Luhut Binsar Pandjaitan

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Luhut Binsar Pandjaitan
Luhut Binsar Panjaitan.jpg
Luhut in 2019
5th Coordinating Minister of Maritime and Investment Affairs
Assumed office
27 July 2016
PresidentJoko Widodo
Preceded byRizal Ramli
13th Coordinating Minister of Political, Legal and Security Affairs
In office
12 August 2015 – 27 July 2016
PresidentJoko Widodo
Preceded byTedjo Edhy Purdijatno
Succeeded byWiranto
Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources
(Acting)
In office
15 August 2016 – 14 October 2016
PresidentJoko Widodo
Preceded byArcandra Tahar
Succeeded byIgnasius Jonan
1st Presidential Chief of Staff
In office
31 December 2014 – 2 September 2015
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byTeten Masduki
19th Minister of Industry and Trade
In office
24 August 2000 – 23 July 2001
PresidentAbdurrahman Wahid
Preceded byJusuf Kalla
Succeeded byRini Soemarno
Indonesian Ambassador to Singapore
In office
1999–2000
Preceded byHerman Bernhard Leopold Mantiri
Succeeded byJohan S. Syahperi
Other roles
2018–Chairman of the National Team for Increasing the Use of Domestic Production
2020–Deputy Chairman of the COVID-19 Handling and National Economic Recovery
2021–Chairman of the National Priority Lake Rescue Steering Committee
2021–Coordinator for the PPKM Emergency for Java-Bali
2021–Chairman of the Proudly Made Indonesia National Movement Team
2021–Chairman of the High-speed Train Committee for Jakarta-Bandung
Personal details
Born (1947-09-28) 28 September 1947 (age 75)
Silaen, North Sumatra, Indonesia
Political partyGolkar
SpouseDevi Simatupang
RelationsNurmala Kartini Sjahrir (sister)
Children4
Alma materIndonesian Military Academy
George Washington University
National Defense University
AwardsAdhi Makayasa
NicknameLBP
Military service
Allegiance Indonesia
Branch/serviceFlag of the Indonesian Army.svg Indonesian Army
Years of service1970–1999
Rank22-TNI Army-GEN.svg General
UnitInfantry (Kopassus)
CommandsDetachment 81 Counter-Terrorist
Battles/warsCommunist insurgency in Sarawak
Operation Seroja
Insurgency in East Timor

Luhut Binsar Pandjaitan (EYD: Luhut Binsar Panjaitan, born 28 September 1947) is an Indonesian politician, businessman and retired four-star Army general, serving as Coordinating Minister for Maritime Affairs and Investment since October 2019. He previously served various posts in his political career, including the Coordinating Minister for Maritime Affairs from July 2016 to October 2019, Coordinating Minister for Political, Legal, and Security Affairs from August 2015 to July 2016[1] and Chief of Staff to President Joko Widodo.[2] He was also Minister of Trade and Industry in President Abdurrahman Wahid's cabinet and Indonesian Ambassador to Singapore from 1999 to 2000.

Luhut's military positions included Commander of the Army's elite Special Forces (Kopassus) Group 3, Commander of the Infantry Weaponry Center (Pussenif) and head of the Army Education and Training Command (Kodiklat). He was the founding commander of Detachment 81 (now Sat-81/Gultor), the counter-terrorism unit of Kopassus, where his deputy was Prabowo Subianto.[3]

After retiring from the military, in 2004 he founded Toba Sejahtra Group,[4] which has interests in natural resources (oil, gas and mining), electricity generation (coal, gas and geothermal) and agriculture (palm oil).

Luhut is chairman of Del Foundation, which has established schools and a technology college for underprivileged students. He is also the founder of Luhur Bakti Pertiwi Foundation, an institution which aims to nurture young Indonesian talents. In 2011, Luhut received Ernst & Young's Entrepreneur of the Year Award in the Social Development category.[5]

Early life[edit]

Luhut was born on 28 September 1947 in Simargala, a small hamlet in Toba, North Sumatra. He is the first son of Bonar Pandjaitan, a Sibualbuali bus driver who became an executive of Caltex Petroleum Corp. in Indonesia and was sent to Cornell University in the United States, and Siti Farida Naiborhu, who did not complete elementary school.[6][7][8]

Luhut would later say that despite his mother's lack of formal education, she taught her five children to always be honest, study hard and work hard. When Luhut was three years old, the family moved to Riau province, where his father took a job with Caltex. They lived in Rumbai district, where Luhut attended Yayasan Cendana Elementary School, which was owned by Caltex. He later attended junior high school in Pekanbaru. Luhut became a keen swimmer, practicing in the Siak River, and represented Riau at a national sports event in 1962. Despite his athletic success, his parents felt he misbehaved because he liked to get inta fight, so they sent him to school in Bandung, West Java.[9]

Luhut attended SMAK 1 PENABUR High School in Bandung. In his final year of high school, he met Devi Simatupang, his future wife.[10] Also in Bandung, he became one of the founders of the Indonesian Student Action Front (KAPI) that protested against founding president Sukarno's Old Order and the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI).[11]

Military career[edit]

In 1967, Luhut entered the Indonesian Armed Forces Academy, against the wishes of his father.[12] Three years later, he received the Adhi Makayasa annual award conferred on the best graduate.[13]

Luhut experienced action during the Malari anti-government riots in Jakarta on 15 January 1974. He was ordered to lead a company of troops to quell rioters in Pasar Senen in Central Jakarta. He said the rioters, who were no longer student protesters, began throwing stones at his troops. Luhut responded by ordering his men to fire warning shots, but he said this had no effect on the rioters. He then ordered his men to shoot at the legs of the rioters, and he suspected several were killed in the ensuing chaos as troops were not equipped with rubber bullets. His men chased the rioters to Jalan Juanda, to Glodok and even to the Kramat Tunggak brothel complex in North Jakarta, where Luhut arrested human rights activist Johannes Cornelis Princen.[14]

Luhut served four times in East Timor, first as a 28-year-old in the December 1975 Indonesian invasion force. At that time he held the rank of first lieutenant and was the commander of Combat Detachment A Company (Denpur) in the Sandi Yudha Troop Command (Kopassandha, later Kopassus), led by Major Atang Sutisna. Around midnight on 7 December 1975, eight C-130B Hercules departed from Magetan, East Java, and six hours later reached Dili airspace. The Indonesian soldiers began to parachute in but were met by a barrage of anti-aircraft fire. Taking evasive action, the eight Hercules flew away and 72 personnel did not jump, Luhut among them.[15]

Luhut's career continued in the Army's elite Special Forces (Kopassus), known as the Red Berets. After undergoing training at GSG 9 in West Germany with Prabowo Subianto for 22 weeks in 1981, Luhut in June 1982 established the Kopassus Anti-Terrorism Detachment 81. With the rank of infantry major, he was commander of Detachment 81 and infantry captain Prabowo was his deputy.[16]

According to Hendro Subroto's biography of lieutenant general Sintong Panjaitan, Perjalanan Seorang Prajurit Para Komando (published 2009), Prabowo in March 1983 put Detachment 81 forces on alert because he feared military chief Benny Moerdani and other generals were planning a coup against Suharto. Luhut did not believe there was any coup plot and ordered the troops not to take action without his command.[17] Subsequently, the relationship between Luhut and the ambitious Prabowo soured, as Luhut was among the young officers viewed as one of "Benny's men".[18] Benny later fell out of favor with Suharto because he warned the president that his children's greed was becoming a political liability[19]—prompting Suharto to reduce the authority of officers close to Benny, including Luhut. According to Indonesian military historian Salim Said, Luhut was the "golden boy" of Benny Moerdani, so he became "one of the victims of the de-Benny-sasi" of the military and never became Kopassus chief—a position that went to Prabowo in 1996, whereas Luhut in that year was appointed chief of the Center for Infantry Weaponry and Armaments.[20]

In July 2019, Luhut posted on his Facebook page that as a consequence of having been Benny's golden boy, he was overlooked for promotion to Kopassus chief and Military Area Commander, but that was the price that "must be paid as a result of upright loyalty. And I am proud to be able to live the values that Pak Benny handed down to me."[21] Luhut has said that while he and Prabowo sometimes have disagreements, they are solidly united when it comes to the Republic of Indonesia.[22]

In 1988, Luhut graduated from George Washington University in Washington D.C. with a Master's degree in Public Administration. A year later, he graduated from the National Defense University in the same city.

Following the fall of Suharto in May 1998, The Wall Street Journal reported in January 1999 that Luhut is "highly regarded... untainted by allegations of widespread Suharto-era corruption, or human-rights abuses". The report noted that Luhut could be a candidate for armed forces chief except that he is a Christian at a time when political Islam was rising after decades of repression.[23]

According to retired general Kivlan Zen, the relationship between Luhut and Prabowo improved after both had left the military and entered business, as both were involved in PT Kiani Kertas, an East Kalimantan pulp producer that once belonged to Suharto crony Bob Hasan.[24]

Military education[edit]

  1. Indonesian Armed Forces Academy, Recipient of Adhi Makayasa & Tri Sakti Wiratama Award for Best Graduate from Army Section (1970).[citation needed]
  2. Army Infantry Basic Course, Best Graduate, recipient of Army Silver Bayonet (1971).[citation needed]
  3. Army Commando Course, Best Graduate, recipient of Silver Commando Bayonet (1971).
  4. Army Airborne & Air Assault Course, Best Graduate, recipient of Golden Parachute trophy (1971).
  5. 1st Infantry Officer Advanced Course at Infantry Army Center for Training, Education and Excellence (1976).
  6. 2nd Infantry Officer Advanced Course at Infantry Army Center for Training, Education and Excellence (1978).
  7. Army General Staff and Command College (SESKOAD) (1980).
  8. Armed Forces General Staff and Command College (SESKO ABRI) (1988).
  9. National Defense University (NDU), USA (1989).
  10. George Washington University, Master's in Public Administration, USA (1989).[citation needed]
  11. National Resilience Institute (LEMHANNAS) (1995).

Training[edit]

  1. US Army Air Borne, Pathfinder, And Ranger Course, Fort Bragg and Fort Benning, USA (1976)
  2. Free Fall Instructor Course, US Army Special Forces, Fort Bragg, United States (1976)
  3. Bomb Disposal Instructor Training, US Army Special Forces, Fort Bragg, United States (1977).
  4. Mobile Training Team (MTT) Golden Knight Instructor Course, US Army Special Forces, Fort Bragg, United States (1978)
  5. US Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School (US. Army Special Forces Course), Fort Bragg, United States (1978)
  6. Guerrilla & Counter-Guerrilla Warfare Instructor Training Course, US Army Special Forces, Fort Bragg, United States (1978).
  7. Jungle Warfare Instructor Training Course, US Army Special Forces, Fort Bragg, United States (1979).
  8. HALO/HAHO Jumpmaster Instructor Course, US Army Jumpmaster School, USA (1980)
  9. British Army Special Air Service (SAS), United Kingdom (1981)
  10. Shooting & Anti-Terror Training Instructor, West Germany (1981)
  11. Counter-Terrorism and Special Operations Course, Grenzschutzgrupppe 9 (GSG-9) German Federal Police, West Germany (1981)

Dates of rank[edit]

  1. Second Lieutenant (1970)
  2. First Lieutenant (1973)
  3. Captain (1975)
  4. Major (1980)
  5. Lieutenant Colonel (1983)
  6. Colonel (1990)
  7. Brigadier General (1995)
  8. Major General (1996)
  9. Lieutenant General (1997)
  10. General (1 November 2000) (Honorary)

Military positions[edit]

  1. Commander of I/A Platoon Group 1 Airborne Commando Special Forces (1971)
  2. Commander of Siliwangi Battalion Platoon in West Borneo, in Operation Eradication and Crushing PGRS / Paraku (1972).
  3. Commander of A Company Group 1 Airborne Commando Special Forces (1973).
  4. Commander of A Company Eagle Contingent Troops Peace Keeping Forces (KONGA VI), Port Said, Port Fuad, Port Suez, Egypt (1973–1974).
  5. Special Aide De Camp For Brigadier General TNI Yogie Suardi Memet (Commander Of The Southern Brigade Area) Eagle Contingent Troops Peace Keeping Forces (KONGA VI), Port Said, Port Fuad, Port Suez, Egypt (1973–1974).
  6. Commander of C Team Group 1 The Airborne Commando Unit in Operation "Seroja" (Lotus), Kopassus (1975).
  7. Commander of The Hunter Killer Company Team of the Elite Special Forces Task Force Unit in Operation "Seroja" (Lotus) (1976). Luhut achieved the Best Company Commander during Operation Seroja (1976).
  8. Operations Officer at Strategic Intelligence Center.
  9. Operating Officer at the Task Force / Force Intel Strategic Intelligence Agency (BAIS) Armed Forces.
  10. Founder and First Commander of Detachment 81 Counter-Terrorism Special Forces (1981).
  11. Founder and First Commander of Project Eagle at Strategic Intelligence Center Agency (Pusintelstrat), BAIS Armed Forces (1983)
  12. Commander of the Elite Special President Security Unit / VVIP at the ASEAN Summit in Manila, the Philippines (1984).
  13. Founder and First Commander of Project Charlie / Intelligence Techniques Project at Detachment 81 (1985).
  14. Founder and First Commander of the Kopassus Combat Battle School Of Detachment-81 Counter-Terrorist at Kopassus Education Center (1986).
  15. Commander of Kopassus Hunter Killer Commando Forces in East Timor Middle Sector (Osu, Frekueike, Laisorobai). Luhut achieved the Best of the Best Elite Special Forces Commander (1986).
  16. Commander of the Airborne School at Special Forces Education Center (1987).
  17. Assistant Operations (As-Ops) Special Forces (1989).
  18. Commander of Special Forces Group 3 Combat Intelligent/Sandhi Yudha (1990).
  19. Commander of Special Forces Education Center (1993).
  20. Commander of Military Resort/Korem 081/Dhirotsaha Jaya, Madiun, East Java. Luhut achieved the Best of the Best Among Indonesian Territorial Military Commanders (1995).
  21. Deputy Commander of the Center for Infantry Weaponry & Armaments (1995).
  22. Commander of the Center for Infantry Weaponry & Armaments (1996–1997).
  23. Commander of the Army Training, Education, and Doctrine Command (1997–1999).

Political career[edit]

In 1999, President BJ Habibie appointed Luhut as Indonesian ambassador to Singapore and he was credited with improving relations between the two countries.[25]

On 26 April 2000, Habibie's successor, President Abdurrahman Wahid appointed Luhut as Minister of Trade and Industry, a position he held until Wahid was forced out of office in July 2001.[26] Wahid's successor, Megawati Sukarnoputri, offered the same position to Luhut, but he declined it, later explaining he felt a moral responsibility to Wahid.[27]

After his first stint as a minister, Luhut decided to run for the chairmanship of the National Sports Committee of Indonesia in 2003 but lost to fellow retired general Agum Gumelar.[28]

Luhut later joined Golkar Party and became deputy chairman of its board from 2008-2014. He resigned from the party in May 2014 after Golkar decided to support the presidential candidacy of former general Prabowo Subianto.[29]

Luhut's company PT Toba Sejahtra, which has timber plantations, in 2009 formed a joint venture with PT Rakabu, the furniture company owned by Joko Widodo, who was then the mayor of Solo, Central Java.[30] Their partnership later expanded to politics, with Luhut helping to guide Widodo's political ascendency. After being elected Indonesian president in 2014, Widodo on 31 December 2014 appointed Luhut as his Chief of Staff. Analysts noted Luhut's lack of patronage ties to Megawati could counter claims that Widodo was a puppet of Megawati.[31]

In 2014, Luhut chaired the Bravo 5 unit of volunteers supporting Widodo's election bid. In August 2015, Luhut was appointed Coordinating Minister for Political, Legal, and Security Affairs, a position he held until July 2016, when he was appointed Coordinating Minister of Maritime Affairs. In October 2019, following Widodo's re-election, Luhut's ministerial portfolio was expanded to cover investment. His strong influence has prompted the Indonesian media to describe him as a “prime minister”, the “second most influential cabinet member after the president” and “the real vice president”.[32]

In January 2020, Luhut was appointed chairman of Golkar Party's Advisory Board.[33]

On 13 March 2020, Luhut was appointed acting minister of transportation to replace Budi Karya Sumadi, who had tested positive for novel coronavirus.[34]

Assassination issues[edit]

Police have said former president Suharto's youngest son Tommy Suharto on 14 January 2001 gave three bombs to an accomplice, and one of the bombs was planned to be detonated at the Trade and Industry Ministry with the aim of killing Luhut, who was then trade and industry minister, but police foiled the plot.[35]

In May 2019, following post-election riots in Jakarta by supporters of losing candidate Prabowo Subianto, police said they uncovered a plot to assassinate four senior officials, including Luhut. Retired general Kivlan Zen, a Prabowo ally, was accused of masterminding the plot.[36]

In January 2020, Kivlan accused Luhut of plotting to kill him. Luhut rejected the accusation, saying he already had enough work to do without killing people.[37]

Opposition to religious intolerance[edit]

As a member of Sumatra's Batak Protestant Church, Luhut is known for his strong advocacy of religious tolerance and plurality. In January 1999, he expressed concern to the Wall Street Journal over the politicization of religion in Indonesia following the Suharto's resignation, saying: "I'm shocked at how it's being turned into a political tool by some people. It's a very dangerous thing for Indonesia."[38] Some 20 years later in an interview published by the Singapore-based Institute of Southeast Asian Studies in October 2019, he reiterated his concern over rising religious conservatism in Indonesia, saying: "We do not want to see Indonesia become like Syria or Iraq. We want to see Indonesia as [the way] our founding fathers foresee, i.e. a diverse society. It is not easy, but I think people started to realise this after the last election. We understand the problem and we are determined to tackle this firmly."[39]

Support for Chinese investment[edit]

Under President Widodo, Luhut has pushed for further Chinese investment in Indonesia. His frequent negotiations with China prompted critics to call him “China’s agent” and the “Chinese ambassador”.[40]

Support for palm oil[edit]

Luhut is an avowed supporter of the palm oil industry, including biodiesel derived from palm oil, which he says is reducing poverty and improving the welfare of farmers.[41] Luhut made a public statement in March 2019 at a palm oil forum threatening to leave the Paris Agreement amid the European Union plan to restricts imports of Indonesian palm oil products.[42]

Opposition to destruction of illegal fishing boats and trawl net ban[edit]

In President Widodo's first cabinet, Luhut opposed then-Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Minister Susi Pudjiastuti's ban on the use of trawl nets, as well as her policy of sinking foreign fishing boats caught operating illegally in Indonesian waters. He said Indonesia should instead focus on increasing fish exports.[43]

Philanthropy and community development[edit]

In 2001, Luhut and his wife created the Del Foundation to educate gifted students from low-income families.[44] This was done by establishing the Del Informatics Polytechnic near Lake Toba in Sitoluama, Toba Samosir. The polytechnic later developed into the Del Institute of Technology (IT Del). IT Del offers courses in Engineering Management, Information Systems and Information Engineering. Lecturers at IT Del include graduates of Harvard, Wollongong University and Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB).[45]

Del Foundation also established Del Unggul Senior High School in Laguboti, North Sumatra, and NOAH school in Kalisari, East Jakarta. The foundation focuses on education, technology, health and humanitarian programs. It also builds orphanages and provides scholarships.[46]

Luhut established Luhur Bakti Pertiwi Foundation to help produce young leaders with integrity. He also founded Lingkar Binsa Prakarsa Foundation as an independent center for policy studies and strategic assistance.[47]

Business career[edit]

In 2004, Luhut founded PT Toba Sejahtra Group, focusing on energy and mining businesses. The group has interests in coal mining, while its subsidiaries are engaged in the oil and gas sector, agriculture (palm oil), and electricity.[48]

PT Toba Bara Sejahtera Tbk (Toba Bara) is one of Indonesia's main producers of thermal coal and has three subsidiaries operating separate concession areas in East Kalimantan. The company commenced coal production in 2007 and has a total concession area of 7,087 hectares with a total estimated resource of 236 million tonnes. Its development began with PT Indomining in 2007, followed by PT Adimitra Baratama Nusantara (ABN) in 2008, and PT Trisensa Mineral Utama (TMU) in 2011.

On 6 July 2012, Toba Bara listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) with the ticker TOBA and released of 210,681 million shares or 10.5% of the total paid-up capital, with proceeds amounting to Rp 400,293,900,000 with an IPO price of Rp 1,900 per share. Most of the company's coal is exported to China, Korea, Taiwan, India and Japan.[49]

On 9 November 2016, Toba Sejahtra signed an agreement to sell 61.79% of Toba Bara’s shares to a Singapore company called Highland Strategic Holdings.[50] The sale was completed in January 2017 and the Jakarta Globe estimated the value of the transaction at Rp 1.07 trillion ($80 million).[51] In April 2019, London-based environmental watchdog Global Witness reported that Highland Strategic Holdings' shares were held by Watiga Trust and suggested the buyers were shell companies, and questioned who are the real owners.[52] Luhut rejected the Global Witness report as "made up", saying he had not owned a majority stake in Toba Bara Sejahtra for many years, and that he now held only 5% or 10% of Toba Bara shares.[53]

In November 2018, NGOs Greenpeace Indonesia, the Mining Advocacy Network (JATAM), Indonesia Corruption Watch and Auriga issued a report claiming that Luhut's shares in Toba Bara and his government position—with oversight of the mining and energy sector—constituted a conflict of interest. The report also alleged that Luhut's coal companies had abandoned mining sites without backfilling them as stipulated in Indonesia's 2009 Law on Minerals and Coal Mining, resulting in environmental damage.[54] Luhut responded to the report by saying he had sold his ownership of Toba Bara when he became a government official and was no longer involved in the management of Toba Sejahtra. In February 2019, Luhut admitted to owning a 6,000-hectare coal mine in East Kalimantan.[55]

Toba Sejahtera Group also holds PT Kutai Energi. In the oil and gas sector, its subsidiaries are PT Energi Mineral Langgeng and PT Fairfield Indonesia. In the electricity sector, its subsidiaries are PT Pusaka Jaya Palu Power and Kartenegara Energy Perkasa. In the plantation sector, its subsidiaries are PT Trisena Agro Lestari Sejahtra and PT Adimitra. In the industrial sector, its subsidiaries are PT Smartias Indo Gemilang, PT Rakabu Sejahtra and PT Kabil Citranusa.

PT Pusaka Jaya Palu Tower has been engaged in the electricity sector since 2007 and built a private steam-power plant.

Family[edit]

Luhut married Devi Simatupang on 27 November 1970 and they have four children: Paulina, David, Paulus and Kerri Pandjaitan.[56] Paulus is a major in Kopassus.[57] Luhut's son-in-law, Major General Maruli Simanjuntak, a Kopassus officer, in November 2018 became commander of the Presidential Security Force (Paspampres).[58]

Honors and awards[edit]

  1. A finalist in Ernst & Young's Indonesian Entrepreneur of the Year 2011, Luhut was given a special award for his contribution to social development.[59][60]
  2. Award from the National Sports Committee of Indonesia for best national sports coach of 2006, for karate.[61]

Military awards[edit]

During the course of his military career, Luhut received the following awards.[62]

  1. Adhi Makayasa as the best graduate from Army academy (1970).
  2. Best Military Resort Commander in Indonesia (1995).
  3. Yudha Dharma Nararya Star.
  4. Kartika Eka Paksi Achievement Star.
  5. Kartika Eka Paksi Nararya Achievement Star.
  6. Nararya III Loyalty Insignia.
  7. Loyalty & Faithfulness Insignia VIII & XVIII Years.
  8. GOM III/Dharma Insignia.
  9. Upholder Insignia.
  10. Lotus Loyalty Insignia.
  11. Garuda VIII Loyalty Insignia.
  12. Dwidya Sistha Insignia.
  13. United Nations Honor Insignia.

Other activities[edit]

  • Chairman of the Federation of Karate-do Indonesia (2001–2010)[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jakarta Post on Ministerial appointment
  2. ^ Jakarta Post on Chief of Staff appointment
  3. ^ Lee, Christian (22 April 2019). "Luhut as Jokowi's Envoy; Can Military Esprit de Corps Ease Rising Political Tensions?". Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  4. ^ "Toba Sejahtra". Archived from the original on 29 May 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  5. ^ Tatler bio listing E&Y Award
  6. ^ Himawan, Adhitya (26 May 2017). "Luhut Binsar Pandjaitan Bantah Ayahnya Mati Dibunuh Oleh PKI". Suara.com. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  7. ^ Isnanto, Bayu Ardi (3 February 2019). "Kampanye Jokowi, Luhut: Saya Anak Sopir Bus Tapi Bintangnya 4". detikcom. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  8. ^ "KISAH Luhut Panjaitan yang Hari Ini Berusia 72 Tahun, 'Kartu Mati' di Era Orba hingga Tuah Gus Dur". TRIBUNnews.com. 28 September 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  9. ^ Saputra, Azhar (17 January 2019). "Masa Kecil Luhut di Pekanbaru Suka Betumbuk dan Berenang di Sungai Siak". RiauOnline. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
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  11. ^ "Luhut, Ahli Perang Yang Jadi Ujung Tombak Investasi". CNN Indonesia. 23 October 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  12. ^ Wong, Jesse (27 January 1999). "Protestant General Comes Under Fire As Indonesia Seeks Religious Footing". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  13. ^ Al Hikam, Herdi Alif (23 October 2019). "Perjalanan Karier Jenderal Luhut: Menko Maritim (Lagi)". detikfinance. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  14. ^ "Tentara Bingung Demonstran Tak Terbendung". Tempo.co. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  15. ^ Abraham, Utama (8 December 2015). "Cerita Operasi Nanggala V dan Informasi Intelijen yang Keliru". CNN Indonesia. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  16. ^ "Setelah Luhut dan Prabowo Lulus Sekolah Antiteror Jerman: Lahir Pasukan Elite Detasemen 81". TRIBUNnews.com. 21 February 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  17. ^ "Buku Sintong Panjaitan: Prabowo, Counter Coup 1983 dan 'Mengambil' Para Jenderal". detikcom. 12 March 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  18. ^ Petrik, Matanasi (28 March 2019). "Sejarah Karier Luhut Panjaitan: Suram di Era Orba, Moncer Kemudian". Tirto.ID. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  19. ^ Jenkins, David (10 September 2004). "Charismatic, sinister Soeharto man". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  20. ^ Salim Said (4 August 2016). Menyaksikan 30 Tahun Pemerintahan Otoriter Soeharto. Mizan Pustaka. p. 160. ISBN 978-979-433-952-7.
  21. ^ "Kemarahan Soeharto ke Benny Moerdani Dibongkar Luhut Pandjaitan, Hal yang Terlewat Batas Jadi Sebab". TRIBUNnews.com. 22 July 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  22. ^ Matanasi, Petrik (1 November 2016). "Cerita Tentang Abang Luhut dan Adik Prabowo". Tirto.id. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  23. ^ Wong, Jesse (27 January 1999). "Protestant General Comes Under Fire As Indonesia Seeks Religious Footing". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  24. ^ Pebrianto, Fajar (28 October 2019). "Jejak Luhut Pandjaitan di Perusahaan Prabowo dan Jokowi". Tempo.co. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  25. ^ "Debt of Honour". Indonesia Tatler. 1 January 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  26. ^ Gus Dur and the Indonesian Economy
  27. ^ Ressa, Maria (27 September 2015). "Luhut: The general who has Jokowi's back". Rappler. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  28. ^ "Berikut Rekam Jejak Karir Luhut Panjaitan". Antara. 12 August 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  29. ^ "Indonesian foreign policy under President Jokowi". Lowy Institute. 16 October 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  30. ^ Widhiarto, Hasyim (30 June 2014). "Furniture business propels Jokowi's path to prominence". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  31. ^ "President appoints trusted adviser to strategic role". The Economist Intelligence Unit. 6 January 2015. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  32. ^ Witular, Rendi A. (28 July 2016). "NEWS ANALYSIS: Jokowi leaves no room for a 'second most powerful'". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  33. ^ "Alasan Airlangga Pilih Luhut Pandjaitan Jadi Ketua Dewan Penasihat Golkar". Liputan6.com. 15 January 2019. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  34. ^ "Jokowi Appoints Luhut as Ad Interim Transportation Minister". Tempo.co. Antara. 15 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
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