Within You Without You
|"Within You Without You"|
|Song by the Beatles from the album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band|
|Released||1 June 1967|
|Recorded||15 and 22 March and 3 April 1967,
EMI Studios, London
|Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band track listing|
Background and inspiration
Harrison began writing "Within You Without You" on a harmonium at the house of long-time Beatles associate Klaus Voormann. It was the second of his songs to be explicitly influenced by Indian classical music, after "Love You To". Since recording the latter track, for the Beatles' 1966 album Revolver, Harrison had immersed himself in the study of the Indian sitar, partly under the tutelage of Ravi Shankar. He later said: "I was continually playing Indian [sitar exercises] called Sargam, which are the bases of the different Ragas. That's why around this time I couldn't help writing tunes like this which were based on unusual scales."
In addition to his new musical influences, Harrison had travelled to India in September 1966 and become fascinated by Hindu philosophy and spirituality. In his autobiography, I, Me, Mine, he comments that the period coincided with his introduction to meditation.
"Within You Without You" is mostly in Mixolydian mode, or rather Khamaj thaat, the equivalent in Indian music. The song, in the tonic (I) key of C (sped up to C# on the finished recording), is structured around an exotic Mixolydian melody over a constant C-G "root-fifth" drone that is neither obviously major nor minor.
It opens with a very short alap played by the tambouras (0:00-0:04), then dilruba (from 0:04) while a swarmandal is gently stroked to announce the pentatonic portion of the scale. A tabla then begins (at 0:23) playing a 16-beat tintal in a Madhya laya (medium tempo) and the dilruba plaintively backs the opening line of the verse (Bandish) or gat: "We were talking about the space between us all." The opening words "We were talking" are sung to an E-F-G-B♭ melody tritone interval (E to B♭) that enhances the spiritual dissonance sought to be evoked. Soon an 11-piece string section plays a series of unusual slides to match the Indian music idiom where the melody is often "played legato rounded in microtones, rather than staccato as in Western music".
The instrumental after the second verse and chorus involves the tabla switching from the 16 beat tintal to a 10 beat jhaptal cycle. As a pointed counterpoint to the verse echoes of ancient Vedantic philosophy ("wall of illusion" "When you've seen beyond yourself, then you may find peace of mind is waiting there") a sawal-jawab (musical dialogue) begins in 5/4 time between first the dilruba and Harrison's sitar, then between the full Western string section and Harrison's sitar, this tellingly resolving into a melody in unison and together stating the tihai that closes the middle segment. Gould describes the strings as here making "their way through the bustle and drone of the Indian instruments with the slightly shaky dignity of a procession of sahibs in sedan chairs". After this, the drone is again prominent and the swarmandal plays an ascending scale, followed by a lone cello in descending scale that leads to the final verse in 16-beat tintal ("And the time will come when you see we're all one, and life flows on within you and without you") ending with the notes of the dilruba left hanging, until the tonal and spiritual tension is relieved by a muted use of canned laughter.
Pollack considers that there two likely interpretations of the use of canned laughter. The first is that the presumably xenophobic Victorian/Edwardian-era audience implicit in the Sgt. Pepper band and concert concept "is letting off a little tension of this perceived confrontation with pagan elements". The second holds that the composer is engaging in "an endearingly sincere nanosecond of acknowledgement of the apparent existential absurdity of the son-of-a-Liverpudlian bus driver espousing such other-worldly beliefs and sentiments". Two slightly different laugh tracks were used for the mono and stereo mixes. The laughter is slightly quieter than the instrumental track in the stereo version. However, it comes in more sudden and louder in the mono version.
The basic track for "Within You Without You" featured only Harrison and a group of uncredited Indian musicians. As with his Indian accompanists on "Love You To", Harrison sourced these musicians through the Asian Music Circle in north London. According to Prema Music, dilruba player Amrit Gajjar played on the track. Hunter Davies wrote that Harrison "trained himself to write down his song in Indian script so that the Indian musicians [could] play them". With "Within You Without You", he became the second Beatle to record a song credited to the Beatles but featuring no other members of the group, Paul McCartney having done so with "Yesterday" in 1965. The song is Harrison's only composition on Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, after "Only a Northern Song" was omitted from the album.
Recording began on 15 March 1967 at Abbey Road studio 2, with the musicians sitting on a carpet with lights low and incense burning. Producer George Martin then arranged the string orchestration for the song, which was added on 3 April, and Harrison and Beatles aide Neil Aspinall overdubbed the tambura. Martin's score for eight violins and three cellos attempted to imitate the slides and bends of the dilrubas. The recording released on the album was sped up enough to raise the key from C to C#. An instrumental version of the song at the original speed and in the original key appears on the Anthology 2 album.
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band was released on 1 June 1967, with "Within You Without You" sequenced as the opening track on side two of the LP. At just over five minutes' duration, it was the album's longest track. Recalling the release in his book The Beatles Diary, Barry Miles writes: "Some thought it a masterpiece, some a prime example of mock-philosophical babble. Either way, it was pure Harrison."
Stephen Stills was so impressed with the lyrics to the song that he had them carved on a stone monument in his yard. John Lennon also admired the track, saying: "His mind and his music are clear. There is his innate talent, he brought that sound together." In a 1973 interview, Lennon said it was his favourite song of Harrison's.
"Within You Without You" was included on the 2006 remix album Love. For this album, George Harrison's vocal and sitar parts were mixed over McCartney's bass and Ringo's drum parts from "Tomorrow Never Knows", although the opening lyric, "Turn off your mind ... Relax and float downstream ... It is not dying ... it is not dying", come from "Tomorrow Never Knows", as does the set of reversed sound effects utilised in the mashup. During part of the second verse of this version, the drums and bass of "Tomorrow Never Knows" are silenced, replaced by the tabla percussion parts of "Within You Without You". Also, Harrison's vocals are heard in the song's intended key of C major. The blending of these two songs is considered the most effective form of mashup on the album.
- George Harrison – vocals, sitar, acoustic guitar, tambura
- Amrit Gajjar - dilruba
- Natver Soni - tabla
- PD Joshi - swarmandal
- Uncredited Indian musicians - tambura
- Neil Aspinall – tambura
- Erich Gruenberg, Alan Loveday, Julien Gaillard, Paul Scherman, Ralph Elman, David Wolfsthal, Jack Rothstein, Jack Greene – violins
- Reginald Kilbey, Allen Ford, Peter Halling – cellos
Personnel per Ian MacDonald
|1967||Peter Knight and his Orchestra||(single)||Orchestral version|
|1968||Soulful Strings||(single)||Instrumental version|
|1988||Sonic Youth||Sgt. Pepper Knew My Father||Originally released on a various artist's tribute album; re-released in 2007 on the deluxe edition of Daydream Nation|
|1999||Angels of Venice||Angels of Venice||Instrumental version|
|2003||Big Head Todd and the Monsters||Songs from the Material World: A Tribute to George Harrison||Various artists tribute album|
|2004||Thievery Corporation||The Outernational Sound||Instrumental version|
|2007||Oasis||Sgt. Pepper's 40th Anniversary Tribute||Originally aired for BBC Radio 2 on 2 June 2007|
|2007||Glenn Mercer||Wheels in Motion|
|2007||Les Fradkin||Guitar Revolution||Instrumental version|
|2009||Cheap Trick||Sgt. Pepper Live|
|2009||Easy Star All-Stars||Easy Star's Lonely Hearts Dub Band||Featuring Matisyahu|
In 1996, Dead Can Dance released Spiritchaser that includes "Indus", a song with a melody very similar to "Within You Without You". After the similarity was discovered, they obtained Harrison's permission to use it and gave him partial songwriting credit after pressure from the record company.
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