Matzoon (Armenian: մածուն matsun) or matsoni (Georgian: მაწონი mats'oni) is a fermented milk product of Armenian origin, found in Caucasian cuisine, particularly in Armenia and Georgia. It is very similar to yogurt. It is made with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus lactic acid bacteria.
Matzoon is made from cow's milk (mostly), goat's milk, sheep's milk, buffalo milk, or a mix of them and a culture from previous productions.
The name of the product originates from Armenian matz (sour, glue). The product is widely mentioned by medieval Armenian writers, e.g. Grigor Magistros (11th century), Hovhannes Erznkatsi (13th century), Grigor Tatevatsi (14th century) and others. Grigor Magistros, in his Definition of Grammar, gave the correct etymology of the word.
- Also spelled matsoon, matsoun, matzoun, madzoon, madzoun, macun, matson
- Lawrence Eldred Kirk // Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1948 , p. 12 (41) "Matzoon or mazun, originating in Armenia. A lactobacillus (L. mazun) , a streptococcus, a spore-producing bacillus and a sugar- fermenting yeast are responsible for the fermentation of this product."
- Joseph A. Kurmann, Jeremija Lj Rašić, Manfred Kroger: Encyclopedia of fermented fresh milk products: an international inventory of fermented milk, cream, buttermilk, whey, and related products, p. 212. Springer, 1992. ISBN 978-0-442-00869-7.  "MATZOON (En); mazun (Fr, De); matsun, matsoni, maconi.
Short Description: Of Armenian origin; Georgia, Caucasus (USSR); traditional product; the milk of ewes, goats, buffalo, or cows or mixtures thereof; yoghurtlike product traditionally made from boiled milk and an undefined starter culture; firm consistency and acidic flavor.
Microbiology: Traditional product made with undefined starter culture consisting of thermophilic and mesophilic lactic streptococci and thermophilic lactobacilli, and often with yeasts. Starter culture with defined microflora: proposed Streptococcus thcrmopbilus and Lactobacillus dclbmeckii subsp. buligaricus.
Related Product: Yoghurt."
- Columbia Encyclopedia // fermented milk // The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press.
- The Encyclopedia Americana , Vol. 18 p. 446 Americana Corp, 1977 г. - ISBN 0-7172-0108-2, ISBN 978-0-7172-0108-2 "MATZOON, mat-soon', a milk food used in Armenia; prepared by exposing milk in open vessels to a heat of 90°F., and when coagulation takes place the curd is broken up by a churning process and salt is added."
- Darra Goldstein. The Georgian Feast: The Vibrant Culture and Savory Food of the Republic of Georgia. University of California Press, 1999, p. 34
- Kenji Uchidai, Tadasu Urashima, Nino Chaniashvili, Ikiti Arai, Hidemasa Motoshima. Major microbiota of lactic acid bacteria from Matsoni, a traditional Georgian fermented milk. Animal Science Journal, 78 (2007) 85. doi:10.1111/j.1740-0929.2006.00409.x
- merriam-webster dictionary /matzoon
- Collins English Dictionary / matzoon
- H. Adjarian, Armenian Etymological Dictionary, Yerevan, 1971, vol. 3, pp. 228-229
- Nicholas Adontz, «Дионисий Фракийский и армянские толкователи.», Saint Petersburg, 1915, p. 228. "Մածուն քանզի մածեալ է, սոյնպէս և անուանի." Approximate translation: "Matzoon, since it's gluey, hence it is called so."
- ed: A. Desnitskaya, S. Katsnelson, «История лингвистических учений. Средневековый Восток.». "Nauka", Saint Petersburg, 1981, p. 17
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Matzoon.|
- Media related to Matsoni at Wikimedia Commons