Mindelo

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Mindelo
Mindelo from MonteVerde.jpg
Mindelo is located in Cape Verde
Mindelo
Coordinates: 16°53′10″N 24°59′17″W / 16.886°N 24.988°W / 16.886; -24.988Coordinates: 16°53′10″N 24°59′17″W / 16.886°N 24.988°W / 16.886; -24.988
CountryCape Verde
IslandSão Vicente
MunicipalitySão Vicente
Civil parishNossa Senhora da Luz
Population (2010)[1]
 • Total69,904

Mindelo is a port city[2] in the northern part of the island of São Vicente in Cape Verde. Mindelo is also the seat of the parish of Nossa Senhora da Luz, and this island's municipality. The city is home to 93% of the entire island's population. Mindelo is known for its colourful and animated carnival celebrations, with roots in Portuguese traditions.

History[edit]

Old postcard of Mindelo from the early 20th century

A settlement at Mindelo was founded in 1793 by the Portuguese.[3]:34 It was initially named Nossa Senhora da Luz, renamed Leopoldina around 1820 after the Queen consort. In 1838 it was renamed Mindelo after the 1832 Landing at Mindelo, north of Porto.[3]:42-48 It became a coal deposit for ships of the British East India Company in 1838, followed by the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company in 1850. The settlement became a town (vila) in 1858, and had 1,400 inhabitants then.[3]:55 It became a city (cidade) in 1879, and had 3,717 inhabitants then.[3]:61-63 In 1884 a submarine communications cable was laid between Europe, Africa, India and North America, making Mindelo an important communications centre for the British Empire.

From the beginning of the 20th century the port of Mindelo lost its importance for transatlantic navigation. Causes for this were the shift from coal to oil as fuel for ships, the rise of competing ports like Dakar and the Canary Islands and the lack of investment in port infrastructure.[3]:76-80 Between 1910 and 1940 there were several strikes in Mindelo, and on 7 June 1934 there were riots in the streets of Mindelo, caused by unemployment and poverty. One man was killed, several were injured.[4]

Between 1940 and 1958 three prolonged periods of severe drought, combined with soil erosion and overgrazing, brought famine in Cape Verde.[5] In the whole archipelago, about 45,000 people died and 20,000 people emigrated. Mindelo attracted immigrants, notably from nearby Santo Antão, and continued to grow.[3]:86

Mindelo was the cultural capital of the Portuguese-speaking world from November 2002 until November 2003.[6] Mindelo is also considered the cultural capital of Cape Verde.[according to whom?]

Geography[edit]

Downtown Mindelo seen from 'Gud'

Mindelo is situated at the Porto Grande Bay, a large natural harbour. The town is surrounded by low mountains: the Monte Cara and the Morro Branco headland to the west, and the Monte Verde to the east. The town is crossed by the river Ribeira de Julião.

The Cesária Évora Airport lies 9 km (6 mi) southwest of Mindelo, near the village São Pedro. Ferries for Santo Antão leave from the port.

Subdivisions[edit]

The city is divided into the following localities for statistical reasons:[7]

  • Alto Miramar
  • Alto Morabeza
  • Alto Santo António
  • Alto São Nicolau
  • Alto Solarine/Forca
  • Atrás do Cemitério/Sul do Cemitério
  • Bela Vista/Pedreira
  • Campinho
  • Chã de Alecrim
  • Chã de Cemitério
  • Chã de Monte Sossego
  • Chê Guevarra
  • City center/Morada
  • Cruz João Evora
  • Dji d'Sal
  • Fernando Pó
  • Fonte Cónego
  • Fonte Filipe
  • Fonte Françês
  • Fonte Inês/Espia
  • Fonte Meio/Madeiralzinho
  • Fortinho/Escola Técnica
  • Horta Seca
  • Lazareto
  • Matiota
  • Monte/Craca
  • Monte Sossego
  • Pedra Rolada
  • Ribeira Bote
  • Ribeira da Craquinha
  • Ribeira de Julião
  • Ribeira de Passarão
  • Ribeirinha
  • Vila Nova/Lombo Tanque
  • Zona Industrial Sul
  • Zona Militar

Climate[edit]

Mindelo city has a desert climate (classified as BWh according to Köppen's and Geiger's systematization), much akin to Santa Cruz de Tenerife or Las Palmas on the Canary Islands with only difference of being somewhat warmer during winter months. The average annual temperature in Mindelo is 23.6 °C (74 °F). It is very dry with only 127 mm (5 in) annual precipitation.

Climate data for Mindelo
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.2
(84.6)
29.5
(85.1)
30.3
(86.5)
29.5
(85.1)
31.5
(88.7)
30.5
(86.9)
33.6
(92.5)
31.8
(89.2)
32.7
(90.9)
31.5
(88.7)
31.0
(87.8)
30.0
(86)
33.6
(92.5)
Average high °C (°F) 23.4
(74.1)
23.3
(73.9)
23.6
(74.5)
24.0
(75.2)
24.6
(76.3)
25.4
(77.7)
26.6
(79.9)
27.8
(82)
28.4
(83.1)
27.9
(82.2)
26.6
(79.9)
24.6
(76.3)
25.5
(77.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 21.4
(70.5)
21.4
(70.5)
21.6
(70.9)
22.1
(71.8)
22.7
(72.9)
23.6
(74.5)
24.6
(76.3)
25.8
(78.4)
26.4
(79.5)
26.0
(78.8)
24.8
(76.6)
23.0
(73.4)
23.6
(74.5)
Average low °C (°F) 19.3
(66.7)
19.4
(66.9)
19.6
(67.3)
20.2
(68.4)
20.8
(69.4)
21.7
(71.1)
22.6
(72.7)
23.7
(74.7)
24.5
(76.1)
24.1
(75.4)
23.1
(73.6)
21.3
(70.3)
21.7
(71.1)
Record low °C (°F) 16.5
(61.7)
13.5
(56.3)
15.6
(60.1)
15.0
(59)
15.0
(59)
18.0
(64.4)
17.5
(63.5)
14.5
(58.1)
19.0
(66.2)
18.5
(65.3)
19.0
(66.2)
17.0
(62.6)
13.5
(56.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 3
(0.12)
5
(0.2)
1
(0.04)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
3
(0.12)
20
(0.79)
39
(1.54)
29
(1.14)
18
(0.71)
9
(0.35)
127
(5)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 5 2 2 2 18
Average relative humidity (%) 70 70 68 69 72 74 75 76 77 74 72 69 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 229.4 237.3 275.9 291.0 306.9 276.0 248.0 226.3 225.0 238.7 225.0 201.5 2,981
Mean daily sunshine hours 7.4 8.4 8.9 9.7 9.9 9.2 8.0 7.3 7.5 7.7 7.5 6.5 8.2
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst[8]

Economy[edit]

New hotel developments in Praia da Lajinha, Mindelo

Its economy consists mainly of business, fishing, shipping, boating and more commonly tourism which developed more recently. Mindelo has several hotels, restaurants and tourist agencies.

Cityscape[edit]

Porto Grande
Palácio do Povo

The main streets of Mindelo are Avenida Marginal along the waterfront, and the perpendicular Rua Libertadores de África (former Rua Lisboa). Many colonial buildings from the 19th and early 20th century have been preserved in the city centre. Sites of interest include:[3]:118-127

Fortim d'El Rei

Statues[edit]

International relations[edit]

Mindelo has been twinned with the following cities:

Twin towns — sister cities[edit]

Education[edit]

Demography[edit]

At the 2010 census, Mindelo had 70,468 inhabitants. It is the second largest city in Cape Verde after Praia.

Population of the city of Mindelo (1980–2010)[9]
1980 1990 2000 2010
36,746 47,109 62,497 70,468

Sporting teams[edit]

Mindelo has several sports teams that includes the city, Académica, Corinthians and Derby are clubs that includes the entire island.

The main football stadium is Estádio Municipal Adérito Sena. Basketball, volleyball and futsal are played at Polivalente de Amarante in the southwest.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2010 Census results". Instituto Nacional de Estatística Cabo Verde (in Portuguese). 24 November 2016.
  2. ^ Cabo Verde, Statistical Yearbook 2015, Instituto Nacional de Estatística, p. 32-33
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Génese e desenvolvimento da cidade do Mindelo: a preservação de uma identidade, Fred Yanick Fonseca Delgado, 2016
  4. ^ Mindelo: entre a Ficção e a Realidade, buala.org
  5. ^ Keese, Alexander (2012). "Managing the Prospect of Famine. Cape Verdean Officials, Subsistence Emergencies, and the Change of Elite Attitudes During Portugal's Late Colonial Phase, 1939-1961" (PDF). Itinerario. XXXVI (1): 49–69. doi:10.1017/S0165115312000368.
  6. ^ Capital Lusófona 2003 (in Portuguese)
  7. ^ "2010 Census results São Vicente". Instituto Nacional de Estatística Cabo Verde (in Portuguese). 24 November 2016.
  8. ^ "Klimatafel von Mindelo / Sao Vicente / Kapverden (Rep. Kap Verde)" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  9. ^ Source: City Population, citing the Instituto Nacional de Estatísticas.