Melbourne gangland killings
The Melbourne gangland killings were the murders of 36 criminal figures in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia between 16 January 1998 and 13 August 2010. The murders were in a series of retributive murders involving various underworld groups. The deaths caused a sustained power vacuum within Melbourne's criminal community, as various factions fought for control and influence. The majority of the murders are still unsolved, although police from the Purana Taskforce believe that Carl Williams was responsible for ten of them. The period culminated in the arrest of Williams, who pleaded guilty on 28 February 2007 to three of the murders.
Since the confession of Williams, the ultimate source of the violence has become public knowledge. On his 29th birthday, while meeting with Jason Moran and his half brother Mark Moran on 13 October 1999 at a suburban park in Gladstone Park, Jason Moran shot Carl Williams in the stomach over a dispute about money earned in the amphetamine trade. Through the period after his run-in with the Moran family, Williams commenced a war with the aim of killing all of the Moran clan.
The majority of underworld crime figures and major incidents can be traced back to the Painters and Dockers Union that existed on Melbourne's waterfront after the Second World War. The Union had a Mafia-like structure, and most criminal activity was centred around control of the Union, and the cut associated with the drugs (primarily heroin and cocaine) that passed through the port. The Melbourne Markets were seen as a natural distribution point for these illegal substances (they were just across the road from the docks area).
By 1990 the local manufacture of amphetamines had increased to the point where the police described Melbourne as the "amphetamine capital of Australia". As well as drug dealing, criminals received income through protection rackets in King Street nightclubs, as well as in prostitution, illegal gambling, and armed robbery.
The genesis of the underworld conflict can be traced to the 1996 arrest of John William Samuel Higgs, then Australia's number one trafficker of amphetamines. Higgs was a well-connected criminal with a wide network of contacts both in the underworld and among corrupt police, and it took several years in one of the country's most expensive criminal investigations to finally convict him of drug trafficking charges. The case was controversial and included a major cache of drugs linked to Higgs and his syndicate mysteriously vanishing in the storage depots of Melbourne's drug squad, almost certainly thanks to corrupt police involvement. The downfall of Higgs and his closest associates meant younger criminals became keen to enter the drug trade and fill the vacuum left by Higgs' arrest. This included underworld figures such as Jason Moran and Carl Williams who would become key figures in the Melbourne gangland killings.
The catalyst that ignited the conflict was the 1998 murders of Melbourne gangsters Alphonse Gangitano, shot dead in his own home on 16 January 1998, and Charles Hegyalji known as "Mad Charlie", murdered in front of his house on 23 November of that same year. Both Gangitano and Hegyalji had been major figures in the Melbourne underworld, and Gangitano in particular had been a close ally of Higgs. Following these two deaths many of Gangitano and Hegyalji's former associates suddenly rose to positions of importance in the underworld, and it was several of these figures, such as Vince Mannella and Dimitrios Belias, who became the next victims in Melbourne's underworld war as the fight for power escalated. The conflict was further exacerbated by the 1999 shooting of Carl Williams, who was shot in the stomach by the Moran brothers, Jason and Mark, over a drug-related debt. Williams, who survived the shooting, vowed to exterminate the Moran family and in doing so became the most infamous criminal involved in the killings, as he arranged the murders of most of the Moran family and several of their allies in the Carlton Crew.
Groups and factions
The following groups of people were connected to the murders. A number of those named below were members of more than one group at the same time.
- The Honoured Society
- A Calabrian 'Ndrangheta group that has long been linked with control of Melbourne's fruit and vegetable markets. Frank Benvenuto, Frank Tizzone, Robert Trimbole and Domenico Italiano are reported to have been associated with this group.
- The Painters and Dockers / Moran family
- A loose association of Irish waterfront workers and ex-members of the Painters and Dockers Union. Brian, Les, and Ray Kane, Graham Kinniburgh, Victor Pierce, Lewis, Mark, and Jason Moran have all been associated with 'the Dockers'. The Moran family operated jointly with the mostly Italian Carlton Crew.
- The Carlton Crew
- An independent ’Ndrangheta group created by Alphonse Gangitano. Domenic "Mick" Gatto Matt Tomas, Mario Condello, and brothers Vincenzo and Gerardo Manella are also associated with this group.
- Radev Gang
- Led by Nikolai "The Russian" Radev, a convicted drug dealer and career criminal who was shot in Queen Street, Coburg in 2003. No killer has been formally identified, although several possibles have been named (see Nik Radev). Mark Mallia, Housam Zayat, Istvan Gulyas and Willie Thompson were known associates.
- The Sunshine Crew
- Led by Paul "PK" Kallipolitis. Dino Dibra, Andrew 'Benji' Veniamin, Rocco Arico, Mark Mallia, Bluey Watkins, Johnny Auciello, Mark Morrison, Michael Dewhirst and Terrence Chimmiri were also members. All members of the group had been friends from their childhood. Benji Veniamin took over the group when Paul PK Kallipolitis was murdered.
- The Williams Family
- Led by Carl Williams, his father George Williams. Antonios Mokbel. Andrew Veniamin, Dino Dibra, Alfonso Traglia, Damien Cossu, Victor Brincat, Terrence Chimmiri, Hizir Ferman, Chris Orfandis and Robert Musso were known associates.
The Purana Task Force was the name of the police unit that investigated the Melbourne gangland killings during the 2000s. The task force was established by Victoria Chief Commissioner of Police Christine Nixon in 2003, and enjoyed success in investigating and halting the killings, despite being initially pushed for staff. In 2008, following the halt in killings, the purview of the task force was expanded.
Investigations have been hampered by a "code of silence", with few organised crime figures willing to risk their lives to provide details to state and federal authorities. Victoria's state police have lamented the death of gang figures who were killed before they were able to aid their investigation. Task Force Purana have been praised for their efforts to stop the killings.
Timeline of deaths
- Greg Workman shot by Alphonse Gangitano, on 7 February 1995.
- Tim Richards and Les Knowles, two mechanics who also dealt in drugs, were shot dead in their auto-shop by Gerald David Preston on 15 August 1996. A third mechanic, Kym Traeger, was wounded but survived. The killing was related to drugs and is believed to have been ordered by the Hell's Angel outlaw motorcycle club, of which Preston was an associate. Preston was convicted in 1998 and given a life sentence with a 32-year non-parole period, and the driver for the murder, Kevin Wayne Gillard, was also given a life sentence. Preston's wife Vicki Jacobs, who gave evidence against him in court, was shot dead in her home on 12 June 1999.
- The Melbourne gangland killings are believed to have begun with the murder of 40 year old Alphonse Gangitano on 16 January 1998. He was shot and killed in the laundry of his home, while clad only in his underwear. A coroner's report into his death directly implicated Jason Moran and Graham Kinniburgh. They were both found to be in Gangitano's home in Templestowe when the murder took place; however, it could not be established who pulled the trigger. Kinniburgh's blood was found on a banister inside the house, and his skin was found on a dent on the front security door. Both were excused from giving evidence to the coroner on the grounds they might incriminate themselves. It is believed by many that Jason Moran shot Gangitano.
- On 3 August John Furlan, a 48 year old motor mechanic from Coburg was killed by a car bomb in his Subaru Liberty in Lorensen Avenue, Merlynston. Domenic "Mick" Gatto was treated as a suspect since he had recently been involved in a payment dispute with the deceased; however, no one has been arrested in connection with his death.
- 42 year old stand-over man Charles Hegyalji, known as "Mad Charlie", was killed at his Caulfield home on 23 November. He was an acquaintance of Chopper Read and had been associated with the amphetamine industry. Dino Dibra was linked to the killing, which was believed to be either drug or debt related.
- Vince Mannella, a former associate of Victor Peirce and Alphonse Gangitano, was ambushed and killed outside his home in North Fitzroy on the evening of 9 January. Media suspected his death was debt-related or part of an underworld power struggle but no suspects were ever named.
- Phong Dui Nguyen, a heroin dealer, was shot six times with a .357 magnum as he exited his car on Gray Street, Yarraville, on 21 February. The gunman was Tom Scarborough, a major Melbourne heroin trafficker.
- Damian Catania was the victim of a drive-by shooting about 6.00 am on 24 February. Catania was waiting outside his home in Hoppers Crossing in Melbourne’s western suburbs for a regular lift to work when an early model white Commodore slowed as it cruised by. A gunman in the car, reputedly Andrew Veniamin, opened fire, hitting Catania at least four times in the legs and groin. Catania, a mid-level "player" in the underworld was an ex-boxer who had a string of minor convictions, mostly for violence. Catania almost lost a leg as a result of the shooting and spent 12 months in hospital recovering. Those in the car were never caught. On Monday 22 May 2006 Catania, then 30, was sentenced to a minimum of six years jail for pouring petrol over a man who had annoyed him and setting the victim alight, causing horrific burns. Not surprisingly, Catania told the court that on his eventual release from jail, he wanted to "pack up and travel out of Melbourne".
- Joseph Quadara, a 57 year old greengrocer, was ambushed by two people and killed in a Toorak carpark in the early hours of 28 May as he was about to start work at a Safeway supermarket. The former millionaire was declared bankrupt in 1994. Police believed that his killing was a case of mistaken identity, due to the existence of another Giuseppe "Joe" Quadara involved in Melbourne's fruit and vegetable industry with underworld connections, although Joe himself had connections to the Melbourne's fruit and vegetable markets and it is conspired that the Markets God-Father; Frank Benevenuto hired Andrew "Benji" Veniamin to perform the hit.
- 38 year old Brighton businessman Dimitrios Belias was killed with a single shot to the back of the head on 9 September in an underground carpark on St Kilda road. He had been an associate of Charles Hegyalji and was believed to be heavily in debt.
- On 13 October 29 year old known drug dealer Carl Williams was shot in the stomach and survived in Gladstone Park. Williams told the police he blacked out and could not identify the shooter. Known underworld figures Mark and Jason Moran were present at the time, and police believe there was a dispute related to a failed amphetamines batch and ownership of drug manufacturing equipment. A woman told police she heard a man cry "No, Jason!" moments before a shot was fired.
- On 20 October Vince Mannella's brother, 31 year old Gerardo Mannella, was ambushed and killed outside his brother's home, after attempting to flee from two men. The killers of Mannella are also believed to have shot his brother Vince as well as Dimirtrios Belias.
- On 25 November George and Carl Williams were charged with multiple drug offences after police raided an alleged amphetamine factory in Broadmeadows. Police seized around 25,000 amphetamine tablets, a pill press, a loaded pistol and 6.95 kg of powders containing methamphetamine, ketamine, and pseudoephedrine with a street value up to A$20 million. These charges were never brought to trial because of corruption allegations against former drug squad detectives involved in the raid.
- 52 year old fruiterer Francesco "Frank" Benvenuto, was fatally shot while sitting in his car in the driveway of his Beaumaris home on 8 May 2000. Phone records show that as Benvenuto lay dying he managed to ring ex-employee and associate Victor Peirce on his mobile phone. It is suspected the contract was ordered by Mick Gatto. Police initially treated him as a suspect but later offered a $100,000 reward for information leading to an arrest. Mark Moran and Andrew Veniamin were later named as chief suspects.
- Richard Mladenich, a 39 year old career criminal and associate of Mark Moran, was killed with a single bullet in the St Kilda Esquire Hotel on 16 May 2000. He had recently been released from jail where he once shared a cell with Chopper Read. Police later named Rocco Arico as a suspect but were unable to interview him whilst he was in prison. They later named Dino Dibra as their primary suspect Mark Moran also named as suspect.
- On 15 June 2000, 35 year old Mark Moran was killed by Carl Williams with two bullets as he was getting out of his white Holden utility vehicle, outside his luxury home in Aberfeldie. Moran's murder was initially thought of as retribution for the death of Frank Benvenuto. Some underworld rumours suspect Rodney "The Duke" Collins as one of his killers. Dino Dibra and Rocco Arico are thought to have carried out the killing. Mark Moran had been under close police surveillance but the surveillance was mysteriously switched off hours before he was shot dead.
- 25 year old Dino Dibra was killed on 14 October 2000, after leaving his house in West Sunshine. At the time he was facing charges relating to kidnap and assault. At a police press conference, Detective Inspector Andrew Allen said "We are confident that this gunman is a hired hitman and that he, along with another person, ambushed Mr Dibra that night about 9.15 pm and shot him a number of times ... this is not the only murder (the gunman) has committed". This police profile strongly suggested that 'Benji' Veniamin was one of the gunmen. A A$100 000 reward was offered by police for information.
- George Germanos was shot repeatedly in an Armadale park on 22 March 2001.
- 43 year old Victor Peirce was killed on 1 May 2002, while in a car parked opposite the Coles supermarket in Bay Street, Port Melbourne. A white Holden Commodore pulled up beside Peirce, who exchanged words with the occupants inside the car before being shot four times at close range. Although Pierce was officially employed as a waterfront worker, police believed he was the leader of various drug syndicates in Melbourne and heavily involved with drug trafficking. Peirce was considered a true underworld heavy-weight; he was born into the notorious Pettingill family. It is suspected that this contract killing was organized by Mick Gatto and Vince Benvenuto and executed by Andrew Veniamin and Faruk Orman.
- Alexander Kudryavstev was shot by Michael Goldman on 10 July 2002. Goldman, 55, said he shot to miss a wounded acquaintance on a suburban nature strip despite orders from psychotic criminal, Nik Radev to "finish him". Goldman said he was "under the gun" and terrified of Radev. Goldman lured Kudryavstev to his Hampton flat and told a Supreme Court jury he was acting like a robot when he shot Mr Kudryavstev in the stomach at the flat. He said Radev told him earlier the same day: "Give him one in the head and I take care of the body." Goldman, of Highett Road, plead not guilty to the attempted murder of Kudryavstev. The jury heard Kudryavstev, a police informer, was wearing a concealed tape recorder when shot in the abdomen and in the head. He secretly recorded his terrifying brush with death. Goldman shot Kudryavstev in the abdomen as he greeted him at the front door. Kudryavstev said he moved his head when Goldman fired at him on a nature strip near Highett Road. Goldman denied during cross-examination that he knew at the time Kudryavstev was a police informer. He said an angry Radev wanted to meet Mr Kudryavstev over a burglary at a friend's warehouse. On 27 May 2004 Goldman was jailed for 14 years. Supreme Court judge Justice Robert Redlich ordered Goldman to serve a minimum non-parole term of 11 years. "Your anger and desire to kill him (Mr Kudryavstev) is evident on listening to the tape recording," said the judge.
- On 16 October 2002, the body of 31 year old drug dealer Paul Kallipolitis was found in his West Sunshine home. He was lying on his bed and had one gunshot wound to the head. He clearly knew his killer. Police believe he had been murdered a day earlier and publicly suspected that his one-time-friend Andrew Veniamin was the killer. Veniamin accepted the contract to kill his friend by Angelo Mario Venditti and also Benji took over Kallipolitis' drugs business the next day. Veniamin and Kallipolitis had been friends for many years, since they were kids. Kallipolitis shot and killed a man in Deer Park almost a decade earlier after having a gun pulled on him. Angelo Mario Venditti was arrested for this murder on 29 July 2008.
- On 28 December 2002, Mark Anthony Smith was shot in the neck in the driveway of his Keilor home. A convicted bank robber, he had been sentenced to 13 years in prison for the murder of a man on a Craigieburn construction site in 1987. Smith had accepted a contract to kill Jason Moran, but after taking the money refused to carry on with the hit. The murder attempt was thus ordered by Carl Williams as payback. Smith survived the assassination attempt and subsequently fled to Queensland.
- 44 year old Nik Radev, known as "The Russian", was killed in Queen Street Coburg on 15 April. The known drug dealer and standover man was shot seven times in the head and chest as he sat in his Mercedes-Benz coupé. Victoria Police told The Age that they believed his death was planned by a father and son drug manufacturing team, and a hitman suspected of four other murders carried out the killing in a red sedan. Andrew Veniamin met Radev on the day of the murder and unambiguously fitted the police description of the prime suspect, along with George and Carl Williams. Radev had been warned that he was a marked man but ignored the warnings refusing to believe his friends would turn on him. Damien Cossu and Alfonso Traglia were with Radev at the time of the murder but claimed they could not identify the gunman, and were subsequently named by police as 'persons of interest'
- In June, Taskforce Purana was set up by Victoria Police Assistant Commissioner Simon Overland to investigate Melbourne's underworld.
- On 4 June 28-year-old male prostitute Shane Chartres-Abbott was fatally shot outside his Reservoir home on his way to a County Court trial for raping and bashing a female client in 2002. In 2007, underworld assassin Keith Faure (known as JP) confessed to this murder and said two corrupt detectives were linked to the murder. The murder sparked a media frenzy. The Briars Task Force was formed to investigate the murder.
- On 21 June 35 year old Jason Moran, and his minder, 40 year old Pasquale Barbaro were fatally shot as they sat in a parked blue van outside an Auskick football clinic in Essendon. Five children were witness to the murder including Moran's six-year-old twin boy and girl. The gunman Victor Brincat ran away across the football oval and over a Moonee Ponds Creek footbridge to a waiting vehicle.
- 39 year old major drug dealer Willie Thompson was killed on 21 July while sitting in his car after leaving a karate club in Chadstone. He had been a close associate of the Moran family. Police say the gunman strolled up to the car and shot Thompson dead before escaping with a second person in a stolen Ford sedan. Some bullets were lodged in nearby shops. Thompson's official occupation was a lollipop vendor inside nightclubs, and a police report said he had recently developed an enmity with Nik Radev. In many rumors Hizir Ferman and Robert Musso are thought to have done this shooting. According to criminals turned testifying witnesses, Carl Williams ordered the death of Thompson in order to steal a large quantity of drug chemicals from him.
- 36 year old Mark Mallia's burnt body was found in a suburban storm drain packed inside a green wheelie-bin on 18 August. Before his murder, Mallia was kidnapped by drug-boss Carl Williams and a team of 7 men (including Benji Veniamin, Damien Cossu, Chris Orfandis Hizir Ferman and Alfonso Traglia), the 7 men took Mallia back to a warehouse where they tortured him into confessing where some laundered money was buried. Little details are known if the torture was successful or not, but not long after Mark Mallia was murdered.
- 32 year old Housom Zayat was run off the road, forced from his car and repeatedly shot in the head before being found in a paddock in Tarneit with multiple bullet wounds on 9 September. Zayat was also a close associate of Nik Radev. Nicholas Ibrahim charged with his murder.
- On 20 October, 49 year old Istvan "Steve" Gulyas and his de facto wife were found executed in their Sunbury home. Together they ran a dating agency, Partner Search Australia, which police suspected was a front for a brothel. Gulyas was also a friend of Nik Radev.
- On 25 October, 38 year old Michael Ronald Marshall was shot four times in the head outside his luxury South Yarra home in front of his five year old son. He was a hot-dog salesman but also sold ecstasy at the street level. He had been suspected by some, including major crime lord Tony Mokbel, of being the one responsible for Willie Thompson's death. Carl Williams, eager to frame Marshall for the Thompson killing, ordered his murder. Victor Brincat and Thomas Hentschel were convicted of killing Michael Marshall. The killing became controversial as Brincat and Hentschel had actually been closely followed and monitored by police, who however at the last minute could not or would not prevent Marshall's murder.
- On 17 November Carl Williams was arrested and charged with making threats to kill a Purana Taskforce detective and the investigator's girlfriend. The alleged threats were made in a taped phone conversation to Victor Brincat in Barwon Prison. Carl was bailed two weeks later. The arrest was dramatically captured on film by The Age photographer Angela Wylie.
- 62 year old Graham Kinniburgh, known as "The Munster", was ambushed and shot outside his home in Kew just after midnight on 13 December. Police said he had been killed in front of family members soon after parking his car. Kinniburgh was carrying a gun and managed to return one shot before being killed. He was considered Melbourne's most influential criminal at the time of his death. Kinniburgh was also a ring leader in the notorious Drill-bit gang that specialised in safe breaking. Mick Gatto was a pallbearer at his funeral, Lewis Moran and many other underworld figures also attended. Andrew Veniamin was treated as a suspect in his murder, and Carl Williams was also questioned. Stephen John Asling was charged with The Munster's murder in 2015.
- In February, Carl Williams went on the record with the news magazine The Bulletin with a denial that he had paid "Benji" Veniamin A$100,000 for five of the murders.
- In March, Federal Justice Minister Chris Ellison announced the Australian Crime Commission would be investigating the murders.
- On 23 March 28 year old Andrew Veniamin was fatally shot by Mick Gatto in the Carlton pizza restaurant "La Porcella" after an argument. Gatto was charged with his murder, the police alleging that Gatto had set a trap for Veniamin. Veniamin was a close associate of Carl Williams and was suspected of being a hitman involved in as many as seven underworld murders. Gatto was later acquitted on the grounds of self-defence.
- The next victim was 58 year old Lewis Moran, father of Jason Moran and stepfather of Mark Moran. On 31 March, he was shot and killed in broad daylight by two balaclava-clad men in the front bar of the Brunswick Club in Brunswick. Lewis had only recently been released on bail for drug trafficking charges and police had warned him that his life was in danger. His close friend and fellow Painter and Docker, Bert Wrout, sustained injuries but survived. Graham Kinniburgh and Lewis Moran were notorious for their work on the Melbourne docks. Carl Williams paid for the hit and known hard-man Keith Faure was the driver, His brother Noel and Evangelos Goussis were the executioners.
- Terrence Blewitt, a hitman connected with the Williams syndicate and believed to be the one who shot Graham Kinniburgh in 2003, disappeared without a trace on the night of 12 April 2004. He was last seen walking towards a blue Hyundai Excel, the same car model that was used as a getaway car in the Kinniburgh murder. His remains were found over a decade later, during a search of a property in Pelmet Crescent, Thomastown in Melbourne's north.
- On 8 May the body of Lewis Caine was found dumped in Brunswick street, with a single gunshot wound to the head. He was a friend of Carl Williams and had been seen dining with him two nights earlier. This murder was a paid hit by Mario Condello, allegedly in reprisal for the killing of Lewis Moran. In May 2008, Evangelos Goussis was convicted of killing Lewis Moran in March 2004. Goussis was sentenced to a minimum of 15 years for the Caine murder and in February 2009 was sentenced to life in prison for the Moran killing. He will be eligible for parole in 2039.
- Terrence and Christine Hodson were found executed in their Kew home on 16 May. Terrence Hodson was revealed to be a police informant. A week before the bodies were found ABC radio reported that a leaked document revealing Hodson as an informant was doing the rounds in certain underworld circles. It is also reported that an associate of Lewis Moran hired Hodson to murder Carl Williams in 2001. Police drug squad detective Paul Dale allegedly paid Carl Williams to organize the hit, who used gunman Rodney "The Duke" Collins for the murders.
- Purana Taskforce detectives arrested Carl Williams for conspiracy to murder on 9 June. His associates Sean Sonnet and Gregg Hildebrandt were arrested only metres from the home of Mario Condello. Victoria Police said the raids had "absolutely" saved Mario Condello from becoming the 28th gangland victim.
- On 6 February, the eve of his murder trial, Mario Condello was shot and killed in his driveway at around 10 pm. Condello had dined with Mick Gatto earlier that night and police warned Gatto that he was under increased risk as this was possibly the resumption of the gangland war. The killer is known to police as Rodney "The Duke" Collins.
- On 20 March Melbourne business man Tony Mokbel failed to appear in Court during his trial for the importation of cocaine from Mexico in 2000. Mokbel had been granted bail by Magistrate Phillip Goldberg, despite protests from the police. Goldberg had previously dismissed drug cases brought against Mokbel and his brother. A warrant was issued for his arrest, but Mokbel had not been seen since 5 pm on 19 March. His defence team feared for his life. The week before this date, Mokbel raised concerns for his safety, after an incident not related to this case. He eventually reappeared and was arrested by Greek police in Athens, Greece on 5 June 2007. Mokbel was successfully extradited to Australia on 17 May 2008.
- On 26 March, the dead body of Lee Patrick Torney was found down a mineshaft. He was a violent Melbourne criminal and drug trafficker connected to the Williams family and suspected of being involved in several murders, including the 1982 shooting of his former associate Sidney James Graham. Torney had been killed some months earlier with a shovel by Graham John Holden, following an argument.
- On 14 October Michael "Eyes" Pastras was shot once in the buttocks and once in the thigh at a house in Albion St, Brunswick. Pastras gave evidence at Mick Gatto's murder trial that he spoke to Andrew Veniamin on 23 March 2004, the day Veniamin was killed by Gatto. He said that Veniamin never mentioned anything to him about wanting to harm Mr Gatto. But after testifying, he approached the Purana gangland killing taskforce and made a statement refuting what he said in the witness box. Pastras told Purana detectives he saw Veniamin with a gun when he went to meet Mr Gatto in Carlton's La Porcella restaurant and that Veniamin told him he wanted Mr Gatto dead. He claimed Veniamin told him: "I am fucking dirty on Mick Gatto. He has got to go." That evidence was not presented to the jury in the Gatto murder trial. Pastras was named in a confidential Victoria Police document that was blamed for prompting the executions of police informer Terrence Hodson and his wife, Christine in 2004. It contained details of what Hodson told police and was leaked to Melbourne's underworld shortly before the Hodsons were fatally shot in their Kew home in 2004. His brother Savas Pastras was an associate of Lewis Moran. Pastras, 39, turned up at Moran's Essendon unit on 25 October 2002, not knowing police were inside raiding it. One of the detectives asked Moran's partner, Virginia Strazdas, who was the man walking up the driveway, and she said he was a friend. Moran's partner ignored a police command not to warn the man and managed to slightly open the door and tell him to go away. A detective, Senior Constable Victor Anastasiadis, said he opened the door, recognised Pastras and said, "Sav, come in." He was taken into Moran's house and a search discovered he had $44,000 in $100 and $50 notes hidden under his jacket in a green plastic bag. After removing the bag, Pastras hunched over and began to shake, he said. Detective Senior Sergeant Marty Allison told the court that Pastras had a look of shock and horror on his face when police confronted him. "He looked as though he had seen a ghost; he couldn't speak. He opened his mouth but words weren't coming out," Senior Sergeant Allison said. Forensic tests revealed the cash showed traces of heroin and cocaine. Savas Pastras was charged with possessing the proceeds of crime. Police alleged the $44,000 was to be paid to Lewis Moran to settle a drug debt. Pastras's lawyer, Stephen Shirrefs, SC, told the court that the warrant used to conduct the raid on Moran's home was illegal. "The search of Mr Pastras and the seizure of the money on him only arose because he was invited into the house by police," Shirrefs said. He said the money could not be deemed proceeds of crime because Moran had not touched the cash and police said it was related to a drug deal "purported to have occurred". Magistrate Ann Collins ruled in April 2004 that Savas Pastras had no case to answer because police could not prove the money was derived from a crime. Collins cleared Pastras in the Broadmeadows Magistrates Court after finding that police could not prove that the money, stashed in a green plastic shopping bag, had anything to do with the sale of drugs. She also found that police could not prove that traces of heroin and cocaine found on the cash did not come from other sources.
- On Monday 15 June underworld identity Desmond Moran was shot and killed at Ascot Vale in Melbourne's north-west. Des Moran was the brother of slain underworld figure Lewis Moran, who was murdered in 2004 during Melbourne's gangland war, and uncle to Mark and Jason Moran, who were also killed in gangland disputes. Des Moran originally escaped serious injury in March 2009 when shots were fired outside his Ascot Vale home. He was in his car with a friend when one shot was fired through the front windscreen, narrowly missing the pair. At the time, a Purana Task Force detective said police did not believe that incident was gangland related. On Tuesday 16 June, his sister-in-law Judy Moran was arrested and charged as the driver, along with two other people in relation to the murder. Judy Moran's house was coincidentally damaged by fire while she was in custody.
- On 19 April 2010, Carl Williams died while incarcerated at Barwon Prison after being bashed by fellow inmate Matthew Charles Johnson, 37, who was already serving multiple life sentences for unrelated gangland murders.
Arrests and sentencing
Carl Williams was later charged along with Victor Brincat and Thomas Hentschel. He pleaded guilty to drug trafficking charges relating to his arrest in 2001 and in October 2004 was given a seven-year jail sentence, which he was serving in the maximum security Acacia unit of Barwon Prison at the time of his death.
Thomas Hentschel turned informer and consequently, on 17 September 2004, Alfonso Traglia, Victor Brincat and Carl Williams were charged with the murders of Jason Moran and Pasquale Barbaro. In May 2005 Carl Williams was additionally charged with the murder of Mark Moran, after a former employee agreed to testify that he was Carl's driver on the day of the incident, and drove him to a location near Mark's house at the time of the murder. Zarah Garde-Wilson, the widow of Lewis Caine, is defending all of the men in their court cases.
In May 2005, Keith Faure, brother Noel Faure, 50, and Evangelos Goussis, 37, all of Geelong were charged with the murder of Lewis Moran and the attempted murder of Bert Wrout. Security footage from Moran's murder showed that one of the gunmen had a tattoo identical to one of the accused. Previously Keith and Evangelos been charged with the murder of Lewis Caine. Faure and associate, Evangelos Goussis became the first convicted of murder related to the gangland killings on 3 November 2005.
Known underworld figure Nicholas Ibrahim and Abraham Mokdessi was charged with the murder of Housam Zayat. During the trial in June 2005 an eyewitness to the shooting refused at the last minute to testify against Ibrahim, and was charged with contempt of court.
In June 2005 Mick Gatto was found not guilty of the murder of Andrew Veniamin. During the trial, he claimed he had acted in self-defence after Veniamin pulled out a .38 calibre handgun and threatened to kill him. Gatto claims that during a struggle he was able to turn the gun around on Veniamin and fire one shot into his neck, and one shot in the eye. He also claimed that during the argument, Veniamin had implicated himself in the deaths of Dino Dibra, Paul Kallipolitis and Graham Kinniburgh.
On 14 July 2006, Damien Cossu was arrested at gunpoint while driving in Sydney. He was charged with the murder of Mark Mallia whose tortured body was stuffed in a wheelie bin, dumped in a stormwater drain and set alight. Cossu was also present at the murder of Nik Radev.
On 28 February 2007, Carl Williams pleaded guilty to murdering Jason Moran in June 2003 and his father Lewis Moran in March 2004. He also pleaded guilty to a third murder, but the name of that victim was suppressed until recently when it was announced that it was Mark Mallia.
On 6 June 2007, it was announced that Mokbel had been arrested in a café in Athens. At the time of his arrest, his appearance had changed significantly from when he went missing. Wearing a brown stuff wig and having grown a beard, Mokbel was found carrying a fake Australian passport and driver's licence in the name of Stephen Papas. Tony Mokbel was finally extradited back to Melbourne (and Barwon Prison) on 17 May 2008, from Athens via a heavily guarded, private charter plane. His flight path included refuelling in the Maldives and Port Hedland, before landing at Tullamarine. He was then flown in a police helicopter to Barwon Prison. He appeared via video link to the Melbourne Magistrates Court on 20 May 2008.
On the same night Mokbel was arrested, police carried out a raid on an underworld gang calling themselves 'The Company'. Fourteen other underworld figures were arrested in Melbourne. Drugs, weapons and $790,000 in cash were seized.
Purana Taskforce detectives arrested Angelo Mario Venditti for the murder of Paul Kallipoitis on 29 July 2008.
On 9 March 2011, Judy Moran, the mother of slain sons, Mark and Jason Moran and also the ex-de facto partner of Lewis Moran (who was murdered in 2004) was found guilty of the murder of her brother-in-law Desmond "Tuppence" Moran. Moran claimed that she was visiting her son, Mark's grave at Fawkner cemetery at the time as the date of the murder was also the ninth anniversary of Mark's death. But the real motive for the crime was on ongoing dispute between Judy and Des over the money remaining after the murders of three family members. Judy Moran drove the shooter, Geoffery Armour and also accomplice Michael Farrugia to and from the Ascot Vale deli where Des was eventually shot and killed. It was then revealed that Armour pleaded guilty to the murder of Des Moran with Farrugia pleading guilty to manslaughter months earlier before becoming the prosecution's star witness in the case against Judy Moran in which the jury took seven days to deliberate before finally finding Moran guilty of murder.
References in popular culture
A drama series detailing the gangland war and the efforts made by the Purana taskforce to contain it, Underbelly, premiered on the Australia local television Nine Network on 13 February 2008. Due to ongoing legal proceedings in Victoria, Justice Betty King prohibited the Nine Network from airing the show in Victoria and from providing access to the show via their website. An edited version commenced screening in Victoria on 14 September 2008. In 2011 the ban was lifted and the series aired in an unedited version in Victoria.
- Flynn, A. "Carl Williams: Secret Deals and Bargained Justice - The Underworld of Victoria's Plea Bargaining System" (PDF). (2007) 19(1) Current Issues in Criminal Justice 120.
- 'The untold, bloody story of Melbourne's underworld war', John Silvester, p.2, Thursday 1 March 2007
- Underworld figure shot dead in Melbourne, The Age, 7 February 2006.
- Carl Williams dies in prison: report, The Age, 19 April 2010
- Hunt, Elissa (8 December 2011). "Carl William's killer Matthew Johnson jailed for at least 32 years". Herald-Sun. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- Cops, robbers, drugs and money, The Age 18 March 2003 Archived 12 June 2005 at the Wayback Machine.
- Silvester, John (11 June 2004). "The big fist of a criminal". The Age. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- 18 October 2003 Things are hotting up for the cop at the top The Age
- 4 September 2003 Vic police review gangland task force[dead link] ABC Online
- 14 December 2003 Claims Vic police stretched thin The Age
- 10 July 2004 Tapes show chase before underworld murder[dead link] ABC Online
- 1 April 2004 Gangland arrests 'saved a life' ABC Online
- Gangitano suspects won't testify, Toby Hemming, The Age, 16 January 2002
- "Fresh leads on car-bomb cold case in which businessman John Furlan died in Coburg". HeraldSun. 25 August 2013.
- "Vince Mannella". Archived from the original on 25 August 2002. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
- Melbourne's underworld hits The Age, 22 June 2003
- DPP v Catania  VSC 189 (22 May 2006)), Supreme Court (Vic, Australia).
- "The Joseph Quadara's". Archived from the original on 11 September 2006. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
- Murder charge No.4 for Williams John Silvester, The Age 26 January 2005
- Williams case for Supreme Court Jewel Topsfield, The Age 20 May 2004 Archived 14 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- Alleged $20m drug trafficker goes free on bail, Olivia Hill-Douglas The Age 18 July 2002
- "Italian Crime Connections". Archived from the original on 9 December 2006. Retrieved 15 October 2005.
- Silvester, J (24 April 2004). "When killers are victims too". 'The Age.
- $100,000 reward to snare underworld hitman Jamie Berry, The Age, 31 December 2004
- Man arrested over gangland shooting, News.com.au, 29 July 2008 Archived 28 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- New lead in Bulgarian Nik's killing John Silvester The Age 13 December 2003
- Six named in underworld investigations Steve Butcher, The Age 23 December 2003
- Crime Scene John Silvester, The Age 13 December 2003
- Shooting heightens fears of underworld war John Silvester, Padraic Murphy, Robert Upe, The Age 23 July 2003
- Wealthy dating couple executed, Mark Buttler and Paul Anderson, The Herald Sun 21 October 2003
- Burial ground Adam Shand, The Bulletin 31 March 2004
- Mobsters Inc: How Melbourne became No.1 with a bullet[dead link] Adam Shand, The Bulletin 14 February 2004
- A gangster who lived as he died: by the gun The Age, 5 March 2005 Archived 10 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- Silvester, J (31 May 2008). "Murder probe leads to Dutch jail cell". The Age..
- Chris Evans & Dan Silkstone (1 June 2004). "Police probe on gang-hit pair". The Age.
- 'Ganglands: The Force Strikes Back' Adam Shand, Sunday 13 June 2004 Archived 12 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- Disguised Mokbel grabbed at seaside cafe – The Age, 6 June 2007 Archived 27 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- R v Hentschel  VSC 6 (19 January 2005), Supreme Court (Vic, Australia).
- Williams ordered killings, court told Stephen Moynihan, The Age 2 March 2005
- Three facing charges over Moran killing John Silvester, The Age 13 May 2005
- Underworld killing witness jailed for contempt Steve Butcher, The Age 7 June 2005
- Lawyers, guns and Gatto Mark Russell, The Age 19 June 2005
- Madden, J. "Gangland killers found guilty". News.com.au. Archived from the original on 7 November 2005.
- Man remanded over gangland killing ninemsn 14 July 2006 Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Man extradited over gangland murder Jane Holroyd, The Age 14 July 2006
- Tony Mokbel's failed $1.6m bribe, The Daily Telegraph, 7 June 2007 Archived 14 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- Mokbel due to appeal in court on Tuesday, Ninemsn, 2008-18-05 Archived 12 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- Cash, drugs and weapons seized, The Age, 6 June 2007 Archived 6 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- Man in court over gangland murder, News.com.au, 29 July 2008
- Anderson, Paul (9 March 2011). "Judy Moran found guilty of the-murder-of Des 'Tuppence' Moran". Herald Sun.
- ^Note 1 : The names listed here are limited to those people who are deceased or have been charged with a murder, have identified themselves as a member of a particular group, or have been publicly identified by Police and multiple news reports. During this period various factions formed alliances with each other, as well as fought amongst themselves. Some characters mentioned in this article have not been associated with any groups.
- Melbournecrime.com Crime Scene – Melbourne Underworld (An online guide to the Melbourne Underworld)
- Melbourne's Underworld Walkley award-winning flash-based segment from The Age website
- The Age: Features: Gangland Killings (all articles relating to the murders up until 3 June 2004) The Age
- The Age: Features: Crime & Corruption (recent archive of crime-related articles in Melbourne) The Age
- Melbourne Underworld News News, links, analysis and comments on Melbourne's Underworld Anonymous Blog.
- Filthy Rat by Simon Illingworth – an insight into Melbourne's gangland killings and police corruption.