July 2005: The 20th anniversary of the original Live Aid concert is marked.
- 25 October 2005: Official Live 8 Africa Calling at the Eden Project DVD is released.
- 7 November 2005: Official Live 8 DVD is released internationally.
- 8 November 2005: Official Live 8 DVD is released in North America and was recorded at Metalworks Studios in Mississauga, Ontario.
- 2 July 2006: MTV Networks, CTV and BBC One broadcast Live 8: What a Difference a Day Makes special to celebrate the one-year anniversary of the show.
Although the concerts were free, 66,500 pairs of tickets for the Hyde Park concert were allocated from 13 to 15 June 2005, to winners of a mobile phone text message competition that began on Monday, 6 June 2005. Entry involved sending the answer to a multiple choice question via a text message costing £1.50. Winners were drawn at random from those who correctly answered the question. Over two million messages were sent during the competition, raising £3 million. The first £1.6 million raised was given to the Prince's Trust, which had to cancel its own annual Party in the Park concert in Hyde Park that year to make way for Live 8. According to the Live 8 website, funds raised beyond the £1.6 million "will go to pay for the costs of Live 8, as it is a free event".
Some ticket-winners placed their tickets for sale on internet auction site eBay, and were heavily criticised by the organisers of the event, including Bob Geldof. Initially, eBay defended its decision to allow the auctions to go ahead, stating that there were no laws against the resale of charity concert tickets. The site also offered to make a donation to Live 8 at least equivalent to the fees it would make from the ticket sales. Some people, angered by others seemingly using Live 8 to make money, placed fake bids for millions of pounds for such auctions in an attempt to force the sellers to take them off sale. It was later announced that eBay, under pressure from the British government, the public, as well as Geldof himself, would withdraw all auctions of the tickets.
Similar touting situations arose for the Edinburgh and Canadian shows, and eBay halted sales of those tickets as well.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. (February 2013)
- U2 and Paul McCartney opened the London concert, playing "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band". Later, Bono added a couple of lines of The Beatles' "Blackbird" to the end of "Beautiful Day".
- Keane performed singles Somewhere Only We Know and Bedshaped.
- The classic line-up of the progressive rock band Pink Floyd (Roger Waters, David Gilmour, Richard Wright and Nick Mason) played together on stage for the first time in 24 years. The band performed the songs "Speak to Me", "Breathe / Breathe (Reprise)", "Money", "Wish You Were Here" and "Comfortably Numb". They were the only band not to be verbally introduced. This would be the final performance by the full Pink Floyd lineup, as Syd Barret & Richard Wright would pass away of cancer in 2006 and 2008, respectively, and Waters declined to accompany Gilmour & Mason for The Endless River in 2014.
- Pete Doherty joined Elton John for a version of T.Rex's hit "Children of the Revolution".
- Using much of the musical equipment used by rock band Travis, who had just left the stage, Bob Geldof decided on the "spur of the moment" to perform The Boomtown Rats' hit "I Don't Like Mondays".
- Before Madonna's set, Geldof introduced Birhan Woldu, who was the famous starving child in the CBC News report which prompted Geldof to organise Live Aid. She held hands with Madonna while the singer performed the first verses of "Like a Prayer". Geldof had asked Woldu whom she wanted to appear on stage with, with Woldu choosing Madonna as she was the only artist she'd heard of.
- Chris Martin included the chorus of Status Quo's song "Rockin' All Over the World" in the bridge of Coldplay's song "In My Place". Status Quo had opened the 1985 Wembley Live Aid concert with that song. In addition, Coldplay were joined by Richard Ashcroft to perform "Bitter Sweet Symphony".
- Robbie Williams began his set with a cover of Queen's "We Will Rock You". Williams stated in an interview that he "wanted to bring a bit of Freddie back from the original Live Aid". Williams had often performed the same section of "We Will Rock You" during his own concerts.
- Will Smith led the crowd in a sing-along to the theme song of "The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air".
- Mayor John Street announced on stage that there were over 1 million spectators in the audience.
- Closing act Stevie Wonder was joined on stage by Matchbox Twenty front man Rob Thomas and Maroon 5 lead singer Adam Levine. Thomas dueted with him on "Higher Ground" and Levine on "Signed, Sealed, Delivered, I'm Yours". During Wonder's performance, American Idol judge Paula Abdul and former Frasier actor David Hyde Pierce can be seen dancing off stage right.
Deep Purple made an appearance and performed "Highway Star", "Smoke on the Water" and "Hush". The Tragically Hip played a set, just before Neil Young finished off Live 8 in Barrie with "4 Strong Winds", "Rockin' in the Free World" and "O Canada".
Some of the highlights of the Berlin show included Brian Wilson who played a set with his band, doing "Our Prayer"/"Gee", "God Only Knows", "California Girls", "Good Vibrations", and "Fun Fun Fun", as well as Green Day, having released their political rock opera "American Idiot" the previous year.
Rally and protest in Edinburgh
On 2 July, the same day as the Live 8 concerts, a rally and protest march was held in central Edinburgh, the nearest major city to the Gleneagles venue for the G8 conference later that week. This protest was organised by the Make Poverty History coalition as part of a series of events ahead of the G8 conference, and had already been planned before the announcement of Live 8.
An estimated 225,000 people took part, making it the largest ever protest in Scotland and the largest ever anti-poverty protest in the UK.
The marchers had been asked to wear white to make a symbolic ring of white through the city, matching the Make Poverty History white wristband. Marchers were addressed by coalition and other activists, celebrities and religious leaders who support the campaign for political action on world poverty.
Assistant Chief Constable Ian Dickinson, who led the policing of the event, said:
|“||I want to pay tribute to the crowd of 225,000 who came and cooperated with the police to make this a successful and memorable occasion. I also want to pay tribute to the organisers of the march who have achieved their objectives through meticulous planning and cooperation.||”|
In the weeks leading up to Live 8, British newspaper Daily Mirror began a petition, garnering support for British rock band Status Quo to play at the event. Originally offered a 6pm slot, the band already had commitments in Ireland and therefore requested an earlier slot. Their request was rejected by the organisers as there were no available slots.
There were speculations by the press that English girl group the Spice Girls would reunite for a Live 8 performance, in what would have been their first appearance as a five-piece since May 1998. At the Live 8 launch in May, Bob Geldof confirmed that organisers were trying to get the group to reform for the event. Ultimately, the Live 8 reunion did not materialise due to a holdout by Spice Girl Mel B. During the Hyde Park concert, British comedian Peter Kay jokingly introduced the Spice Girls while he was introducing The Who.
English rock band Oasis also declined to participate in the concerts as they were performing at the City of Manchester Stadium the same evening and the day after. Noel Gallagher later expressed disapproval that musicians were expected to rally at the convenience of Geldof. Gallagher was also vocally sceptical about the impact of Live 8, citing his belief that rock stars did not have as much influence over world leaders as the Live 8 organisers may believe.
Lack of African/black performers
The original lineup for the Hyde Park concert faced criticism for having only one ethnic minority artist – Mariah Carey. Blur and Gorillaz frontman Damon Albarn called the lack of black performers the organisers' "greatest oversight", while Senegalese musician Baaba Maal wrote in The Independent: "I do feel it's very patronising as an African artist that more of us aren't involved."
Live 8 organisers subsequently added British R&B singer Ms. Dynamite, US rapper Snoop Dogg and Senegalese singer Youssou N'Dour to the Hyde Park lineup in response to the criticism. N'Dour was the only major African artist scheduled to perform at any of the five main concerts. A Live 8 spokesman said that a number of black performers had been approached but were not available to participate and that the event would nonetheless feature a "large urban element". Organisers also argued that there were few black British artists who could attract a large global audience, stating that Geldof's intention was to aim for the biggest global stars to ensure media attention and a large television audience. A Live 8 concert in Johannesburg and an "Africa Calling" concert featuring an entirely African lineup at the Eden Project in Cornwall, were organised following the criticisms.
Motives and controversy
Live 8 has been dismissed by some as a "public relations stunt" for G8 leaders and multinational corporations, due to the disparity between the rhetoric of the events and the actual efforts made after the events in reducing poverty.
Geldof's motives for organising Live 8 were also questioned. TV and radio presenter Andy Kershaw directed criticisms at Geldof and the motives for Live 8, saying: "I am coming, reluctantly, to the conclusion that Live 8 is as much to do with Geldof showing off his ability to push around presidents and prime ministers as with pointing out the potential of Africa. Indeed, Geldof appears not to be interested in Africa's strengths, only in an Africa on its knees." Rashod Ollison of The Baltimore Sun echoed Kershaw's criticisms, calling the event a "ravenous orgy of celebrity ego trips".
The organisers were criticised for using Africa as a "catwalk", more about reviving the careers of ageing rock stars than about helping the poor in Africa. The lineup for the Canada Live 8 concert in particular, was criticised for being "out of touch" and filled with "musical has-beens". Furthermore, the Live 8 concert's timing, coinciding with the long planned Make Poverty History march in Edinburgh, drew criticism from organisers of the march. Benedict Southworth of Make Poverty History claimed that the timing of the concert on the same day of the march diluted the political message and had the effect of leading the media to cover the concert rather than the march.
Damon Albarn suggested that the performers should put pressure on their record labels to pay "some kind of tariff" from the increased record sales that would come from playing at the event, so as to "genuinely show this is an altruistic act and that there is no self-gain in it". Pink Floyd's guitarist David Gilmour announced that he would donate the profits from the increased sales in Pink Floyd's Echoes album to charity, stating: "Though the main objective has been to raise consciousness and put pressure on the G8 leaders, I will not profit from the concert. This is money that should be used to save lives."
Criticism was levelled at the Philadelphia Live 8 concert, when it was revealed that while the performers received no monetary compensation for their participation, they were given gift bags containing designer gifts worth about $12,000. The gifts included $2,000 Gibson guitars, $3,000 Hugo Boss suits and $6,000 Bertolucci watches.
Despite the show being broadcast before the watershed in the United Kingdom, there was no attempt at censorship by the BBC. The network came under fire for its coverage of the Live 8 concerts due to the amount of live swearing by several performers that was broadcast before the watershed. Madonna, Snoop Dogg, Razorlight, Green Day, U2 and Velvet Revolver were also criticised for their use of strong language during their performances. An investigation by the UK media regulator Ofcom ruled that television audiences were subjected to "the most offensive language" and demanded that the BBC issue an on-air apology.
In the United States, ABC drew criticism from the Parents Television Council when its delayed airing of the Hyde Park concert highlights failed to censor The Who's performance of "Who Are You" which contained the lyric, "Who the fuck are you?". ABC responded: "Unfortunately, one inappropriate phrase sung by one performer was initially missed and made it into the East Coast network feed. It was subsequently edited out of the West Coast feed."
MTV and VH1 were criticised for their coverage of the Live 8 concerts. Media critics and viewers complained that the networks focused too little on the actual musical performances, pointing to the frequent switching between artists and concerts, and cutting to commercials, interviews or "educational segments" while bands were still performing. The VJs also received criticism for frequently talking over the performances. The following weekend, MTV and VH1 re-aired ten commercial-free hours of music performances from the Live 8 concerts in response to the criticism.
The London concert also received criticism when alcohol was outlawed for concertgoers, but made available for the VIPs.
On 2 July 2006, BBC One, CTV and MTV broadcast Live 8: What a Difference a Day Makes. In the UK, the special was 60 minutes as compared to the US version on MTV running at 90 minutes. The special was aired on MTV at 07:30 Eastern time, giving nearly no chance for viewers to be made aware of the broadcast. Instead of airing the special late at night, MTV aired their normal broadcasting schedule for Sundays, again adding to the criticism of MTV's lack of interest in Live 8.
In a report issued in June 2006 the G8 have reportedly not lived up to their promises set in 2005. According to DATA, the US has increased its development-assistance pledges but is increasingly off-track in meeting them and, in general, the G8 is moving slowly in the effort to meet its promises.
Some consider Live 8 to be a success, including Bob Geldof himself. Chris Martin of Coldplay described Live 8 as "the greatest thing that's probably been organised ever in the history of the world". However, others believe it was a publicity stunt and a failure as the G8 have already forgotten their pledges. Geldof also believes that public attention was quickly diverted by the London bombings on 7 July 2005, the day after Live 8 Edinburgh which was the final concert in the series.
- List of historic rock festivals
- List of Live 8 artists
- Live Aid
- Live Earth
- Philadelphia Freedom Concert
- "Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK, World, News, Business, Entertainment". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 19 December 2010.[dead link]
- www.live8list.com Archived 2 June 2005 at the Wayback Machine.
- Tilden, Imogen (2 July 2005). "'Welcome to the greatest rock concert in the world'". The Guardian (London).
- The Associated Press (2 July 2005). "Rock, rap, reunions at Live 8 concerts". Today.
- Greene, Andy (7 July 2015). "Pink Floyd Reunited With Roger Waters 10 Years Ago This Week". Rolling Stone.
- Broadfoot, Julie (7 July 2005). "Eyewitness: Live 8 The Final Push". BBC News.
- Left, Sarah (31 May 2005). "Geldof announces Live 8 stars". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
- "UK | UK Politics | Brown to 'waive' VAT for Live 8". BBC News. 3 June 2005. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
- "Scramble for Live 8 concert tickets begins". The Daily Telegraph. 6 June 2005. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
- "G8 finance ministers agree debt cancellation deal". The Daily Telegraph. 11 June 2005. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
- "eBay prevents Live 8 ticket sales". BBC News. 15 June 2005.
- "Newsbeat – Front Page". BBC. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
- "Cdn. Live 8 tickets snatched up within minutes – CTV News". Ctv.ca. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
- MacMillan, Robert (15 June 2005). "Geldof: I Don't Like EBay". The Washington Post.
- "Keane Setlist at Live 8 London". setlist.fm. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
- "Thousands flock to poverty march". BBC News. 2 July 2005.
- Colothan, Scott (17 June 2005). "STATUS QUO PLEAD YET AGAIN TO PERFORM AT LIVE 8". Gigwise.
- Davies, Hugh (27 May 2005). "Spice Girls to reunite for Live 8 concert". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- Mel B 'blocking Spice comeback'. BBC News. 21 June 2005.
- Amter, Charlie (22 June 2005). "Mel B a Maybe for Live 8". E! News.
- Melia, David (17 June 2005). "NOEL GALLAGHER DEFENDS OASIS' LIVE 8 NO SHOW". Gigwise.
- Smith, David (19 June 2005). "Gallagher casts doubt on the value of Live8". The Guardian (London).
- "Radiohead decline Live 8 request". BBC News. 7 June 2005.
- Live 8 logic attracts criticism. BBC News. 10 June 2005.
- Left, Sarah (10 June 2005). "Albarn hits out at 'Anglo Saxon' Live 8". The Guardian.
- "Albarn criticises Live 8 concerts". BBC News. 10 June 2005.
- "Live 8 concerts call for debt relief". Al Jazeera English. 2 July 2005.
- Chossudovsky, Michel (5 July 2005). "Live 8: Corporate Media Bonanza". Centre for Research on Globalization.
- "Live 8: Who organised the PR campaign for Blair and Bush?". Wsws.org. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
- Andy Kershaw: The myth of Saint Bob, saviour of Africa. The Independent. 16 June 2005.
- Ollison, Rashod D. (4 July 2005). "Did egos stifle Live 8 message?". The Baltimore Sun.
- "Live 8 dismisses criticism about grizzled lineup". Archived from the original on 25 June 2005. Retrieved 12 July 2009.
- Byrne, Ciar (4 July 2005). "Pink Floyd album sales soar but no money for Gilmour". The Independent.
- Leonard, Tom (21 February 2006). "BBC censured over Live8 swearing". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- Singh, Anita (9 April 2008). "BBC forced to apologise on-air over foul language on Live Earth". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- Live 8 swearing angers US parents. BBC News.15 July 2005.
- Ryan, Maureen (10 July 2005). "MTV defends Live 8 coverage". Chicago Tribune.
- Welsh, James (8 July 2005). "MTV, VH1 in US to re-air Live 8 concerts". Digital Spy.
- Baracaia, Alexa (29 June 2005). "Pop, but no alcohol in the park". London Evening Standard.
- Kaufman, Gil. "Live 8, One Year Later: Goals Not Met". MTV News. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
- Burkeman, Oliver (13 September 2005). "Three months ago Bob Geldof declared Live 8 had achieved its aim. But what really happened next?". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media. ISSN 0261-3077. OCLC 60623878. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- Youngs, Ian (2 July 2006). "Did Live 8 make a difference?". BBC News. Retrieved 11 May 2010.