Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)
|"Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)"|
The 1966 Australian single release of the song, backed with "Nowhere Man"
|Song by The Beatles|
|from the album Rubber Soul|
|Released||3 December 1965|
|Recorded||12 and 21 October 1965,|
EMI Studios, London
Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)
"Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles. It was primarily written by John Lennon, and credited to the songwriting partnership of John Lennon and Paul McCartney and was first released on the album Rubber Soul on 3 December 1965. Influenced by the introspective lyrics of Bob Dylan, "Norwegian Wood" is considered a milestone in the Beatles' progression as complex songwriters. Ravi Shankar and the recordings of studio musicians during the Help! filming sessions inspired lead guitarist George Harrison to incorporate the sitar into the song.
"Norwegian Wood" was influential in the development in raga rock and psychedelic rock, even though it was not the first song to feature an Eastern-inspired sound in a rock composition, and not even the first Beatles song to do so. Not long afterwards, Indian classical music became popularised in mainstream Western society, and several Western musical artists such as the Byrds, the Rolling Stones, and Donovan integrated elements of the genre into their musical approach. Accordingly, "Norwegian Wood" is recognised as a bona fide raga-rock song, as well as fundamental in the early evolution of the genre later regarded as world music.
The song's lyrics are about an extramarital affair that John Lennon was involved in, as hinted in the opening couplet: "I once had a girl, or should I say, she once had me". Though Lennon never revealed whom he had an affair with, writer Philip Norman speculates that it was either close friend and journalist Maureen Cleave, or Sonny Freeman. Paul McCartney explained that the term "Norwegian Wood" was a sarcastic reference to the cheap pine wall panelling then in vogue (e.g. in guitarist Peter Asher's bedroom). McCartney commented on the final verse of the song: "In our world the guy had to have some sort of revenge. It could have meant I lit a fire to keep myself warm, and wasn't the decor of her house wonderful? But it didn't, it meant I burned the fucking place down as an act of revenge, and then we left it there and went into the instrumental."
According to Lennon, the lyrics were primarily his creation, with the middle eight being credited to McCartney. In 1980, Lennon changed his claim, saying it was "my song completely". Since Lennon's death, however, McCartney has contended that Lennon brought the opening couplet to one of their joint songwriting sessions, and that they finished the song together, with the middle eight and the title (and the "fire") being among McCartney's contributions. Regardless, Lennon began writing the song in February 1965, while on holiday with his wife, Cynthia, and record producer George Martin at St. Moritz in the Swiss Alps. Over the following days, Lennon expanded on an acoustic arrangement of the song, which was written in a Dylanesque 6
8 time signature, and showed it to Martin while he recovered from a skiing injury. In his book The Songs of Lennon: The Beatle Years, author John Stevens describes "Norwegian Wood" as a turning point in folk-style ballads, writing "Lennon moves quickly from one lyrical image to another, leaving it up to the listener's imagination to complete the picture". He also said the song marked a pivotal moment in Lennon's use of surreal lyrics, following on from the earlier songs "Ask Me Why" and "There's a Place".
Between 5 April and 6 April 1965, while filming the second Beatles movie, Help!, at Twickenham Film Studios, George Harrison first encountered the sitar, a prominent feature in "Norwegian Wood". A group of Indian session musicians sparked Harrison's interest when they performed the instrumental "Another Hard Day's Night", a medley of three Beatles compositions – "A Hard Day's Night", "Can't Buy Me Love" and "I Should Have Known Better" – arranged to feature the sitar, among other instruments. It was not the first instance in which Indian influence was evident in a Western composition: the raga-like drone was found in the Beatles' "Ticket to Ride", as well as in the Kinks' rare foray into psychedelic rock with their song "See My Friends". The Yardbirds also created a similar sound with a distorted electric guitar on their recording of "Heart Full of Soul". On 25 August 1965, during the Beatles' American tour, Harrison's friend David Crosby of the Byrds discussed in detail his thoughts about Indian classical music, and the work of sitar virtuoso Ravi Shankar. Once back in London, Harrison followed Crosby's suggestion by seeking out Shankar's recordings. He also purchased a cheap sitar, from the Indiacraft store on Oxford Street.
Harrison shared his enthusiasm with the other Beatles, and felt that, overall, his bandmates "were growing very quickly and there were a lot of influences". While McCartney later admitted that he found Indian music "boring", Lennon was intrigued by the genre's mystical qualities, although he possessed a disdain for any formal method or training. Lennon was simply intrigued with the sound of the sitar and was open to the possibilities that the instrument had to offer. Harrison introduced drummer Ringo Starr to the tabla, an Indian hand drum. Starr was completely mystified and refused to learn how to play it; Harrison recalled it was "so far out to him".
The Beatles recorded an early version of "Norwegian Wood" during the first day of sessions for their album Rubber Soul, on 12 October 1965. The session took place at EMI Studios in London, with George Martin producing. Titled "This Bird Has Flown", the song was extensively rehearsed by the group, who then taped the rhythm track in a single take, featuring two 12-string acoustic guitars, bass, and a faint sound of cymbals. Harrison added his sitar part, with the take emphasising the drone quality of the instrument more so than the remake that was eventually released. The sound of the sitar proved difficult to capture, according to sound engineer Norman Smith, who recalled problems with "a lot of nasty peaks and a very complex wave form". He declined to use a limiter, which would have fixed the technical problem with distortion, but would have affected the sound.
Lennon overdubbed a lead vocal, which he double tracked at the end of each line in the verses. Designed as a comedy number, this version exhibited a less folk-orientated sound, relative to the recording issued on Rubber Soul, instead highlighting laboured vocals and an unusual sitar conclusion. The band were unsatisfied with the song, however, and decided to return to it nine days later. This original take of "Norwegian Wood" was first released on the 1996 compilation album Anthology 2.
The Beatles reconvened at EMI Studios on 21 October to conduct three additional takes, including the master. The group experimented with the arrangements, with the second take introducing a double-tracked sitar opening that complemented Lennon's acoustic melody. Though the group completely reshaped "Norwegian Wood", it was far from the album version. Harrison's sitar playing is still at the forefront, alongside heavy drumbeats. The take was not considered suitable for overdubbing, so the band scrapped it, and re-evaluated the arrangement. By the third take, the song was called "Norwegian Wood", and the group changed the key from D major, to E major.[a] The Beatles skipped the rhythm section on this take, and decided to jump directly to the master take. In all, the rhythm section accommodates the acoustics, and the band thought the musical style was an improvement over earlier run-throughs. Therefore, the sitar is an accompaniment, consequently affecting the droning sound evident in past takes. Looking back on the recording sessions in the 1990s, Harrison explained his inclusion of the sitar to be "quite spontaneous from what I remember", adding, "We miked it up and put it on and it just seemed to hit the spot".
Reception and legacy
"Norwegian Wood" was released on Rubber Soul on 3 December 1965. The song marked the first example of a rock band playing a sitar or any Indian instrument on one of their recordings. Although droning guitars had been used previously to mimic the qualities of the sitar, "Norwegian Wood" is generally credited as sparking a musical craze for the sound of the novel instrument in the mid-1960s. The song is often identified as the first example of raga rock, while the trend it initiated led to the arrival of Indian rock and formed the essence of psychedelic rock. "Norwegian Wood" is also recognised as an important piece of what is typically called "world music", and it was a major step towards incorporating non-Western musical influences into Western popular music. The composition, coupled with advice given by Harrison, sparked the interest of Rolling Stones multi-instrumentalist Brian Jones, who soon integrated the sitar into "Paint It Black", another landmark song in the development of raga and Indian rock. Other pieces exemplifying the rapid growth of interest in Indian music by contemporary Western musicians include Donovan's "Sunshine Superman", the Yardbirds' "Shapes of Things", and the Byrds' "Eight Miles High", among others.
According to author Jonathan Gould, the impact of "Norwegian Wood" "transformed" Ravi Shankar's career, and the Indian sitarist later wrote of first being aware of a "great sitar explosion" in popular music during the spring of 1966, when he was performing a series of concerts in the UK. Harrison furthered his admiration for Indian culture and mysticism, introducing it to the other Beatles. In June 1966, Harrison met Shankar in London and became a student under the master sitarist. Having added the sitar accompaniment to "Norwegian Wood", Harrison expanded upon his initial effort by writing "Love You To", which showcased his immersion in Indian music, and presented an authentic representation of a non-Western music form in a rock song. Prior to the recording sessions for Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, Harrison made a pilgrimage to Bombay, India with his wife Pattie, where he continued his studies with Shankar and was introduced to the teachings of several yogis. Harrison contributed "Within You Without You" to Sgt. Pepper, featuring himself as the only performing Beatle together with uncredited musicians playing dilruba, swarmandal and tabla, alongside a string section. For the remainder of his career, he evolved his understanding of Indian musicianship, particularly in his slide guitar playing.
Writing for the AllMusic website, music historian Richie Unterberger described "Norwegian Wood" as possessing "more than enough ambiguity and ingenious innuendo to satisfy even a Dylan fan". He also noted, with reference to the Beatles' progression as songwriters: "For listeners who were more Beatles fans than Dylan ones, the group had sure come a long way since 'She Loves You' just two years back." Unterberger concludes his review by commenting, "The power of the track is greatly enhanced by McCartney's sympathetic high harmonies on the bridge, and its exoticism confirmed by George Harrison's twanging sitar riffs". A reviewer for Rolling Stone magazine noted "Norwegian Wood" and "Think for Yourself" as documents of the Beatles' increasing awareness and creativity in the studio. Scott Plagenhoef of Pitchfork Media considers the song to be one of the most self-evident Lennon pieces on Rubber Soul to exemplify his maturity as a songwriter, and praises the composition as "an economical and ambiguous story-song highlighted by Harrison's first dabbling with the Indian sitar".
In his book on the Rubber Soul era, subtitled The Enduring Beauty of Rubber Soul, John Kruth refers to "Norwegian Wood" as a "striking from the first listen" kind of tune that "transported Beatles fans north to the pristine forests of Scandinavia". Kennack Womack praises how the song "reinterprets a familiar theme, in this case the loss of 'love' (well represented in earlier songs such as 'Don't Bother Me' and 'Misery'), providing listeners with security yet challenging those inclined to acknowledge the standard treatment". Stephen J. Spignesi rates "Norwegian Wood" at number 42 in his book 100 Best Beatles Songs: A Passionate Fan's Guide, reasoning it was "the most clear-cut evidence that the Beatles as artists had grown restless, and were no longer content with what had been considered up until then to be traditional rock". Among other Beatles examiners, Ted Montgomery comments: "Perhaps no other song in rock and roll history captures a feel and nuance more succinctly and powerfully in 2:05 than 'Norwegian Wood'".
The song has been covered by numerous artists, including Waylon Jennings, Tangerine Dream, Hank Williams Jr, Cornershop, Rahul Dev Burman and P.M. Dawn; in 1968, Alan Copeland won the Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Performance by a Chorus for a medley of "Norwegian Wood" and the theme from Mission: Impossible.
- John Lennon – double-tracked vocals, acoustic guitar
- Paul McCartney – bass guitar, harmony vocals
- George Harrison – 12-string acoustic guitar, double-tracked sitar
- Ringo Starr – tambourine, bass drum
- Unterberger, Richie. "Great Moments in Folk Rock: Lists of Author Favorites". richieunterberger.com. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
- Williams 2002, p. 101.
- Norman 2008, pp. 418–419.
- Jackson 2015, pp. 257.
- Miles 1997, pp. 270–71.
- "100 Greatest Beatles Songs". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- "The 25 Greatest Rock Memoirs of All Time". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- Stevens 2002, pp. 122–123.
- Howlett 2009, p. 8.
- Stevens 2002, pp. 127–128.
- Spitz 2013, p. 108.
- Lavezzoli 2006, pp. 173–74.
- Giuliano 1997, p. 52.
- MacDonald 2005, pp. 143–44.
- Halpin, Michael (3 December 2015). "Rubber Soul – 50th Anniversary of The Beatles Classic Album". Louder Than War. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
- Bellman 1998, p. 297.
- Inglis 2010, p. 136.
- Lavezzoli 2006, p. 153.
- Rodriguez 2012, p. 41.
- Turner 2016, p. 81.
- Lavezzoli 2006, pp. 173, 174.
- Turner 2016, pp. 81–82.
- Spitz 2013.
- Kruth 2015, p. 72.
- MacDonald 2005, pp. 161–62.
- Unterberger 2006, p. 132.
- Lewisohn 2005, p. 63.
- Kruth 2015, pp. 74.
- Margotin & Guesdon 2013, pp. 280–281.
- Unterberger 2006, pp. 132–134.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Beatles Anthology 2 review". AllMusic. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- Lewisohn 2005, p. 65.
- Ryan 2006, p. 397.
- MacDonald 2005, p. 165.
- Spizer 2006.
- Kruth 2015, p. 77.
- Kruth 2015, p. 69.
- Lewisohn 2005, pp. 69, 200.
- Miles 2001, pp. 215, 217.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Beatles Rubber Soul review". AllMusic. Rovi Corp. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
- Rodriguez 2012, p. 69.
- Lavezzoli 2006, p. 173.
- Bag, Shamik (20 January 2018). "The Beatles' magical mystery tour of India". Live Mint. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- Bellman 1998, p. 292.
- Howlett 2009.
- "John Lennon: The Rolling Stone Interview – 1968". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- Perone 2012, p. 92.
- Everett 1999, p. 40.
- Gould 2007, pp. 368–69.
- Collaborations (Boxed set booklet). Ravi Shankar and George Harrison. Dark Horse Records. 2010.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Beatles 'Love You To' review". AllMusic. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Inglis 2010, p. 7.
- Tillery 2011, pp. 56–58.
- Lavezzoli 2006, pp. 177–78.
- MacDonald 2005, p. 243.
- Lavezzoli 2006, p. 197.
- Unterberger, Richie. "The Beatles 'Norwegian Wood' review". AllMusic. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
- "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
- Plagenhoef, Scott. "The Beatles Rubber Soul". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
- Kruth 2015, p. 17.
- Womack 2009, p. 79.
- Spignesi 2004, p. 170.
- Montgomery 2014, p. 65.
- "These Indian covers of Norwegian Wood sound as distinctive today as the Beatles first 'sitar song'". Scroll.in. 2015-10-11. Retrieved 2016-05-03.
- Strong, Martin C. (2000). The Great Rock Discography (5th ed.). Edinburgh: Mojo Books. pp. 750–751. ISBN 1-84195-017-3.
- 11th Annual Grammy Awards, at Grammy.com; retrieved July 3, 2017
- Everett 2001, p. 314.
- Bellman, Jonathan (1998). The Exotic in Western Music. Northeastern University Press. ISBN 1-55553-319-1.
- Everett, Walter (1999). The Beatles as Musicians: Revolver Through the Anthrology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509553-7.
- Giuliano, Geoffry (1997). Dark Horse: The Life and Art of George Harrison. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-80747-3.
- Gould, Jonathan (2007). Can't Buy Me Love: The Beatles, Britain and America. London: Piatkus. ISBN 978-0-7499-2988-6.
- Howlett, Kevin (2009). Rubber Soul (CD booklet). The Beatles. Parlophone Records.
- Inglis, Ian (2010). The Words and Music of George Harrison (1st ed.). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-37532-3.
- Kruth, John (2015). This Bird Has Flown: The Enduring Beauty of Rubber Soul Fifty Years On. Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-1-61713-573-6.
- Jackson, Andrew (2015). 1965: The Most Revolutionary Year in Music. Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-1-250-05962-8.
- Lavezzoli, Peter (2006). The Dawn of Indian Music in the West: Bhairavi. Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-1815-5.
- Lewisohn, Mark (2005). The Complete Beatles Recording Sessions: The Official Story of the Abbey Road Years 1962–1970. London: Bounty Books. ISBN 978-0-7537-2545-0.
- MacDonald, Ian (2005). Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties (Second Revised ed.). London: Pimlico Books at Random House. ISBN 1-84413-828-3.
- Margotin, Philippe; Guesdon, Jean-Michel (2013). All the Songs: The Story Behind Every Beatles Release. Black Dog & Leventhal. ISBN 978-1-57912-952-1.
- Miles, Barry (1997). Paul McCartney: Many Years from Now. New York: Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 0-8050-5249-6.
- Miles, Barry (2001). The Beatles Diary, Volume 1: The Beatles Years. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-7119-8308-3.
- Montgomery, Ted (2014). The Beatles Through Headphones. McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-7863-7.
- Norman, Philip (2008). John Lennon: The Life. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-66100-3.
- Pedler, Dominic (2003). The Songwriting Secrets of the Beatles. Omnibus Press.
- Perone, James E. (2012). The Album (1st ed.). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-37906-2.
- Rodriguez, Robert (2012). Revolver: How the Beatles Reimagined Rock 'n' Roll. Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-1-61713-009-0.
- Ryan, Kevin (2006). Recording the Beatles: The Studio Equipment and Techniques Used to Create Their Classic Albums. Curvebender Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9785200-0-7.
- Spignesi, Stephen J. (2004). 100 Best Beatles Songs: A Passionate Fan's Guide. Black Dog Publishing. ISBN 1-57912-369-4.
- Spitz, Bob (2013). "The British Invasion". Time.
- Spizer, Bruce (2006). The Capitol Albums, Volume 2 (CD booklet). The Beatles. Capitol Records.
- Stevens, John (2002). The Songs of John Lennon: The Beatles Years (1st ed.). Boston: Berklee Press. ISBN 0-634-01795-0.
- Tillery, Gary (2011). Working Class Mystic: A Spiritual Biography of George Harrison. Wheaton, Illinois: Quest Books. ISBN 978-0-8356-0900-5.
- Turner, Steve (2016). Beatles '66: The Revolutionary Year. New York, NY: HarperLuxe. ISBN 978-0-06-249713-0.
- Unterberger, Richie (2006). The Unreleased Beatles: Music & Film. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-892-6.
- Williams, Paul (2002). The Crawdaddy! Book: Writings (and Images) from the Magazine of Rock. Hal Leonard. ISBN 0-634-02958-4.
- Womack, Kennack (2009). The Cambridge Companion to the Beatles. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86965-2.
- Sheff, David (2000). All We Are Saying: The Last Major Interview with John Lennon and Yoko Ono. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-25464-4.
- Shepherd, John; Horn, David (2003). Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Part 1– Performance and Production, Volume 2 (1st ed.). London: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-6321-5.
- Spitz, Bob (2005). The Beatles: The Biography. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-80352-9.