Louis Freeh

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Louis Freeh
5th Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation
In office
September 1, 1993 – June 25, 2001
PresidentBill Clinton
George W. Bush
DeputyDavid G. Binney
Larry A. Potts
Weldon L. Kennedy
William Esposito
Thomas J. Pickard
Preceded byWilliam S. Sessions
Succeeded byRobert Mueller
Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York
In office
May 30, 1991 – August 31, 1993
Appointed byGeorge H. W. Bush
Preceded byRichard J. Daronco
Succeeded byShira Scheindlin
Personal details
Louis Joseph Freeh

(1950-01-06) January 6, 1950 (age 73)
Jersey City, New Jersey, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Marilyn Coyle
(m. 1983)
EducationRutgers University, New Brunswick (BA)
Rutgers University, Newark (JD)
New York University (LLM)

Louis Joseph Freeh (born January 6, 1950) is an American attorney and former judge who served as the fifth Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation from September 1993 to June 2001.

Graduated from Rutgers University and New York University School of Law, Freeh began his career as a special agent in the FBI, and was later an Assistant United States Attorney and United States district judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. A Republican, he was later appointed as FBI director by President Bill Clinton.[1][2] He is now a lawyer and consultant in the private sector.

Early life and career[edit]

Freeh was born January 6, 1950, in Jersey City, New Jersey, the son of Italian-American parents Bernice (née Chinchiolo), a former bookkeeper, and William Freeh Sr., a real estate broker.[3][4][5] Freeh, a native of North Bergen,[6] graduated from St. Joseph's High School in West New York, NJ in 1967, where he was taught by Christian Brothers.[7] He then graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Rutgers University–New Brunswick with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1971, and received a Juris Doctor degree from Rutgers School of Law–Newark in 1974 and a Master of Laws degree in criminal law from New York University School of Law in 1984. Freeh was an FBI Special Agent from 1975 to 1981 in the New York City field office and at FBI Headquarters in Washington, D.C. In 1981, he joined the U.S. Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New York as an Assistant United States Attorney. Subsequently, he held positions there as Chief of the Organized Crime Unit, Deputy United States Attorney, and Associate United States Attorney. He was also a first lieutenant in the United States Army Reserve.[8][9]

As a youth, Freeh became an Eagle Scout in 1963 and in 1995 was awarded the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award by the Boy Scouts of America.[10][11]

"Pizza Connection" case[edit]

A notable case Freeh was associated with was the "Pizza Connection" investigation, in which he was lead prosecutor. The case, prosecuted in the mid-1980s, involved a drug trafficking operation in the United States by Sicilian organized crime members who used pizza parlors as fronts. After a 16-month trial, 17 of 19 defendants were convicted, of which 16 were sentenced.[12] The "Pizza Connection" case was, at the time, the most complex criminal investigation ever undertaken by the U.S. government.[8]

Walter Moody Trial[edit]

Another notable case Freeh was associated with was the murder trial of Walter Moody, accused of the pipe bomb assassination of federal judge Robert Smith Vance in Birmingham, Alabama and attorney Robert E. Robinson in Savannah, Georgia. Freeh was appointed Special Prosecutor in the case alongside Howard Shapiro.

Vance was assassinated on December 16, 1989, at his home in Mountain Brook, Alabama, when he opened a package containing a mail bomb sent by serial bomber Walter Moody. Vance was killed instantly and his wife Helen, was seriously injured and hospitalized.[13] Moody had mistakenly thought Judge Vance had denied his appeal of another case.

The Department of Justice charged Moody with the murders of Judge Vance and of Robinson, a black civil-rights attorney who had been killed in a separate explosion at his office. "Roy" Moody was also charged with mailing bombs that were defused at the Eleventh Circuit's headquarters in Atlanta and at the Jacksonville office of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

In 1991, Moody was sentenced to seven federal life terms, plus 400 years. He was subsequently tried by the state in 1996 for the murders and was executed by the state of Alabama in 2018 when he was 83 years old.[14]

Federal judicial service[edit]

Freeh was nominated by President George H. W. Bush on April 9, 1991, to a seat on the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York vacated by Judge Richard J. Daronco. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on May 24, 1991, and received commission on May 30, 1991. His service terminated on August 31, 1993, due to resignation.[9]

Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (1993–2001)[edit]

Shortly before and during Freeh's tenure, the FBI was involved in a number of high-profile incidents and internal investigations. Writing about Freeh in 2011, Reuters wrote that Freeh "faced widespread criticism for a series of high-profile blunders" during his tenure as FBI Director.[15]

Civil liberties[edit]

Among other Justice Department officials (including Attorney General Reno), Freeh was named a co-defendant in Zieper v. Metzinger, a 1999 federal court case. The American Civil Liberties Union assisted the plaintiffs who sued due to the FBI's conduct in investigating "Military Takeover of New York City", a short (fictional) film made in October 1999 that discussed riots and a military takeover of Times Square on New Year's Eve, 1999.[16]

In May 2000, he reached an agreement with Rep. José Serrano, then Puerto Rican Independence Party senator Manuel Rodríguez Orellana and then Puerto Rico Senate Committee on Federal Affairs chairman Kenneth McClintock, the islands' current Senate President, to release FBI files on Puerto Rican political activists. Nearly 100,000 pages have been released and are being catalogued by the Office of Legislative Services of Puerto Rico.[17]

In testimony to the Senate Judiciary Committee, Freeh said that the widespread use of effective encryption "is one of the most difficult problems for law enforcement as the next century approaches".[18] He considered the loss of wiretapping to law enforcement as a result of encryption to be dangerous and said that the "country [would] be unable to protect itself" against terrorism and serious crimes.[19]

Ruby Ridge[edit]

An investigation of the August 1992 incident at Ruby Ridge, Idaho, in which an FBI sharpshooter killed the wife of Randy Weaver, was ongoing when Freeh became director. An FBI unit, the Hostage Rescue Team, was present at the incident; Freeh later said that had he been director, he would not have involved the HRT. FBI sniper Lon Horiuchi was later charged with manslaughter; Freeh said that he was "deeply disappointed" at the charges, filed by a county prosecutor and later dropped.[20][21][22]

Freeh was not censured for alleged managerial failures in the investigation of the incident, although a Justice Department inquiry had made such a recommendation.[23][24]


An investigation of the events of April 19, 1993, when Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF) special agents served a warrant on the Branch Davidian compound at Waco, Texas was ongoing during Freeh's tenure. While the event had taken place before he became Director, a highly controversial investigation ensued, including allegations of a cover-up by the FBI, and tensions developed between Freeh and Janet Reno, then-Attorney General. Reno, who had herself been blamed for mishandling of the confrontation and investigation, sent United States Marshals to FBI headquarters to seize Waco-related evidence.[25] Freeh took a neutral position during the investigations to distance himself from the tide of criticism.[26]

Khobar Towers bombing[edit]

Shortly before 10 a.m. on June 25, 1996, members of a terrorist group detonated a truck bomb outside building 131 (also known as Khobar Towers) of the King Abdul Aziz Air Base.

Inside the building were almost exclusively members of the US Air Force who were there to patrol the southern Iraqi no-fly zone enacted after the Gulf War.

In the attack, 19 US military personnel and a Saudi local were killed and 372 were wounded, making it the most deadly terrorist attack on Americans abroad since the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing.

Louis Freeh said in his book My FBI that he felt the deepest about the Khobar Towers investigation, and it was not until his last day in office, June 21, 2001, a federal grand jury in Alexandria, Virginia returned a 46-count indictment against 14 defendants charged with the Khobar Towers attack.[27] The indictments came just before some of the counts would have expired due to a five-year statute of limitations.

In his book, Freeh maintains that he was obstructed by the Clinton Administration for political reasons in investigating the bombing and bringing the terrorists to justice.

TWA Flight 800[edit]

On July 17, 1996, TWA Flight 800 exploded and crashed into the Atlantic Ocean, killing all 230 persons on board. The following day, the FBI commenced a parallel investigation in spite of the National Transportation Safety Board having "priority over any investigation by another department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government", as stated in 49 U.S.C. § 1131.

Subsequently, FBI agents blocked attempts by the NTSB to interview witnesses, according to a copy of a safety board report obtained by Aviation Week & Space Technology. One month after the explosion, chemists at the FBI crime laboratory in Washington found traces of PETN, an explosive component of bombs and surface-to-air missiles.[28]

Nevertheless, on November 18, 1997, the FBI closed its investigation by announcing that "no evidence has been found which would indicate that a criminal act was the cause of the tragedy of TWA flight 800."

Almost three years later, in August 2000, the NTSB published its final report which stated that "the probable cause of the TWA flight 800 accident was an explosion of the center wing fuel tank (CWT), resulting from ignition of the flammable fuel/air mixture in the tank."[29]

Centennial Olympic Park bombing[edit]

The U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and Government Information heard testimony from Freeh regarding the leaking of Richard Jewell's name to the media in connection with the bombing at the 1996 Olympic Games. Freeh testified that he did not know how the name of Jewell, who had been falsely accused in the bombings, had been leaked to the media.[30]

Montana Freemen[edit]

In March 1996, Freeh and the FBI were praised for the handling of the 81-day standoff between law enforcement agents and the Montana Freemen, a fringe political group. Director Abraham Foxman of the Anti-Defamation League, which had issued reports critical of the Freemen and encouraged their prosecution, commended the "peaceful conclusion" to the standoff.[31]


Theodore Kaczynski, the "Unabomber," was apprehended in 1996 after his manifesto, Industrial Society and its Future, was published in the New York Times and Washington Post. Freeh and Attorney General Reno recommended publication, acceding to Kaczynski's offer to "renounce terrorism" if it was published. A tip from the bomber's brother David, who recognized the writing style, assisted the FBI in his capture.[32][33]

Robert Hanssen[edit]

Robert Hanssen, a 25-year veteran of the FBI, was arrested in 2001 and charged with spying for the Soviet Union and Russia, beginning in 1985. Hanssen had attended Mass at the same church as Freeh.[34] Freeh called the security breach "exceptionally grave" and appointed a panel, led by former FBI and Central Intelligence Agency head William Webster, to review the damage done by Hanssen's espionage.[35]

Wen Ho Lee[edit]

In 1999, Los Alamos National Laboratory scientist Wen Ho Lee was fired from his job, arrested, and held without trial for 278 days while his handling of sensitive nuclear information was investigated. Freeh accused him of downloading a "portable, personal trove" of US nuclear secrets.

Ultimately, Lee pled guilty to one of the fifty-nine counts brought against him, after which, he was freed from jail.[36]

At Lee's sentencing hearing, District Judge James A. Parker scolded the US government for its treatment of Lee, saying that the top decision makers in the case "have embarrassed this entire nation and each of us who is a citizen of it" and that they had been "led astray" by US government officials.

Parker apologized to Lee, saying, "Dr. Lee, you were terribly wronged by being held in pretrial custody in demeaning and unnecessarily punitive conditions. I am truly sorry."[37]

A Justice Department report of the investigation of Lee said that Director Freeh was not fully informed about the investigation until over a year after it began, and that the FBI as a whole "bungled" the case.[38]

Chinese political and campaign fundraising controversies[edit]

In February 1997, the media announced that Freeh personally blocked the sharing of intelligence information regarding China's alleged plot to influence US elections with the White House.[39][40]

The following month, Freeh testified before Congress that his investigation into campaign finance irregularities of the 1996 U.S. presidential and Congressional campaigns was not focusing on individual criminal acts, but on a possible conspiracy involving China.[41]

Later that year, Freeh wrote a memorandum to Attorney General Janet Reno calling for an Independent Counsel to investigate the fundraising scandal. In his memo he wrote: "It is difficult to imagine a more compelling situation for appointing an Independent Counsel".[42] Reno rejected his request.

Other cases[edit]

Other cases handled by the FBI during Freeh's tenure included the death of White House counsel Vince Foster (in 1993), allegations of incompetence at the FBI crime laboratory, investigation of the Oklahoma City bombing (1995) and the capture and prosecution of Timothy McVeigh.


In 2000, the editorial staff of Business Week called for the resignation of Freeh, citing the Carnivore communications-monitoring system, the alleged Waco cover-up, and insubordination to Attorney General Reno as reasons.[43]

Freeh was accused of malpractice several times during his time at the FBI. In the case of the Oklahoma City bombing, Freeh failed to hand over 3,000 pages of evidence to Timothy McVeigh's lawyers.[44] Freeh also received backlash for not looking into whether Moscow had recruited someone in the FBI, despite being warned by senior investigator Thomas Kimmel. It would later come out 2 years later in 2001 that Robert Hanssen had been recruited by the Russians to be a spy for them.[45] In 1994 after it was discovered that Aldrich Ames was a spy for the Russians, Freeh was advised to require routine polygraph tests for FBI agents; no action was taken by him.[46]  

In 1997 FBI agent Frederic Whitehurst was suspended by Freeh not long after making allegations that FBI lab techniques resulted in contaminated evidence. Just days after Whitehurst was put on administrative leave, a report was delivered to the FBI that supported Whitehurst's claims that evidence in cases may have been contaminated.[47][48] On March 5, Freeh was called before Congress, he said that he suspended Whitehurst on recommendations from Inspector general Michael Bromwich. But Bromwich said that he never made such a recommendation. Freeh admitted that his testimony was incomplete, but denied he deliberately misled congress.[49] Whitehurst would later accuse Freeh of covering up mistakes made by forensic analysts.[50]

Attorney general Janet Reno testified that information that could have prevented the September 11 attacks was mishandled by the FBI at the time Freeh was the director of the FBI.[51]


In June 2001, he resigned amid criticism that the FBI needed stronger leadership, particularly after allegations of spying by Robert Hanssen. Upon his resignation, he was praised by Attorney General John Ashcroft, who called him "a model law enforcement officer".[52] He was replaced by Thomas J. Pickard, who served as acting FBI Director for 71 days until being replaced by Robert Mueller.

Post-FBI career[edit]

Freeh speaks at the farewell ceremony of outgoing Director Robert Mueller in 2013
Former FBI Director Louis J. Freeh at a press conference in the Estonian Ministry of Finance, Tallinn, 3 July 2020.

Freeh approached acting New Jersey Governor Donald DiFrancesco, and offered to serve, without salary, as the state's anti-terrorism "czar". Di Francesco approached both major-party candidates for governor to secure their approval; Bret Schundler, the Republican candidate, agreed "in principle". However, Democrat Jim McGreevey, who won the gubernatorial election, turned down Freeh in favor of Golan Cipel. It was later discovered that McGreevey and Cipel had been involved in a sexual relationship.[53][54] McGreevey was heavily criticized for giving the post to Cipel rather than Freeh or another experienced individual.[55]

In September 2001, Freeh was appointed to the board of directors of credit card issuer MBNA; he also served as the bank's general counsel, as well as corporate secretary and ethics officer. Likewise, Bristol-Myers Squibb elected him to its board of directors.[56]

Freeh is also a member of the board of consultants of the Gavel Consulting Group, formed by current and former federal judges and high-ranking government officials to provide advice and counseling to the private sector.[57][58]

Beginning in 2004 Freeh began teaching as an adjunct law professor for Widener University School of Law. Drawing on his years of experience, he has taught White Collar Crime.

In 2007, Freeh formed Freeh Group International Solutions,[59] a consulting and investigative firm headquartered in Wilmington, Delaware with regional offices in Washington DC and New York. Affiliated firms include Freeh Group Europe and the law firm Freeh, Sporkin & Sullivan, LLP. The latter firm includes Eugene R. Sullivan, a retired Federal Judge in Washington D.C. and Eugene R. Sullivan II amongst partners and Stanley Sporkin as senior counsel. Sporkin is a retired Federal judge who earlier served as head of the Securities and Exchange Commission's Division of Enforcement and as general counsel to the Central Intelligence Agency.[60]

Nasser Kazeminy[edit]

Freeh was hired by Nasser Kazeminy to conduct an independent investigation into alleged financial improprieties in the relationship between Kazeminy and former Senator Norm Coleman that surfaced during the final week of the 2008 Minnesota Senate race.[61] At the time, Freeh was serving on the board of the National Ethnic Coalition of Organizations (NECO), whose chairman was Kazeminy.[62] Although Coleman had received roughly $100,000 in gifts from Kazeminy over the years, Freeh's investigation cleared both Coleman and Kazeminy of any wrongdoing in 2011.[61][63] The Intercept, questioning Freeh's impartiality, reported that nine days after Freeh's investigation cleared Kazeminy of wrongdoing, Freeh's wife received a one half ownership stake from Kazeminy in a Palm Beach property valued at $3 million.[64]

In 2009, Louis Freeh was hired by Saudi Arabian Prince Bandar bin Sultan as his legal representative on issues surrounding the Al-Yamamah arms deal, appearing April 7, 2009, on the PBS series Frontline's episode "Black Money".[65]

In late May 2011, Freeh was retained as an independent investigator by the FIFA Ethics Committee in the bribery scandal centering on Mohammed bin Hammam and Jack Warner.[66] However, the Court of Arbitration of Sports subsequently rejected Freeh's report as consisting of little more than speculation.[67]

Penn State[edit]

In November 2011, Pennsylvania State University announced that Freeh would lead an internal investigation into the Penn State child sex abuse scandal involving Jerry Sandusky and several high-ranking university officials.[68] He announced that the team assisting him in his investigation would include former FBI agents and federal prosecutors.[69] As the Sandusky trial proceeded toward conviction in June 2012, the university said Freeh would report in the summer and the report would "be released to the trustees and the public simultaneously without being reviewed by the school's general counsel's office".[70] The report was released on July 12, 2012.[71] The 267-page report from Freeh's law firm was characterized as deeply critical of the administration of former university president Graham Spanier, athletic director Tim Curley, late coach Joe Paterno and former university vice president Gary Schultz. A commentary at Sports Illustrated's website characterized the report's accusations against Paterno as "damning and sweeping" and the findings about Spanier, including a 2001 e-mail in the wake of the 2001 shower incident purportedly witnessed by graduate assistant Mike McQueary, as "most damning".[72] A number of sources [73] have questioned if not outright disputed the accuracy of Freeh's findings, pointing to the lack of hard evidence to support his "reasonable conclusions." A year after the report's issuance, the chairman of the Penn State Board of Trustees, which had originally commissioned the report, said that Freeh's conclusions amounted to "speculation."[74] In a January 2015 interview with the Associated Press, Penn State President Eric Barron said, "I have to say, I'm not a fan of the report. There's no doubt in my mind, Freeh steered everything as if he were a prosecutor trying to convince a court to take the case."[75]

On February 10, 2013, a report authored by former United States Attorney General and former Governor of Pennsylvania Dick Thornburgh, whom the Paterno family retained to conduct its own investigation, concluded that the Freeh report was "seriously flawed, both with respect to the process of [its] investigation and its findings related to Mr. Paterno".[76] Graham Spanier is suing Freeh for defamation and tortious interference and Penn State University for breach of contract.[77]

The Freeh Report had far-reaching outcomes for Penn State. The NCAA used the Freeh Report in lieu of its own investigation to impose sanctions on the Penn State football program. On July 23, 2012, the NCAA imposed a $60 million fine, four-year postseason ban, scholarship reductions, and vacated all victories from 1998 to 2011.[78] These sanctions were considered to be among the most severe ever imposed on an NCAA member school. NCAA President Mark Emmert stated that the sanctions were levied "not to be just punitive, but to make sure the university establishes an athletic culture and daily mindset in which football will never again be placed ahead of educating, nurturing and protecting young people."[79][80] The Big Ten Conference subsequently imposed an additional $13 million fine.[81]

An investigation led by former U.S. Attorney General Richard Thornburgh, who was retained by the Paterno family to review the Freeh report,[82] concluded that the report that placed so much blame on Penn State and Paterno was a "rush to injustice" that could not be relied upon.[83] He found that not only did the evidence "fall far short" of showing Paterno attempted to conceal the Sandusky scandal, but rather that "the contrary is true".[82] In January 2013, State senator Jake Corman and state treasurer Rob McCord launched a lawsuit against the NCAA to overturn the sanctions on Penn State on the basis that Freeh had been actively collaborating with the NCAA and that due process had not been followed. In November 2014, State senator Corman released emails showing "regular and substantive" contact between NCAA officials and Freeh's investigators, suggesting that the Freeh conclusions were orchestrated.[84] As part of the settlement, the NCAA reversed its decision on January 16, 2015, and restored the 111 wins to Paterno's record.[85][80]


In August 2018, Freeh hired attorney Rudy Giuliani to lobby the Romanian government calling for amnesty for Freeh's clients in a corruption probe.[86]

In 2019 Freeh and his friend Alan Dershowitz lobbied the U.S. government of behalf of Israeli billionaire Dan Gertler. Gertler was accused of corruption by the U.S. government and was facing sanctions by the Trump administration for his business deals with the Dominican Republic.[87] In the last days of Trump's presidency, the sanctions were lifted.[88][89]


In November 2011, Freeh was named trustee for the MF Global bankruptcy case,[90] the largest Wall Street bankruptcy since Lehman Brothers' in September 2008.[91] He was appointed by U.S. Trustee Tracy Hope Davis working under the authority of U.S. Bankruptcy Court Judge Martin Glenn.[90]

On February 5, 2013, Freeh was named Chair of the law firm Pepper Hamilton LLP.[92] He resigned the chairmanship earlier than slated, in October 2014.[93]

Book and editorials[edit]

An editorial by Louis Freeh critical of the 9/11 Commission appeared in the November 17, 2005, edition of the Wall Street Journal.[94]

In 2005, Freeh (with Howard Means) published a book about his career in the FBI entitled My FBI: Bringing Down the Mafia, Investigating Bill Clinton, and Fighting the War on Terror.[95] It is highly critical of both President Clinton and former counter-terrorism advisor Richard A. Clarke. On October 19, 2005, Freeh made an appearance on The Daily Show to promote the book.[96][97] A New York Times review called it "A strangely shallow offering by a man who is anything but...".[98]

Personal life[edit]

In 1980, Freeh began dating Marilyn Coyle, then a paralegal in the FBI's civil rights division. They married in 1983 and had six children.[99] Freeh is a devout Roman Catholic. Contrary to rumors, he is not a member of the Opus Dei prelature.[100][101] According to The Bureau and the Mole,[102] a book by David A. Vise, one of Freeh's sons was enrolled at The Heights School in Potomac, Maryland, which Vise describes as "an Opus Dei academy".[103] Several of his sons graduated from Archmere Academy, a Catholic school in Claymont, Delaware. One of his sons attended Georgetown University, a Jesuit university in Washington, D.C.

Freeh acquired Italian citizenship on October 23, 2009.[104]

SUV crash and hospitalization[edit]

Shortly after noon on August 25, 2014, Freeh was headed south on Vermont 12, in his 2010 GMC Yukon, when he drove off the east side of the road. The vehicle struck a mailbox at 2762 Vermont 12, Barnard, Vermont, and a row of shrubs, before stopping against a tree, police said. Freeh told police he fell asleep at the wheel.[64] The Wilmington, Delaware, resident was flown from Barnard to Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center in Lebanon, New Hampshire, where he was admitted under armed guard.[105]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Trump should appoint a Democrat to run the FBI
  2. ^ The Man Who Wasn't There
  3. ^ Eric, Martone (2016). Italian Americans: The History and Culture of a People. ABC-CLIO. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-610-69995-2.
  4. ^ Marks, Peter (July 21, 1993). "CHANGE AT THE F.B.I.: Man in the News; The New Man for the F.B.I.: Louis Joseph Freeh". The New York Times.
  5. ^ "Bernice William Freeh - Google Search". Google.com.
  6. ^ "Former FBI director from North Bergen named to head college's Sandusky investigation". The Star-Ledger. Associated Press. November 21, 2011. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
  7. ^ The Ultimate New Jersey High School Year Book.
  8. ^ a b "Federal Bureau of Investigation-Directors, Then and Now - Louis J. Freeh". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  9. ^ a b "Freeh, Louis J. - Federal Judicial Center". fjc.gov.
  10. ^ "Distinguished Eagle Scouts" (PDF). Scouting.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 8, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2010.
  11. ^ Newton, Michael (2003). The FBI Encyclopedia. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co. p. 127. ISBN 0-7864-1718-8.
  12. ^ "17 FOUND GUILTY IN 'PIZZA' TRIAL OF A DRUG RING". The New York Times. March 3, 1987.
  13. ^ "Letter Bomb Kills US Judge". New York Times. December 17, 1989. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  14. ^ Alabama executes Walter Moody, the oldest inmate put to death in the modern era, Washington Post, Mark Berman, April 19, 2018. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  15. ^ Vicini, James (November 21, 2011). "Penn State investigator Freeh had rocky FBI tenure". Reuters. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
  16. ^ "ACLU's Complaint in Zieper v. Metzinger". American Civil Liberties Union. December 22, 1999. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  17. ^ "FBI Puerto Rico Political Persecution Files center at PR Office of Legislative Services".
  18. ^ Hekimian, Chris (February 8, 2000). "What is Really at Stake?". Cyberspace Policy Institute. Archived from the original on January 7, 2008. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  19. ^ A. Michael Froomkin (1995). "The Metaphor is the Key: Cryptography, The Clipper Chip, and the Constitution". University of Miami School of Law. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  20. ^ "Both sides decry new Ruby Ridge charges". CNN. August 21, 1997. Archived from the original on January 15, 2008. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  21. ^ "A Review of Allegations of a Double Standard of Discipline at the FBI (Chapter 5)". CNN. November 15, 2002. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  22. ^ "Freeh Says FBI Actions at Ruby Ridge Were 'Flawed'". The Washington Post and "The Tech". October 20, 1995. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  23. ^ Johnston, David (August 6, 2001). "Freeh Was Spared Censure For Handling of Ruby Ridge". The New York Times. Retrieved June 11, 2006.[permanent dead link]
  24. ^ Lardner, George Jr. (August 5, 2001). "Censure of Freeh Was Secretly Rejected". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved December 22, 2021.
  25. ^ "Tension Between Reno and Freeh Reaches Breaking Point on Waco". The New York Times. September 3, 1999. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  26. ^ Atkins, Stephen E. (2008). 9/11 Encyclopedia. p. 128.
  27. ^ Freeh, Louis (2005). "1". My FBI. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-32189-9.
  28. ^ Natta Jr., Don Van (August 23, 1996). "Prime Evidence Found That Device Exploded in Cabin of Flight 800". The New York Times.
  29. ^ National Transportation Safety Board (2000). "Aircraft Accident Report: In-flight Breakup Over the Atlantic Ocean Trans World Airlines Flight 800" (PDF). NTSB/Aar-00/03: xvi. Retrieved April 5, 2011.
  30. ^ "FBI chief can't explain media leaks in Olympic bombing. He lied under oath". CNN. December 19, 1996. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  31. ^ "ADL Appauds FBI for Peaceful End to Freemen Standoff". Anti-Defamation League. June 14, 1996. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  32. ^ "Post, Times publish Unabomber's manifesto". CNN. September 19, 1995. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  33. ^ "Unabomber Manuscript is Published". The Washington Post. September 19, 1995. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  34. ^ McGeary, Johanna (March 5, 2001). "The FBI Spy It took 15 years to discover". Time Magazine. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  35. ^ Pellegrini, Frank (February 20, 2001). "Their Man in Washington". Time Magazine. Archived from the original on February 22, 2001. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  36. ^ "Justice Dept. Says Lee's No Hero". CBS News. September 26, 2000. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  37. ^ Drogin, Bob (September 14, 2000). "Wen Ho Lee Freed; Judge Scolds U.S. Over Case Tactics". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  38. ^ Eggen, Dan (August 27, 2001). "Report Details More FBI Blunders in Wen Ho Lee Probe". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 13, 2018. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  39. ^ Johnston, David (March 25, 1997). "F.B.I. Denied Data the White House Sought on China". New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2006.[permanent dead link]
  40. ^ "Clinton Gives Freeh Measured Support". New York Times. March 27, 1997. Retrieved June 12, 2006.
  41. ^ Suro, Roberto (March 21, 1997). "FBI Head Confirms China Probe Underway". Washington Post. Retrieved June 12, 2006.
  42. ^ "Freeh Says Reno Clearly Misread Prosecutor Law", Neil A. Lewis, New York Times June 12, 2006
  43. ^ "The Case against Louis Freeh". Business Week. September 18, 2000. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  44. ^ "Fall-out from McVeigh blunder". the Guardian. May 17, 2001. Retrieved July 4, 2021.
  45. ^ "CNN.com - Bill Press: Freeh destroys reputation of once-proud FBI - May 18, 2001". www.cnn.com. Retrieved July 4, 2021.
  46. ^ "CNN.com - Bill Press: Freeh destroys reputation of once-proud FBI - May 18, 2001". www.cnn.com. Retrieved July 4, 2021.
  47. ^ Thomas, Roberto Suro; Pierre (January 28, 1997). "FBI SUSPENDS INTERNAL CRITIC OF ITS CRIME LAB PROCEDURES". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  48. ^ "CNN - Freeh admits to errors in testimony about whistle-blower - Mar. 18, 1997". www.cnn.com. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  49. ^ "CNN - Freeh admits to errors in testimony about whistle-blower - Mar. 18, 1997". www.cnn.com. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  50. ^ Kelley, Michael B. "Penn State Investigator Louis Freeh Accused Of Heading A Massive Cover-Up As Director Of FBI". Business Insider. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  51. ^ Neilan, Terence (April 13, 2004). "Ex-Director of F.B.I. Defends Agency's Efforts Before 9/11". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
  52. ^ "Another Blow To The Bureau". CBS News. May 13, 2001. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  53. ^ Mansnerus, Laura (August 13, 2004). "A Governor Resigns: Overview; McGreevey Steps Down After Disclosing a Gay Affair". New York Times. Retrieved June 5, 2015.
  54. ^ McGreevey, Jim (September 25, 2006). "The Making of a Gay American". New York Magazine. Retrieved June 5, 2015.
  55. ^ "Freeh snubbed in favor of Cipel". The Trentonian. August 17, 2004. Archived from the original on January 8, 2006. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  56. ^ "Bristol-Myers Squibb Names Louis J. Freeh to Board of Directors". PR Newswire. September 13, 2003. Archived from the original on April 19, 2007. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  57. ^ "A Case of Questionable Judgment". The Washington Post. April 7, 2003. Archived from the original on February 9, 2013. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  58. ^ "Freeh". Gavel Consulting Group. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  59. ^ "Freeh Group International".
  60. ^ "Our People", FSS webpage. Retrieved July 13, 2012.
  61. ^ a b Kessler, Pat (June 6, 2011). "No charges in case that roiled '08 campaign". The Associated Press. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  62. ^ Vincent, Isabel (March 20, 2011). "Ellis Is. honcho in Iran $candal". New York Post. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  63. ^ Grow, Doug (June 14, 2011). "Investigations clear Norm Coleman, businessman Nasser Kazeminy of wrongdoing, attorneys say". MinnPost. Retrieved February 3, 2015.
  64. ^ a b Silverstein, Ken (December 31, 2014). "And the Winner of the 'War On Terror' Financed Dream Home 2014 Giveaway Is..." The Intercept. First Look Media. Retrieved February 3, 2015.
  65. ^ "Frontline: Black Money, Extended Interview with Louis Freeh". PBS. April 7, 2009.
  66. ^ Kelso, Paul (June 2, 2011). "Fifa's investigation into bribery allegations against Mohamed Bin Hammam and Jack Warner takes new twist". The Daily Telegraph.
  67. ^ James M. Dorsey (July 26, 2012). "Court Questions FIFA Integrity over Hammam Proceedings". MidEastPosts.com.
  68. ^ "Former FBI director Freeh to conduct independent investigation". Penn State Live. November 21, 2011. Archived from the original on November 23, 2011.
  69. ^ "Penn St. hires Louis Freeh to investigate ESPN". November 21, 2011.
  70. ^ Achenbach, Joel (June 17, 2012). "In Sandusky trial, testimony shows how suspicions led to silence". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
  71. ^ "The Freeh Report on the Pennsylvania State University". Progress. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012. Retrieved July 13, 2012.
  72. ^ McCann, Michael, "Report finds Paterno, PSU leaders concealed Sandusky abuse", Sports Illustrated, July 13, 2012. Retrieved July 13, 2012.
  73. ^ Rubin, Marc (July 21, 2012). "Tom In Paine".
  74. ^ Johnson, Kevin (July 16, 2013). "Penn State leaders don't endorse Sandusky coverup findings". USA Today. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  75. ^ "Penn State president on Freeh investigation: 'I'm not a fan of the report'". Associated Press. January 28, 2015.
  76. ^ "Joe Paterno family report calls Freeh report on Sandusky scandal a total failure - ESPN". ESPN.com. February 8, 2013.
  77. ^ Van Natta Jr., Don (March 18, 2015). "Ex-PSU president sues school, Freeh". ESPN. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  78. ^ Prisbell, Eric (July 22, 2012). "NCAA hands out severe punishment for Penn State". USA Today.
  79. ^ Kane, Colleen (July 23, 2012). "NCAA punishes Penn State". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  80. ^ a b Hobson, Will (December 28, 2017). "Six years later, Penn State remains torn over the Sandusky scandal". Washington Post. Washington DC: Nsah Holdings LLC. Retrieved January 12, 2018. The case produced evidence embarrassing for the NCAA. One staffer, in an email, wrote that NCAA punishments for Penn State would be unneeded and excessive, but 'new NCAA leadership is extremely image conscious, and if they conclude that pursuing allegations against PSU would enhance the association's standing with the public, then an infractions case could follow.' ... Matthew Haverstick, attorney for state Sen. Jake Corman (R): 'Our read of the evidence was that the NCAA board of directors and the Penn State board of trustees were being played off one another by the NCAA C-suite executives," Haverstick said. "They had wildly different understandings about what was happening around them at that time.'
  81. ^ Morcroft, Greg (July 23, 2012). "Big Ten fines Penn State $13 mln in Sandusky case". MarketWatch. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
  82. ^ a b Thornburgh, Dick (February 11, 2013). "Freeh hastily misjudged Paterno: Column". USA Today. ESPN. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
  83. ^ "Thornburgh: Penn State, release Freeh report documents". April 16, 2015. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
  84. ^ The Morning Call (November 15, 2014). "Penn State President Eric Barron to review Freeh Report – The Morning Call". The Morning Call.
  85. ^ "Joe Paterno's Penn State wins restored". Sports Illustrated. New York City: Meredith Corporation. January 16, 2015. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
  86. ^ Dawsey, Josh; Helderman, Rosalind S.; Hamburger, Tom; Barrett, Devlin (December 8, 2019). "Inside Giuliani's dual roles: Power-broker-for-hire and shadow foreign policy adviser". Washington Post. Retrieved December 8, 2019.
  87. ^ Schwartz, Brian (November 5, 2019). "Trump ally Alan Dershowitz and ex-FBI Director Louis Freeh are lobbying for an Israeli billionaire the US has accused of corruption". CNBC. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  88. ^ Lipton, Eric (January 25, 2021). "Trump Administration Quietly Eased Sanctions on Israeli Billionaire". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  89. ^ "Trump Administration Quietly Eased Sanctions on Israeli Billionaire". The Seattle Times. January 24, 2021. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
  90. ^ a b "Ex-FBI Chief Named Trustee In MF Global Bankruptcy" Archived November 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, AP via NPR, November 25, 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2011.
  91. ^ "MF Global Collapses Amidst Discovery of Missing Money". November 1, 2011.
  92. ^ Highpoint Solutions, LLC Copyright 2008. "Louis Freeh Named Chair of Pepper Hamilton". Archived from the original on April 11, 2013.
  93. ^ Blumenthal, Jeff (October 2, 2014). "Freeh succeeded as Pepper Hamilton chairman". Philadelphia Business Journal. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
  94. ^ "An Incomplete Investigation". OpinionJournal. November 17, 2005. Archived from the original on April 20, 2008. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  95. ^ With Howard B. Means. My FBI: Bringing Down the Mafia, Investigating Bill Clinton, and Fighting the War on Terror. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0312321895
  96. ^ "Louis Freeh". The Daily Show with Jon Stewart. Comedy Central. October 19, 2005. Retrieved July 14, 2012. Louis Freeh tells Jon he didn't want to investigate Bill Clinton or write the book.
  97. ^ "FootnoteTV: The Daily Show with Jon Stewart : October 2005 : October 19, 2005 (Guest: Louis Freeh)". Footnote TV. Retrieved September 24, 2012.
  98. ^ Burrough, Bryan (November 6, 2005). "'My FBI': Heroes and Villains". The New York Times. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  99. ^ Walsh, Elsa (May 6, 2001). "Louis Freeh's Last Case". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on February 15, 2002. Retrieved July 16, 2022.
  100. ^ "Opus Dei: Fact and Fiction". Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights. June 11, 2006. Archived from the original on May 4, 2009.
  101. ^ Baumann, Paul (October–November 2005). "Let There Be Light: A look inside the hidden world of Opus Dei". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on August 29, 2006. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
  102. ^ Vise, David A. The Bureau and the Mole: The Unmasking of Robert Philip Hanssen, the Most Dangerous Double Agent in FBI History. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2002. ISBN 9780871138347
  103. ^ "Excerpt frcom The Bureau and the Mole". The Bureau and the Mole. Archived from the original on August 18, 2006. Retrieved September 19, 2006.
  104. ^ "Louis Freeh acquires Italian citizenship". Embassy of Italy, Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on November 4, 2009.
  105. ^ Donoghue, Mike. "Officials: Ex-FBI chief Freeh nearly died in Vt. crash". USA TODAY. Retrieved January 7, 2022.

External links[edit]

Legal offices
Preceded by Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York
Succeeded by
Government offices
Preceded by Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation
Succeeded by