National Bolshevik Front
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National Bolshevik Front has been used as a name for three separate strands of National Bolshevism. The name initially applied to the Russian National Bolshevik Party of Eduard Limonov when it was founded in 1993. The group soon changed its name as it emerged as a political party.
Although abandoned by the Russian group as a name, the term is still used to refer to a loose federation of National Bolshevik organisations that spreads across much of Europe and even has branches in Venezuela and Bolivia. Of these the most important is that in Russia, with the others being largely insignificant (although the Parti Communautaire National-Européen has been associated with the group).
In August 2006 the name was taken by Alexei Golubovich for a new anti-Limonovist splinter group from the National Bolshevik Party that he led. This new group has links with former NBP member Aleksandr Dugin and closely cooperates with the Eurasian Youth Union, a group of young supporters of Dugin's Neo-Eurasianism.
The NBF's founders split from the National Bolshevik Party as they disagreed with what they perceived to be Limonov's policies of forging political alliances with pro western liberals and 'oligarchs' in order to overthrow Vladimir Putin's government. The NBF considered this policy to be a betrayal of the original National Bolshevik fight against western style democracy and capitalism; in the NBF's view the NBP is no longer a National Bolshevik party, but rather the radical-looking wing of a wider revolutionary front supported by the enemies of Russian sovereignty.
The new NBF perceives exiled oligarchs, like Boris Berezovsky and Vladimir Gusinsky, and liberal-democratic pro-western and pro-market political forces (such as the Union of Rightist Forces, Yabloko, Democratic Union and Kasparov's supporters) as Russia's internal enemies, the external ones being perceived as NATO, American imperialism and the New world order. NBF ideology is deeply rooted in the Russian and German National Bolshevik traditions (Ernst Niekisch, Nikolay Ustryalov, the Smenavekhites and the Mladorossi movement) and they reject political and economic liberalism as well as claiming to reject ethnocentric and chauvinist nationalism.
Although it is not officially supported by NBF doctrine, xenophobia, racism, and antisemitism are much more mainstreamed by the aggressive NBF when compared to the more “progressive″ Limonovist NBP.
- Galina Kozhevnikova, Alexander Verkhovsky. The Sowing Season in the Field of Russian Nationalism, Sova Center, presented June 20, 2007, published July 17, 2007