Old Burying Ground (Halifax, Nova Scotia)

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Old Burying Ground
Welsford-Parker Monument at the entrance to the Old Burying Ground in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.jpg
Old Burying Ground (Halifax, Nova Scotia) is located in Nova Scotia
Old Burying Ground (Halifax, Nova Scotia)
Nova Scotia
Details
Established1749
Location
CountryCanada
Coordinates44°38′36″N 63°34′22″W / 44.6434°N 63.5728°W / 44.6434; -63.5728Coordinates: 44°38′36″N 63°34′22″W / 44.6434°N 63.5728°W / 44.6434; -63.5728
TypeClosed
Owned bySt. Paul's Church (Halifax)
No. of graves12,000+
Official nameOld Burying Ground National Historic Site of Canada
Designated1991
TypeProvincially Registered Property
Designated1988

The Old Burying Ground (also known as St. Paul's Church Cemetery) is a historic cemetery in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. It is located at the intersection of Barrington Street and Spring Garden Road in Downtown Halifax.

History[edit]

Old Burying Ground

The Old Burying Ground was founded in 1749, the same year as the settlement, as the town's first burial ground. It was originally non-denominational and for several decades was the only burial place for all Haligonians. (The burial ground was also used by St. Matthew's United Church). In 1793 it was turned over to the Anglican St. Paul's Church. The cemetery was closed in 1844 and the Camp Hill Cemetery established for subsequent burials. The site steadily declined until the 1980s when it was restored and refurbished by the Old Burying Ground Foundation, which now maintains the site and employ tour guides to interpret the site in the summer. Ongoing restoration of the rare 18th century grave markers continues.

Over the decades some 12,000 people were interred in the Old Burial Ground. Today there are about 1,200 headstones, some having been lost and many others being buried with no headstone. Many notable residents are buried in the cemetery, including British Major General Robert Ross, who led the successful Washington Raid of 1814 and burned the White House before being killed in battle at Baltimore a few days later.

Commanders of three of the ships that served Governor Edward Cornwallis buried crew in unmarked graves: HMS Sphynx (1 crew), HMS Baltimore (1 crew) and HMS Albany (6 crew). HMS Sphynx was Cornwallis' own ship and the crew member was buried on the day his ship arrived in Halifax on 21 June 1749. HMS Albany was a 14-gun sloop commanded by Nova Scotia's senior naval officer, John Rous (1749–1753).[1]

There are four recorded Mi'kmaq buried in the burial ground, including a Mi'kmaw Chief Francis [Muir?].[2] There was also a "protestant indian" named John Tray, possibly from John Gorham's rangers.[3]

There are also 167 recorded Blacks buried in the graveyard, all with unmarked graves. (There is a grave marker, however, of the Huntingdonian Missionary who taught at the first school for Black students in Halifax, Reverend William Furmage.) Blacks arrived with New England Planters. During the arrival of the Planters, there were 54 Blacks in Halifax. 7 Blacks were buried in the cemetery from 1763–1775.[4] Black Nova Scotians also arrived in Halifax with Boston Loyalists after the evacuation of Boston in 1776. During this period, 18 Blacks were buried in the cemetery (1776–1782). Seventy-three free Black Nova Scotians (and no slaves) also arrived in Halifax with the New York Loyalists after evacuation from New York in 1783. Of the 73 Blacks who arrived from New York, there were 4 burials that happened during this time period. Rev. John Breynton reported that in 1783 he baptized 40 Blacks and buried many because of disease.[5] Between the years 1792–1817 there are no recorded burials of Black Nova Scotians. The largest number of burials happen in the 1820s (72 graves), presumably the graves of the 155 Black Refugees who arrived in Halifax during the War of 1812.[6][7]

The last erected and most prominent burial marker is the Welsford-Parker Monument, a Triumphal arch standing at the entrance to the cemetery commemorating British victory in the Crimean War. This is the first public monument built in Nova Scotia and is the fourth oldest war monument in Canada. It is also the only monument to the Crimean War in North America. The arch was built in 1860, 16 years after the cemetery had officially closed. The arch was built by George Lang and is named after two Haligonians, Major Augustus Frederick Welsford and Captain William Buck Carthew Augustus Parker. Both Nova Scotians died in the Battle of the Great Redan during the Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855). This monument was the last grave marker in the cemetery.

In 1938, the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts presented and dedicated a granite monument to Erasmus James Philipps, who is the earliest known settler of Nova Scotia (c. 1721) who was buried in the cemetery. He was also the founder of Freemasonry in present-day Canada (1737).[8]

The Old Burying Ground was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1991.[9] It had earlier been designated a Provincially Registered Property in 1988 under Nova Scotia's Heritage Property Act.[10]

Prominent tombstones[edit]

Notable interments[edit]

Founding of Halifax (1749–1776)[edit]

Siege of Louisbourg (1745)[edit]

Many of those who first established Halifax arrived from Cape Breton, which the British of New England occupied since their Siege of Louisbourg (1745). The following participated in the Siege:

American Revolution[edit]

Military figures[edit]

Boston Loyalists[edit]

The following were Loyalist refugees who settled in Halifax after they were banished from New York and Massachusetts. While most Loyalist came to the region from New York (over 66%), most of the Loyalists buried with grave markers are from Boston.[51] Reflective of the fate of many of the Loyalists, the grave of Edward Winslow (scholar) is inscribed: "his fortune suffered shipwreck in the storm of civil war." Part of the devastation of the war resulted from American family members having to choose sides. For example, the story of one American patriot listed below, Benjamin Kent. While in Boston he imprisoned his son-in-law Sampson Salter Blowers for being a Loyalist. Blowers and the rest of Kent's family (including his wife) escaped to Halifax (1776). After the war, Kent eventually moved to Halifax to be with his family, which included Chief Justice Blowers (1885). Both Blowers and Kent are buried in the Old Burying Ground.

New York Loyalists[edit]

French Revolutionary Wars (1792–1802)[edit]

During the French Revolutionary Wars, Prince Edward was stationed in Halifax and personally commemorated four military personnel who died while on duty in Halifax.

Prince Edward Commemorations[edit]

Other[edit]

Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815)[edit]

Battle of Trafalgar[edit]

Peninsular War[edit]

War of 1812[edit]

Privateers[edit]
  • Captain Benjamin Ellenwood, d. 1815, murdered
  • Captain Ebenezer Herrington, d.1812, HMS Chub, friendly fire[159]

Battle of Waterloo[edit]

Military Officers (1816–1844)[edit]

Other[edit]

Depictions in media[edit]

In Lucy Maud Montgomery's Anne of the Island, Anne moves to Kingsport (Halifax, Nova Scotia) on the mainland and enrols at Redmond (Dalhousie University).[183] She takes lodgings in an apartment that looks out over "Old St. John's Cemetery" – the Old Burying Ground:

They went in by the entrance gates, past the simple, massive, stone arch surmounted by the great lion of England.... They found themselves in a dim, cool, green place where winds were fond of purring. Up and down the long grassy aisles they wandered, reading the quaint, voluminous epitaphs, carved in an age that had more leisure than our own.[183]

The text goes into some depth about the gravestone carvings and styles:

Every citizen of Kingsport feels a thrill of possessive pride in Old St. John’s, for, if he be of any pretensions at all, he has an ancestor buried there, with a queer, crooked slab at his head, or else sprawling protectively over the grave, on which all the main facts of his history are recorded. For the most part no great art or skill was lavished on those old tombstones. The larger number are of roughly chiselled brown or gray native stone, and only in a few cases is there any attempt at ornamentation. Some are adorned with skull and cross-bones, and this grizzly decoration is frequently coupled with a cherub’s head. Many are prostrate and in ruins. Into almost all Time’s tooth has been gnawing, until some inscriptions have been completely effaced, and others can only be deciphered with difficulty. The graveyard is very full and very bowery, for it is surrounded and intersected by rows of elms and willows, beneath whose shade the sleepers must lie very dreamlessly, forever crooned to by the winds and leaves over them, and quite undisturbed by the clamor of traffic just beyond.[183]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Burials until 1799
  2. ^ St. Paul's Cemetery/ Old Burial Ground records (as transcribed in the Death, Burials & Probate of Nova Scotians)
  3. ^ https://journals.lib.unb.ca/index.php/MCR/article/view/17948/22017#re55no55
  4. ^ 1763 Census indicates 54 Blacks in Nova Scotia.
  5. ^ pp. 71–72
  6. ^ St. Paul's Cemetery/ Old Burial Ground records (as transcribed in the Death, Burials & Probate of Nova Scotians
  7. ^ C. B. Fergusson, "A Documentary Study of the Establishment of the Negroes in Nova Scotia Between the War of 1812 and the Winning of Responsible Government, "Public Archives of Nova Scotia, Halifax, Publication no. 8,1948, p. 1.
  8. ^ https://skirret.com/papers/canada/erasmus_james_phillips.html
  9. ^ Old Burying Ground National Historic Site of Canada. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
  10. ^ Old Burying Ground. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
  11. ^ a b "Acadiensis; a quarterly devoted to the interests of the maritime provinces of Canada". archive.org. p. 74. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  12. ^ a b Bromley, J.; Bromley, D. (2015). Wellington's Men Remembered Volume 2: A Register of Memorials to Soldiers who Fought in the Peninsular War and at Waterloo- Volume II: M to Z. 2. Pen & Sword Books Limited. p. 296. ISBN 9781473857698. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  13. ^ Holder, Jean. Baptisms, Marriages and Burials, 1749-1768. St. Paul's Church, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Genealogical Association of Nova Scotia. Halifax, 1983, p. 30
  14. ^ A sermon occasioned by the death of the Honorable Abigail Belcher, late consort of Jonathan Belcher, esq . . . delivered at Halifax . . . October 20, 1771 (Boston, Mass., 1772);
  15. ^ https://archive.org/stream/collectionsofnov16novauoft#page/n242/mode/1up
  16. ^ "Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society Vol. 1, p. 44". archive.org. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  17. ^ The location of both Charles Morris and Richard Bulkeley are unknown. Both Charles Morris and Richard Bulkeley have wives buried in the burial ground but they are not. Given the stature of both men, if they had tombstones, they would have been prominent. They both have a hatchment in the church. Given that everyone else who has a hatchment is buried in the church, the assumption is made Morris and Bulkeley are buried in the church. While a display inside the St. Paul's Church (Halifax) states that Bulkeley is buried in the crypt, according to J. Philip McAleer, author of A pictorial history of St. Paul's Anglican Church, Halifax, Nova Scotia, the evidence that Bulkeley was buried in the church is circumstantial. This circumstantial evidence rests on the fact that he helped establish the church and was an active member in it for 51 years. Also Bulkeley is reported to have had the largest funeral ceremony ever to be in Halifax up to that date. Further, his wife Mary Rous has a headstone in the St Paul's Church Cemetery, while Bulkeley does not. Rev Hill, however reports that Bulkeley's grave is marked by a rude stone in St. Paul's Church cemetery, presumably close to the gravestone of his wife Mary Rous. (See Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society, Vol. 2, p. 69)
  18. ^ Julien Gwyn. Female Litigants before the Civil Courts of Nova Scotia, p. 341
  19. ^ St. Paul Cemetery Burial Records
  20. ^ (Signed at Halifax, 9 November 1761, by Jonathan Belcher, President of His Majesty's Council and Francis Muis, Chief of the La Have and witnessed by "P. Maillard, Priest missionnary of indians." (See Treaty
  21. ^ St. Paul Cemetery Burial Records
  22. ^ NSARM RG-1, v. 188, "August 22, Nova Scotia Council Minutes" pp. 406–07, in Donald Marshall Jr. Defence Document Books, vol. 6, doc. 152; NSARM, RG-1 v. 430, doc. 21, sigogne to Sherbrooke, 1812-05-09", p.2 in R v. Donald Marshall Jr. Defence Document Books, vol. 8, doc 212
  23. ^ Another possibility is Chief Francis Alexis who is referenced in a 1771 document. A Chief Francis Jeremiah also signed the 1752 Treaty.
  24. ^ The Mi'kmaq Nation and the Embodiment of Political Ideologies. SMU thesis.
  25. ^ See the Nova Scotia Chronicle and Weekly Advertiser and Halifax Journal. Feb. 1781 (mic 7013)
  26. ^ Letter from Sigogne to John Cope Sherbrooke regarding Muis-Belcher Treaty, Maillard, the Mi'kmaq "Peace-Dance and ceremony of burying of war weapons"
  27. ^ Keith Mercer
  28. ^ The Whitehall Evening Post Or London Intelligencer: 1755. 18. Jan. – 1. Jan
  29. ^ The gentleman's magazine, Volume 25
  30. ^ p. 274
  31. ^ A sermon, occasioned by the death of Mrs. Margaret Green; consort of the late Honourable Benjamin Green, esq; delivered at Halifax, in the province of Nova-Scotia, February 1st, 1778 (Halifax, [1778?]).
  32. ^ p. 264
  33. ^ Biographical Sketches of Loyalists of the American Revolution, Volume 3 By Lorenzo Sabine, pp. 320-321
  34. ^ "Letter from David Phips to Colonel Jonathan Snelling regarding escort of Governor Hutchinson to Harvard Commencement, 1773 July 12 · Colonial North America Project at Harvard". colonialnorthamerica.library.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2018-02-06.
  35. ^ p.86
  36. ^ "The American loyalists : or, Biographical sketches of adherents to the British crown in the war of the revolution, alphabetically arranged, with a preliminary historical essay". archive.org. p. 625. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  37. ^ p. 19
  38. ^ "Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society – image of brother Stephen Hall Binney". archive.org. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  39. ^ "Hon. Hibbert Newton Binney". gwydir.demon.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  40. ^ Public Archives of Nova Scotia, RG 20A, Volume 2, No. 1784–24
  41. ^ Beck, J. Murray (1983). "Creighton, John". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. V (1801–1820) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
  42. ^ https://archive.org/stream/genealogyofbinne00binn#page/70/mode/1up/search/packet
  43. ^ Note Stephen Hall's older brother was also named Stephen Hall Binney (1749-1760), but he lived in Boston and died two days after his younger brother Stephen Hall was born in Halifax. The older brother Stephen is buried in King's Chapel, Boston.
  44. ^ p. 16
  45. ^ The United Service Magazine, Part 2
  46. ^ a b "Biography – ETTER, BENJAMIN – Volume VI (1821-1835) – Dictionary of Canadian Biography". biographi.ca. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  47. ^ a b c d Loyalists in the Old Burying Ground
  48. ^ Marble, A.E. (1997). Surgeons, Smallpox and the Poor: A History of Medicine and Social Conditions in Nova Scotia, 1749–1799. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 142. ISBN 9780773516397. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  49. ^ "Charles Grant (1741–1785) – Find A Grave Memorial". 66.43.22.135. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  50. ^ http://smithrebellion1765.com/?page_id=77
  51. ^ Loyalism in New York, p. 176
  52. ^ "The American loyalists : or, Biographical sketches of adherents to the British crown in the war of the revolution, alphabetically arranged, with a preliminary historical essay". archive.org. p. 174. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  53. ^ Shipton, C.K. (1995). New England Life in the Eighteenth Century: Representative Biographies from Sibley's Harvard Graduates. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 198. ISBN 9780674612518. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  54. ^ "William Brattle, born 18 Apr 1706, chr. 21 Apr 1706, died Oct 1776". freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  55. ^ "MAJ William Brattle (1706 - 1776) - Find A Grave Memorial". 66.43.22.135. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  56. ^ "James Murray (1713 - 1781) - Find A Grave Memorial". 66.43.22.135. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  57. ^ James Murray (1713–1781) Letters of James Murray, Loyalist. There is also a Jacob Murray buried 1781.
  58. ^ "James Murray (1713 - 1781) - Find A Grave Memorial". 66.43.22.135. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  59. ^ "Murray, James | NCpedia – Dictionary of North Carolina Biography". ncpedia.org. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  60. ^ "The American loyalists : or, Biographical sketches of adherents to the British crown in the war of the revolution, alphabetically arranged, with a preliminary historical essay". archive.org. p. 711. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  61. ^ "Edward Winslow (1714 - 1784) - Find A Grave Memorial". 66.43.22.135. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  62. ^ Father of Edward Winslow (loyalist) who was one of the founders of New Brunswick; his former home now belongs to the Mayflower House Museum
  63. ^ Winslow's tombstone is inscribed in part "his fortune suffered shipwreck in the storm of civil war", the "civil war" being the American Revolution, American Patriots fighting American Loyalists.
  64. ^ "Chapters in the history of Halifax, Nova Scotia: Rhode Island Settlers in Hants County, Nova Scotia: Alexander McNutt the Colonizer". archive.org. p. 786. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  65. ^ a b "Winslow memorial : family records of the Winslows and their descendants in America, with the English ancestry as far as known. Kenelm Winslow ..." archive.org. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  66. ^ "Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society". archive.org. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  67. ^ There were four judges of the Superior Court in Massachusetts at the time of the revolution. Foster Sr. was among the four judges who were Loyalists. See American Loyalists, p. 491
  68. ^ a b Adams, J. (1965). Legal Papers of John Adams. 1. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  69. ^ Hutchinson, T. (2010). The Diary and Letters of His Excellency Thomas Hutchinson. 1. Applewood Books. p. 342. ISBN 9781429022996. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  70. ^ "Foster Hutchinson ( - 1799) - Find A Grave Memorial". 66.43.22.135. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  71. ^ "The American loyalists : or, Biographical sketches of adherents to the British crown in the war of the revolution, alphabetically arranged, with a preliminary historical essay". archive.org. p. 376. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  72. ^ grandchild of Mass. Gov. Thomas Hutchinson (governor); son Hon Foster Hutchinson Sr. d. 1799; decedent of Anne Hutchinson
  73. ^ Nichols, J. (1816). Gentleman's Magazine and Historical Chronicle. E. Cave. p. 179. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  74. ^ "The Loyalists of Massachusetts and the other side of the American Revolution". archive.org. p. 177. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  75. ^ Another Grandchild of NS Gov. Paul Mascarene was William Handfield Snelling
  76. ^ Nova Scotia. Courts; Congdon, F.T. (1890). A Digest of the Nova Scotia Common Law, Equity, Vice-admiralty and Election Reports: With Notes of Many Unreported Cases and of Cases Appealed to the Privy Council and Supreme Court of Canada from Nova Scotia. Containing Also Rules of Court, and an Index of the Imperial, Dominion and Nova Scotia Statutes, Referred to in the Reports, with the Notes and Comments Thereon. Carswell. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  77. ^ a b "The life of Sir William Pepperrell, bart., the only native of New England who was created a baronet during our connection with the mother country". archive.org. p. 338. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  78. ^ According to a 1767 return, there were 54 Blacks in Halifax and area (See Archives)According to a 1783 report, 73 Blacks arrived in Halifax from New York. (Whitfield, p. 43) Of the 4007 Blacks that came to Nova Scotia in 1783, 69% (2775) were free, 35% (1423) were former British soldiers and 31% (1232) were slaves. While 41 slaves were sent to Dartmouth, none were sent to Halifax (Pachai, p.11-12). 550 Jamaican Maroons lived in Halifax for four years (1796-1800) (Pachai, p.21). A return in December 1816 indicates there were 155 Blacks who migrated to Halifax during the War of 1812 (see Pachai, p. 23)
  79. ^ The school for Black students was the only charitable school in Halifax for the next 26 years. Whites were not allowed to attend. (See Griffith)
  80. ^ pp. 71-72
  81. ^ https://archive.org/details/cihm_20697
  82. ^ History of Methodism, p. 174
  83. ^ Jack C. Whytock. The Huntingdonian Missionaries to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, c. 1785-1792
  84. ^ Jack C. Whytock. Historical Papers 2003: Canadian Society of Church History. Edited by Bruce L. Guenther, p.154. (pdf on line)
  85. ^ "Rebecca "Becca" Byles Almon (1762 - 1853) - Find A Grave Memorial". 66.43.22.135. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  86. ^ "Biography – ALMON, WILLIAM JAMES – Volume V (1801-1820) – Dictionary of Canadian Biography". biographi.ca. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  87. ^ Deputy Commissary General at Halifax
  88. ^ Nova Scotia Historical Society, Halifax (1891). Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society. Nova Scotia Historical Society. p. 226. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  89. ^ "The American loyalists : or, Biographical sketches of adherents to the British crown in the war of the revolution, alphabetically arranged, with a preliminary historical essay – Benjamin Kent". archive.org. p. 409. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  90. ^ "Boston 1775: Benjamin Kent". boston1775.blogspot.ca. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  91. ^ "To John Adams from Benjamin Kent, 23 September 1774". founders.archives.gov. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  92. ^ graduate of harvard 1727; attorney general; 1776–1780 at Suffolk
  93. ^ http://www.revolutionarycharacters.org/theophilus-lillie/
  94. ^ https://archive.org/stream/1913t19chaptersinhistor00eatouoft#page/312/mode/1up
  95. ^ p. 184
  96. ^ The Loyalists of Nova Scotia
  97. ^ https://archive.org/stream/1913t19chaptersinhistor00eatouoft#page/312/mode/1up
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  99. ^ p. 120
  100. ^ https://archive.org/stream/1913t19chaptersinhistor00eatouoft#page/312/mode/1up
  101. ^ p. 17
  102. ^ https://archive.org/stream/1913t19chaptersinhistor00eatouoft#page/312/mode/1up
  103. ^ p. 232
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  112. ^ Canadian Biography Also see Hartshorne's portrait by Robert Field (painter)
  113. ^ "Lawrence Hartshorne (1755 - 1822) - Find A Grave Memorial". 66.43.22.135. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
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  116. ^ p.40
  117. ^ Letters by Boggs
  118. ^ "Annals, North British Society, Halifax, Nova Scotia : with portraits and biographical notes, 1768–1903". archive.org. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
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  120. ^ Julien Gwyn. Female Litigants before the Civil Courts of Nova Scotia, p. 341
  121. ^ St. Paul Cemetery Burial Records
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  125. ^ Prince Edward was his commander and etched on his stone: "This Stone Sacred to the Memory of Lieut. Chales Thomas of His Majesty's Royal Fusilier Regiment who departed this Life on the 16 August 1797, Aged 24 years; is placed as a Testimony of His Friendship and Esteem by Lieut. General His Royal Highness Prince Edward his Colonel."
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  133. ^ True Stories from Nova Scotia's Past By Dianne Marshall
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  135. ^ "Captain Sir Thomas Ussher (1779–1848) | Art UKArt UK | Discover Artworks Captain Sir Thomas Ussher (1779–1848)". artuk.org. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
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  141. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=7EIIAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA144&lpg=PA144&dq=waterhouse+81st+regiment&source=bl&ots=wtR7YHKgW6&sig=HlCCMzv7BoNt3uhTEq3l1VxQdOQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjLvsLx963UAhXKVD4KHdGMDzoQ6AEIQDAE#v=onepage&q=waterhouse%2081st%20regiment&f=false
  142. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=gw4ZAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA106&lpg=PA106&dq=%22major+waterhouse%22+81st+regiment&source=bl&ots=FiuEZp9yR3&sig=2LTesgaCZcKL-xMWG8Q7ENSkJZs&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjlmrP7kInVAhWE4D4KHWgiD10Q6AEIJzAB#v=onepage&q=%22major%20waterhouse%22%2081st%20regiment&f=false
  143. ^ p. 42
  144. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=gw4ZAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA106&lpg=PA106&dq=%22major+waterhouse%22+81st+regiment&source=bl&ots=FiuEZp9yR3&sig=2LTesgaCZcKL-xMWG8Q7ENSkJZs&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjlmrP7kInVAhWE4D4KHWgiD10Q6AEIJzAB#v=onepage&q=%20waterhouse&f=false
  145. ^ http://dictionaryofarchitectsincanada.org/node/1967
  146. ^ "The Naval Chronicle, for 1813: Containing a General and Biographical History of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom; with a Variety of Original Papers on Nautical Subjects. Under the Guidance of Several Literary and Professional Men. Vol. XXIX. (from January to June.)". archive.org. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  147. ^ "Richard Smith 104th Regiment of Foot | Graveside Project". 1812veterans.ca. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  148. ^ "Two tough War of 1812 vets to be lauded at Halifax cemetery | The Chronicle Herald". thechronicleherald.ca. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  149. ^ "The 104th (New Brunswick) Regiment of Foot in the War of 1812 John R. Grodzinski". gooselane.com. Archived from the original on 2016-10-18. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  150. ^ Burke, J. (1838). A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland, Enjoying Territorial Possessions Or High Official Rank: But Uninvested with Heritable Honours. 4. Henry Colburn. p. 435. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  151. ^ "The Royal military calendar, or Army service and commission book. Containing the services and progress of promotion of the generals, lieutenant-generals, major-generals, colonels, lieutenant-colonels, and majors of the army, according to seniority: with details of the principal military events of the last century". archive.org. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  152. ^ "History of the county of Lunenburg". archive.org. p. 325. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  153. ^ "The Naval chronicle : containing a general and biographical history of the royal navy of the United kingdom with a variety of original papers on nautical subjects". archive.org. p. 440. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  154. ^ "The Naval chronicle : containing a general and biographical history of the royal navy of the United kingdom with a variety of original papers on nautical subjects | To Dr Rowlands, On the death of his wife, Naval Chronicle, Vol. 37, p. 497". archive.org. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  155. ^ The Gentleman's Magazine. 121. 1817. p. 472. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  156. ^ Ashore and Afloat: The British Navy and the Halifax Naval Yard Before 1820 By Julian Gwyn, pp. 50–53
  157. ^ Medical Times. 13. J. Angerstein Carfrae. 1846. p. 320. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  158. ^ Esther Rowlands also has a plaque in St. Paul's Church
  159. ^ Deborah Trask. Putting the War of 1812 to Rest. Royal Nova Scotia Historical Society Journal. Vol. 18, 2015, p.49
  160. ^ James Orde
  161. ^ Portrait of James Orde
  162. ^ Orde's obituary
  163. ^ (99th Regiment, 1811–18: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick.); JOHNSON THORNHILL Born TEMPEMORE, Tipperary Served in 99th Foot Regiment
  164. ^ p. 79 - Plaque in St. Paul's Church, Halifax, Nova Scotia
  165. ^ https://novascotia.ca/archives/newspapers/archives.asp?ID=2061&Page=201118293&Language=
  166. ^ "The Pepperrells in America". archive.org. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  167. ^ "Annals, North British Society, Halifax, Nova Scotia : with portraits and biographical notes, 1768-1903". archive.org. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  168. ^ "Cochran-Inglis family of Halifax by Eaton, Arthur Wentworth Hamilton, 1899". archive.org. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  169. ^ "Annals, North British Society, Halifax, Nova Scotia : with portraits and biographical notes, 1768-1903 | Image and Bio of Bowie". archive.org. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  170. ^ DesBrisay, M.B. (1895). History of the County of Lunenburg. W. Briggs. p. 86. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  171. ^ Note he was the grandfather of Charles Aitkens (see here)
  172. ^ Note both children are also named on their father's grave stone in Camp Hill Cemetery.
  173. ^ "Inauguration of the Welsford and Parker Monument at Halifax, on Tuesday, 17th July, 1860 [microform] : committee, H. Pryor ... [et al.]". archive.org. p. 16. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  174. ^ "Untitled". brookhousepress.ca. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  175. ^ Nova Scotia Historical Society, Halifax (1891). Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society. Nova Scotia Historical Society. pp. 1–152. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  176. ^ "Biography – HILL, CHARLES – Volume VI (1821–1835) – Dictionary of Canadian Biography". biographi.ca. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  177. ^ "Biography – TWINING, JOHN THOMAS – Volume VIII (1851–1860) – Dictionary of Canadian Biography". biographi.ca. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  178. ^ Rev. Perkins was born at Horton, Nova Scotia and studied at Kings College, Windsor, Nova Scotia to become a missionary for the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. He died inTorbay, Devon, England. (See Nova Scotia Archives
  179. ^ "A Geography and History of the County of Digby, Nova Scotia". archive.org. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  180. ^ p. 45)
  181. ^ Perkins portrait
  182. ^ Rev. Cyrus biographical description
  183. ^ a b c "Anne of the Island, by Lucy Maud Montgomery". www.gutenberg.org. Retrieved 2016-11-20.

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